Scientific explanation for Biological phenomena-Part-2

In this resource I gave some scientific explanations for some interesting biological phenomena. These explanations will help us to understand the logical sequence of these happenings in a scientific way. This resource is a continuation of my other resource 'Scientific explanation for Biological phenomena-Part-1'.

Biological Statement 7:- Vaccines provide immunity to an individual for a particular disease


Vaccines are biological preparations which include partially killed or completely killed or virulent germs of a particular disease. These biological preparations are injected into the individual's blood through injection or orally taken like in Polio vaccine. The germs present in these biological preparations are inactive in nature and could not cause any disease for us but can induce our immune system to produce antibodies as well as large number of T or B memory cells. When vaccinated person is attacked by same disease causing pathogens, the existing T or B memory cells recognize the germs quickly and produce large number of antibodies and lymphocytes which destroy the disease causing germs that invaded our body. Memory cells once produced through vaccines last for several decades and thus provide life long immunity. For some diseases a few repeated booster doses of the vaccine to be given to extend the immunity protection period for a particular disease.

Biological Statement 8:- The full grown human embryo respires but not breathe


The full grown human embryo will respire but do not breathe. In embryo stage, for everything including oxygen supply, food supply and even to excrete the wastes it depends on the mother's blood. The oxygen, glucose, minerals etc. carried out by mother's blood crosses through the placenta via umbilical cord get supplied to the cells and tissues of the baby's body through diffusion. By using this oxygen, the glucose molecules present in the cells of the baby get oxidized in cellular respiration to release energy for its activities. But in well grown embryo, the lungs are well developed but they don't function. These lungs are filled with amniotic fluid and so they are not useful for breathing. But towards the fag end of gestation period (24-28 the week), the baby start practicing breathing by inhaling and exhaling amniotic fluid from lungs. But once the baby get delivered out from mother's womb after gestation period, the amniotic fluid of the lungs get evacuated and are filled with air to start breathing.

Biological Statement 9:-It is necessary to maintain a normal osmotic concentration of our body's blood.


It is necessary to maintain a normal osmotic concentration of our blood so that the tonocity between blood and body tissues may not differ. If such a difference occurs fluid may leave or enter into cells of our tissues from blood and they may get damaged. The homeostasis of our body get disturbed. The RBC of our blood may become more turgid or flaccid. Kidney's in our body plays an important role in maintaining correct concentration of our body fluids by osmoregulation method.

Biological Statement 10:- Carbon monoxide is highly dangerous when inhaled


Haemoglobin pigment present in our RBC cells has strong affinity towards Carbon monoxide to form a stable compound Carboxyhaemoglobin. Due to this, once a person inhales Carbon monoxide for few minutes, all the RBC cells of his blood are saturated with Carbon monoxide forming stable Carboxyhaemoglobin compound which prevent the transport of oxygen by haemoglobin of RBC cells. This saturation of blood with Carbon monoxide is known blood poisoning and it will leads to death. Severe Carbon monoxide poisoning should be treated with Oxygen therapy.

Biological Statement 11:- We cannot distinguish colours in moonlight


The sensory receptors i.e. rods and cones present in the retina of our eye are responsible for our perception. Rods present in the retina of our eye are responsible for our vision in dim light whereas cones present in our eyes are responsible for our bright and color vision. Rod cells present in our retina will work only in dim light but they don't work in bright light. Similarly cones work only in bright light but they don't work in dim light. The pigments present in Rods (Rhodopsin) and the pigment present in Cones (Iodopsin) are responsible for their functioning. As moon light is dim in nature rods only function in the retina of our eyes and we cannot distinguish the colors of the objects.

Biological Statement 12:-A person after consuming alcohol walks clumsily and talks incoherently


Alcohol affects the cerebellum part of our which is the center of body balance and muscular co-ordination. Due to alcohol effect on cerebellum it is unable to coordinate balance and muscular movements of the body. So the due to this effect the person walks in a clumsy way and talks in a incoherent way.

Some more Scientific explanation for Biological phenomena-Part-1

Biological Statement 13:- It is advisable to breathe through the nose and not through the mouth


If breathing occurs through the mouth dust particles and germs enters the lungs directly. The passage of these into lungs will be prevented if air passes through the nose because hair present in the nose and mucus secreted in nasal cavity will trap them. Air also get warmed up and cleaned in nasal chamber as it enters into lungs.

Biological Statement 14:- Use of bio-fertilizers are preferred over chemical fertilizers


Chemical fertilizers cause pollution of soil and water. Excessive uses of chemical fertilizers will make soils either acidic or basic due to change in pH of soil. Chemical fertilizers also make the soils saline and infertile. Bio-fertilizers do not cause any pollution and improve the fertility of the soil for long duration. The nature or quality of the soil cannot be changed as in the case of chemical fertilizers.

Biological Statement 15:- It is advisable not to sleep under a tree at night time


During day time trees leave out water vapor through transpiration and take in Carbon dioxide from atmosphere to carry out Photosynthesis and leave out oxygen. But during night time there wouldn't be any photosynthesis and release of oxygen from trees but trees leave out Carbon dioxide as they take in oxygen from the atmosphere for their respiration. Thus Oxygen concentration may decrease under tree at night time cause suffocation. Other than that fact, at night time we may be bitten by biological organisms like insects or snakes. So it is better to avoid sleeping under tree at night time.


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