Naxalism in India- A past and present scenario


How Naxalism came to India? Who were the leaders? How did it spread? What is the present condition in Naxal affected areas? Check out this article to know the various aspects of Naxalism and clear your doubts.

The seed of Naxalism or Naxal moment in India emerges from the ideology of communism and Maoism. And the extreme-violent form of this ideology is what we are facing today in India and is termed it as Naxalism.

Naxalism and Story behind it

Why do we call it Naxalism and what's the story behind it? It's a question often raised in our minds when we hear the word Naxalism. In India this ideology started from a small village in West Bengal called Naxalbadi in the year 1967 where few Tribal man (Santhals) fought against the injustice done by landlords - by not sharing the produce of land on which these tribal men put their hard work and toiled their perspiration. These tribal men understood their rights and were beginning to understand the injustice happened with them in the past. But their movement didn't have any direction and ideology until this time so they just began to attack landlords to gain control over their lands and a fair share for their hard-work and this rebel turned into a tribal uprising and further conflicts between police forces and this tribal group lead by Jangai Santhal.

This uprising turned into a huge moment as the political leaders from the CPI(communist party of India) a small faction including leaders like Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal departed from this party and led a new party CPI-ML jumped into these moments and spread this ideology of Mao Zedong throughout these tribal peoples and even among higher classes and students through their writings and lectures. This ideology talks about overthrowing of government and upper classes by force.

Spread and reach of Naxalism-

The spread of Naxalism is in huge areas covering deep forest of eastern, central and southern India consisting of states like Bihar, Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana. These areas affected by Naxalism are now referred as Red corridors together. And this corridor is spreading itself slowly towards more districts in South and central parts of India.

Struggle of Tribal people

This struggle is not new in fact it begins even before independence when Britisher's forced these tribal people into agriculture and they were forced to choose between their traditional form of living and survival. It stayed a problem even after independence as the Indian government become custodian of all the forest and tribal lands through 5th and 6th schedule and it these areas came under tribal ministry, it made tribal's to think that their remaining autonomy is also taken over from them their forests and their lands have been taken away from them and agriculture is forced over them.

Height of Extremism

The feeling of alienation among Adivasis and other tribals peoples near the forest regions which was enhanced manifolds as they came under the extremist Naxalite leader who did not care much about these tribal peoples but only about power and politics has lead to many fatal and disastrous incidents in last few years Like – incident in Dantewada of Chattisgarh(in 2010) where soldiers were attacked by Naxalites and took lives of more than 80 soldier. And recent attacks in Sukma of Chattisgarh(2017) which took lives of 25 CRPF Jawans. All such attacks have taken place in places where the literacy rate is very low.

What's the solution to this problem?

Empathy towards tribal people and need to understand their culture, tradition and develop them without forcing them to leave their lands and heritage. Developing them simultaneously and joining them with mainstream modern life without force but through understanding and education. According to some reports problems like terrorism can be tackled with the help of sports by providing them proper facilities and infrastructure in the field of sports. Tribals are conventionally good at sports and thus the youths who have chosen the wrong path of Naxalism can be turned back into a correct path by giving them good opportunities in sports.

Positive changes in the villages affected by Naxalism?

People are now understanding that violence has led them nowhere near the utopian world which Naxalite leaders showed them instead it has worsened their situation. They are living in the more dangerous situation and has impacted their lives most, they are always in danger and their lives are at risk. The simple villagers who once became violent Naxalites under the influence of few leaders who use them for their political gains and getting power are now understanding the meaning of peaceful lives and surrendering themselves. These villagers now want their children to study in good schools and progress.This has all possible only because of the proper coordination of people with army backed by a supporting government in few areas only. But this can be implemented throughout the Red corridor( Naxalite affected area) only need is to understand these people and their requirements without any selfish desires of political gains.


Comments

Author: K Mohan15 Sep 2017 Member Level: Platinum   Points : 2

What I feel is that Naxalism came to India when the landlords or the rich kept on increasing their earning spree at the exploitation of poor being bonded labor and that in support of farm sector labor in particular and poor in general the Naxalites took the cause with much interest and even gone to the extent of popularizing their movement and eliminating those who came in between and that includes scores of Police personalities. Please note that Naxals are not born, they are made as they are vexed with the policies of the government which favored the rich and they exploited the poor.

