What are the MS Excel basic mathematical formulas

Want to know the basic MS Excel formulas? Learn from this article the wide range of formulas in MS excel spreadsheets.

MS excel is one of the most important computer program since 1985. Its usages found to be emerging as important office tool in the work places across the whole world. It helps in quick access to data in just no time. It provides expertise help in storing, calculating and executing various data. It makes the work systematic and quick. Excel formula consists of simple mathematical operation like addition and subtraction to extensive statistical operations. All formulas in excel always begins with equal (=) sign. There are thousands of formula that one can learn and use while working on excel. But keeping it short yet effective, here are few most important formulas that one should know when willing to use MS Excel>


Addition is the foremost important formula in excel. It is extensively used in various organizations for calculation of sales, no. of product etc. In less time it gives accurate desired value. The formula for addition is =sum( selected cell number range). Explaining this further with an example- If we have to calculate total number of pen, pencil, copy and eraser available together then how we will get value in excel. we will simply apply the formula to get the result. This picture illustrates it very well. In cell D1 Pen is entered with its corresponding value in cell E1 as 2 , in cell D2 pencil is entered with its value in E2 as 8, in cell D3 Eraser is entered with its value in E3 as 2 and in cell D4 Copy is entered with its value in E4 as 10 . Now to find the total of all the mentioned articles we apply the sum formula in cell F1 as =sum(E1:E4) and press enter to get 22 as result. Beside this we can simply put = singn followed buy cell no. that needed to be added. =E1+E2+E3+E4 and then enter to get result.


The formula of subtraction is very useful to find out the loss in sales, loss in overall productivity, difference in sales of any consecutive years. This is extensively used formula in excel spreadsheets. For getting value after subtraction in excel one can simply apply = followed by number to be subtracted along with subtraction ( -) operation in between them. The formula applied in the example spreadsheet subtracts the value in E3 i.e 2 from the number in E4 i.e 10 to get the desired result as 8 in F1.



The formula of multiplication is used to find out increase in productivity in any organization over years, annual salary of an employee, Rent or expenditure over given period of time. For getting value after multiplication in excel one can simply apply = followed by number to be multiplied along with multiplication ( *) operation in between them. The formula applied in the example spreadsheet multiplies the value in E2 i.e 2 and the number in E3 i.e 10 to get the desired result as 20 in F1. Beside this using excel product function one can even get the equivalent result. For this formula used is =Product( number1, Number2.....). here number 1 and number two represents the number that have to be multiplies together. This can be illustrated from the picture given below.



The formula of division is used in excel spreadsheet to calculate the installment over given period of time, monthly salaries of an employees if the annual salaries are given. Beside this calculation of average productivity is even calculated by divide formula in an organization. For getting value after division in excel one can simply apply = followed by number to be divided along with division ( /) operation in between them. The formula applied in the example spreadsheet divides the value in E3 i.e 10 from the number in E2 i.e 2 to get the desired result as 5 in F1.


Wrap up

The operations and formulas in excel is very extensive and vivid in nature. There is a wide range of mathematical operation from basic to advance level of engineering mathematical operation. Even one can use statistical data to evaluate with the help of excel spreadsheets. But the very basic and the initial calculation operation that one can learn while using excel spreadsheet includes- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. These are core to any accounts department of any organization. All four of them usage is discussed here to provide an ease while using them in excel spreadsheets.


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