Introduction Naming the species is known as nomenclature. When a taxonomist identifies and describes the natural group of organisms, he gives appropriate scientific names to the group. This process of identification and naming of an organisms is known as nomenclature .
Necessity of nomenclature The use of native or common names often creates confusion. Very often a particular organism has different names in different regions of the world e.g. the common house sparrow is called Gauriya in North India, Pichehuka in Andhra Pradesh, House sparrow in England, Pardal in Spain, Suzune in Japan and so on. If a person goes to some other place then he will not be able to understand about the bird unless he sees it. To solve this problem Carolus Linnaeus introduced the modern system nomenclature. There are two main system of nomenclature:
Carolus Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature in his tenth edition of Systema Naturae published in 1758. Systema Naturae contained the scientific name of plants and animals. Carolus Linnaeus used Latin words to name plants and animals. Binomial nomenclature is the system of naming every organism using two Latin words. The first word is generic name which begins with the first letter as capital. The second word is specific name which begins with first letter as small italic. e.g. The lion has its scientific name as Panthera leo . Panthera is a generic name and leo is the specific name.
Rules of binomial nomenclature: The rules of binomial nomenclature are:
Trinomial or Polynomial nomenclature Sometimes organisms of same species differs from each other as they are adapted for different kinds of environment. In such cases species are again divided into subspecies. Thus, scientific name of such organisms consists of three words. The first word indicates generic name and begins with first letter as capital. The second word is specific name and begins with first letter as small and the third word is the subspecies name which also begins with first letter as small. This system of naming the organisms using three words is called as trinomial nomenclature. E.g. the species of crow is named as Corvus splendens but crows of India, Burma and Sri Lanka differ from each other, thus they are divided into three subspecies, which are named according to trinomial nomenclature as follows:
Principle of Binomial Nomenclature In the year 1898, International Congress of Zoology and in 1950 International Botanical Congress set up the various rules for binomial nomenclature. The aim of international Code for Botanical and Zoological Nomenclature is to make the stability in naming the taxa, avoiding the use of names which may cause error, ambiguity or confusion. A few commonly followed rules according to principle of nomenclature are given below:
Advantages of Biological nomenclature The advantages of nomenclature are as follows:
Conclusion Now from above the explanation you would be able to write scientific name of any organism. The scientific names of some common organisms are :
Hakimuddin Kuwakhedawala is based in India with over 15 years experience as a teacher. Teaching and writing are his passion. Most of the articles of Hakimuddin are related to education, exam, environmental problems, etc.
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Grouping things on the basis of common features are called classification. Classification helps us to study all living things in a systematic manner. The importance of classification of plants and animals led to a uniform system of naming plants and animals. Binomial system of Nomenclature was proposed by Carolus Linnaeus a Swedish botanist.The system has been adopted throughout the world.
Linnaeus was a physician and zoologist, he is credited for the modern scheme of nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy. He was born in Sweden and was trained to become churchman, but his interest in botany made him become renowned botanist of his time.
I add here some more scientific names of animals and plants:
Lion: Panthera Leo
Leopard: Panthera pardus
Mango: Mangifera indica
Pea: Pisum sativum
Maize: Zea mays
Cabbage: Brassica oleracea
Cauliflower: Brassica oleracea
Rice: Oryza sativa
Melon: Cucumis melo
Cucumber: Cucumis sativa
Banana: Musa paradisica
Systematic grouping and study needs some systematic naming first. The naming should follow a universally applicable and follow able parameter and norms.
This becomes all the more important in the field of science and scientific studies of living things. As there are different living things in different part of the globe, only a proper system of nomenclature can help the scientists across the world to discover and name and categorise them int o correct groups or species family.
The article gives interesting reading even to a layman who has not studied biology or zoology in detail.