IntroductionWater pollution is a resultant of water getting contaminated with unwanted pollutants. Inland water is polluted by small organisms and harmful chemical substances. Thus when the water is unfit for drinking and bathing, it is regarded as water pollution. It is even harmful to other plants and animals.
Causes of water pollution The causes that result in water pollution are:-
After the processing of different materials in the industry, there are some remnants of products which are to be discarded. These remainings of the products, being amalgamated with other chemicals and gases are mixed with water. Gradually, the water gets contaminated with these effluents. This causes toxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In extreme cases they might even perish. Also the water is unfit for drinking.
The water that come from our homes through different outlets, contain dirts of urine, excreta, laundry waste, washing of foods and vegetable waste. This water thereafter flows to the drains, then lakes and finally to seas. The microorganisms present there causes harm to water plants and animals.
For the better growth of crops, the farmers use pesticides, fungicides and insecticides. As rain falls on them, they get washed away by it and finally intermix with the lake water. Again it damages the aquatic life.
The air in theatmosphere contains gases like Sulphur Dioxide and oxides of Nitrogen. The rain water reacts with themto form acids like Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid. This acid rain causes harm. Also this acid rain destroys the monuments and buildings.
Methods to reduce pollution
The following are some methods to curb pollution :-
There are treatment plants to emit bio gas from sewage, before they are released into water.
Before the wastes from the industries are mixed with water they are to be treated in plants to remove the harmful chemicals from them.
In order to reduce extensive usage of insecticides and pesticides, organic farming has to be incorporated.
Recycling of wastes
The wastes from industries are to be recycled and used before dumping them into the water.
Stop throwing dead and decaying animals and plants
We shouldn't throw the dead plants and animals to water.
Make everyone aware of difficulties caused by pollution
People in many areas defecate in open fields. Water wash away these excreta and dunks of animals. They are then carried by the rain water into nearby water bodies. This dunk contains harmful microorganisms which may cause diseases like dysentery, diarrhea and even jaundice. This can be curbed by building pit latrines and by carrying out necessary treatment of sewage.
Conservation of water
Portable water that is available, is not sufficient for all living beings. So conservation of water is highly needed. The reasons are:-
Ways to conserve water:-
Conclusion In one word, we need to save water - the most valuable wealth. Because once there is no water, there will be no life.
In water conservation the role of forests is very important. In a forest there will be several varieties of trees with varying heights and characteristics. These trees grow thickly and thereby make an umbrella type cover for the forest land. Because of this, the raindrops fall on these and stay there for a while. Next it comes down slowly and takes time to reach the soil. The water do not go into the soil directly because there will be thick bed of leaves fallen from the trees for years. Thus the water can reach soil only very slowly. Then again the water in soil has no smooth going. There will be roots of different type inside the soil which control the smooth running of water. Again inside the hills will have rocks to stop water running. Thus rain water reach river only after weeks or even months. Thus forest plays a very important role in water conservation.
Next but equally important is the availability of sand in rivers. Sand has the capacity to retain water for days because there will be space in between each individual sand. If sand is removed this storing place is lost and water immediately flows to sea. Thus removal of sand is not advised if we want to retain water in rivers and through that within the earth.
Removal of rocks also is not good. It affects the hills and the soil get eroded.
This is a timely article on water pollution. Over the years, due to greed of people and uncontrolled industrialisation, water pollution has been increasing. Different types of chemicals are getting mixed with water and the water is becoming unfit for consumption. Due to water pollution, different types of diseases which were earlier unknown are killing people, albeit slowly.
Government of India has been spending thousands of crores of rupees to improve the quality of water, but till now the effort has not given any tangible result. A study has stated that the water of all major rivers of India have become dangerous for consumption. There is no possibility in near future to reverse the trend.
So what should we do? In my opinion, this is high time to shift to treatment of saline water. There is no other alternative because the river water is becoming very dangerous. We must seek the technology of treating sea-water to make it potable from Israel, the world leader in this field. This technology can solve the problem of potable water for 125 crores of Indians, who are rapidly increasing in number.
Concluding my response, I thank the author for this useful and informative article.
Water pollution is a serious threat that is existing in the present days. The main reason for this water pollution is the greed of human being. A person who starts an industry says he is doing that for providing a livelihood for some people. It is true but at the same time, he is spoiling the lives of some people. Why? These entrepreneurs think that expenditure on water treatment is a waste expenditure and he thinks it is unproductive for him. but he is becoming an antisocial by spoiling the groundwater and making no water for drinking. The same industry will also leave some unwanted gaseous effluents without scrubbing and treating leaving to the atmosphere. In fact, these gaseous effluents are only responsible for acid rains. The government has made rules and regulations and made a commission also for protecting the environment. But the responsible officers in that commission will do all works out of rules for their personal commissions, This attitude is only creating these water pollution.
The author made a good attempt to present the important features of this topic which is very important in the present world.
A very important article while we are struggling with water and air pollution in many parts of the country.It's a shame that in some places people travel many miles to get drinking water and in cities and villages water bodies are not nurtured by allowed to get contaminated by waste.Recently there were reports that water from all major rivers has grown highly pathogenic disease-causing bacteriae and lakes in some metros have so much of industrial effluents that artificial foam raises for 3-4 feet (Bellandur lake, Bangalore).
I think education and civic awareness should be the primary aim of governments and water conservation groups, so that, at least by repeated messages being bombarded people might change and the measures mentioned by the author are all doable if we put our minds into it.