Author: DR.N.V. Srinivasa Rao15 Sep 2017 Member Level: Diamond   Points : 5

A very good writing by Neelam Joshi. A good account of Naxalism and its effects are discussed very aptly. I appreciate the author for her work.
The ideology of Naxalism is good. They don't want more than their requirements for living. But some selfish leaders converted the whole ideology in a different direction and brought a situation that all Naxals lost the sympathy of common public also. A common man is not the foe of a Naxalite. But the leaders created such a feeling that they are against all. Like any other moment, it also lost its importance over a period of time because of some anti social elements in them and leaders. As opined by the author now these tribals also understood the outside world and become a part and parcel of them which is not being appreciated by many selfish leaders.

Author: Partha Kansabanik16 Sep 2017 Member Level: Diamond   Points : 5

The author has tried to take up a very complex issue. I thank her for her effort. My comments in this regard are as follows:-
1. During the 1962 China war, Indian Communist Party was divided in two factions, viz., CPI and CPI(M). The first one used to follow Moscow line, the second one used to follow Peking (now Beijing) line.
2. By 1964, another group named CPI (ML) was formed under Charu Majumdar. This group did not believe in democratic process, they used to believe in armed struggle to establish dictatorship of the proletariat. Charu Majumdar was supported by Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal to establish this group. The Chinese Communist Party also started supporting this group.
3. In 1967, in a place called Naxalbari in the Dooars region of North Bengal, this group killed a police inspector named Sonam Wangdi and took away the land from a wealthy land-owner. That was the beginning of Naxal (now Maoist) movement.
4. This movement was ultimately checked by 1972 after lots of killing and violence. An entire generation of promising youth was wiped out in the meaningless struggle which couldn't finalise whether it would emphasize agrarian movement or labour movement till the last stage.
5. Naxal movement was revived in Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and western part of West Bengal by leaders like Koddapalle Sitharamaiah, Kishenji, Dipankar Bhattacharya and other Maoist leaders. This movement again had support of China. This movement was also crushed.
6. Now the Maoists are active in Chhatisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand. With the support of China, they acquire modern weapons and landmines. They are in direct contact with Islamist Jihadi group. The Maoist movement's prime aim to weaken India and disintegrate the country. They have no other ideological view. JNU and other universities provide these Maoists intellectual strength.
7. Unlike the Naxalites of yester-years, the present-day Maoists engage in various criminal activities like forcibly collecting money from industrialists, entrepreneurs and even poor people. They commit many serious crime against local population including rape. They don't have any ideological conviction.
8. The Government must eliminate these rootless Maoists militarily. The Govt. must dry up their source of finance. The flow of arms and ammunition must be checked. At the same time, the common people must be disassociated from the Maoists by adopting every measure. Their Utopian theory is not feasible. What they do preaching this theory is harmful for the country and the people.

Concluding my comments, I thank the author for giving me the opportunity to write something about the true nature of present-day Maoists.

Author: neelam joshi18 Sep 2017 Member Level: Gold   Points : 0

Thank you, K Mohan sir, Dr N.V.Srinivasarao and specially Partha sir for reading this article and further elaborating such details and facts about Naxalism with dates,year, names and incidents that took place as the base for this massive revolution which has now turned into one of the biggest threat for peace of the nation and security of people.

Author: Gaurav21 Sep 2017 Member Level: Gold   Points : 4

The main reason responsible for people joining naxalites group is the feeling of revenge towards the upper class people who exploited and suppressed them over the years. And we know that they are many political leaders who support these groups for the sake of their vote bank and for power. Majority of political leaders in our country have been alleged with serious criminal cases and they use these naxalite groups to fulfill their own needs and in return naxalites get protection and safety from police administration.
However, things are improving and thousands of naxalites have surrendered before the police under different programs run by the administration to connect naxalites to the main stream of society.
Due to lack of knowledge and literacy people are easily brainwashed by naxalite leaders and they end up joining their group.



  • Do not include your name, "with regards" etc in the comment. Write detailed comment, relevant to the topic.
  • No HTML formatting and links to other web sites are allowed.
  • This is a strictly moderated site. Absolutely no spam allowed.
  • Name:
    Email: