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project on water pollusion

Posted Date: 25-May-2008  Last Updated:   Category: Education    
Author: Member Level: Gold    Points: 1

Chapter 1:

TOPIC:project on water pollusion



Lakes have supported mankind since historical times. Agriculture had its beginning in the floodplains as early as man took advantage of soil moisture and nutrients after the recession of floods to grow the first cereal crops.
All lakes perform certain functions and hence have some value. Sometimes these functions and values are considered interchangeable. But all kinds of lakes do not perform all possible functions. The function depends upon location, size and various ecosystem characteristics of the lake and also upon the nature and degree of human intervention.The lakes in urban areas may have following functions and values.
* Source of water of irrigation or Domestic purpose.
* Socio-Economic values
* Socio-Culture, Aesthetic and Recreation values.
* Bio-Diversity support

There are six lakes in Kolhapur and two are on the outskirts of the city.
1. RANKALA LAKE in a city ,it was developed in 1887-1893.RANKALA provides water for irrigation for about 80 hectares of lands in and around the city of Kolhapur, it’s northern part was developed as choupati in 1972.Resently the western part of the lake has also been developed . At present, the lake supports aquatic flora and fauna. It also attracts wildlife and bird species. Nearly 5000 birds of 20 different aquatic and total 74 species are found in and around the lake.

It has a great Socio- Culture, Aesthetic and Recreation values. It is also used for relaxing and marveling the nature’s beauty. This lake has inspired many artists in there works. In spite of the lake various efforts of Kolhapur Municipal corporation for it’s development, the lake still has potential for further development , Since K.M.C. is facing a financial crunch ;the development is possible only through funds from foreign sources.


This is the one of the historical place in city. The lakes named after the God Rank Bhairav, an incarnation of god Shiva. The beginning of the lake is said to have been a quarry from which stones were supplied to the Jain and other temples in town .The construction was started in 1887 and completed in 1893. In 1887 the bund was constructed on the northern side of the lake. The Kolhapur Municipal Corporation has developed a choupati on northern side and a garden is between lake and Shalini Palace in year 1972.
After a gap of 30 years, the Westside of length more than 1 Km. was protected and developed in 2002. The lake was also cleaned and water hyacinth removed in 2001.Now this lake presents an appearance of a fine large artificial lake. The structural features of the lake are as follows-

* Length of the stone wall 3620 Meters
* Shape of the slopping side like fan shape
*Maximum depth of the water 30Meters
*Circumference @6.0Km.

*Total area of the lake 107Hectors
*Area with irrigation department 1100M2
*Area under fisheries 1.10 Hectors
*Area acquired by slum 1.5 Hectors
*Area of newly developed garden 5.0 hectors

State government has transferred the lake to Kolhapur Municipal Corporation for the benefits of residents of Kolhapur on 16th March 1985.

Chapter 2:


1) East Side: Northern part of the East side is provided with developed Choupati. Sandhymath is near this side about 70% of this side is provided with compound wall. Water depth is shallow near old Vashi Naka and southern side. Due to shallow water depth and as it is on the leeward side there is good scope for immediate development over an area of 3 hectors.
2) South Side: Radhanagari road is adjacent to southern side of the lake. Water depth is low on this side. Two major lake feeding streams are located on this side of the lake .Few quarries are present on this side. One of the quarries is used for swimming and one is used for immersion of Genesh idols during the Ganesh festival. A marshy land known as Partala is there on southwest side of the lake opposite to the road side. About 2 hectors of this area is in possession of Kolhapur Municipal Corporation and rest about 50 hectors is in the possession of private persons. This private area has mostly been excluded from green belt and included in residential area.
3) WEST SIDE: Earlier this side of the lake was undeveloped and most of the lakeside was used as washing place .The residents from the area also dumping solid waste over here. Most of this side ugly and unhygienic.
Recently (during May 2001-December 2001) Kolhapur Municipal Corporation has developed a beautiful garden over an area of 5.0 hectors, having a lawn of 3000 square meters and constructed path way on southern side of Ambai Swimming tank to ‘Khaneshwar Mandir ‘khan mine area .The pathway is used by people of Kolhapur for a walk in the morning and evening .
Following major works were incorporated in development of Rankala Park Garden.
1. Construction of Retaining wall on southern side of Ambai Swimming Tank.
2. Construction of chain link fencing.
3. Construction of cross drain near Rankala outlet.
4. Construction of Pathway on southern side of the lake.
5. Construction of Bridge with proper arrangement for water flow near waste weir.
6. Providing and fixing decorative lighting at Rankala Park Garden.
7. Construction of cross linkage between Rankala and Partala.
8. Sand pit and toys for children.
9. Lush green lawn over an area of 3000 M2
The total expenditure for this Development is nearly rupees one core. Local M.P’s and M.L.A.’s have substantiality contributed for development of garden with vary little of K.M.C.’s own funds. Also a few generous donors have contributed, in kind, in the development of this air theatre cum walkway garden. Besides the efforts of Kolhapur Municipal Corporation for the last two years, within its capacity, the lake steel has potential for further development. Since Kolhapur Municipal Corporation is facing a financial crunch; the development is possible only through funds from outside of sources. K.M.C. is also planning to prepare a proposal for the inclusion of this lake in the National Lake Conservation Plan.
Slum having about 104 huts in scattered manner is there on southern side of the West side. Heavy traffic is banned on West side road joining Radhanagari road and Gagan-bavada road to reduce noise and air pollution which may interfere with wildlife.
4) North Side: Late Maharaja Shahu of Kolhapur development this side of the lake along with a beautiful masonry tower. Choupati garden having lawn and sandpit with toys developed in 1973 by Kolhapur Municipal Corporation and few stalls of eatables are there since 1974. A garden was developed on the western part of north side between lake and Shalini Palace. Shalini Palace is now turned in to hotel and operated privately. A swimming tank was also constructed by K.M.C.
Lake is surrounded by roads on its periphery; to be precise the lake is sandwiched between major district road viz. Radhanagari Road and Gagana-bavada Road. Residential/commercial buildings developed on other side of these roads.

Chapter 3:



Hydrology refers to all water related features such as precipitation and evaporation, inflow and outflow and the resultant factor like the depth and duration of water in the lake and amplitude of water level changes during a year’
Average rain fall in Kolhapur is about 110cm to 125cm. The catchments area of the lake is about 5091sq.K.m. The lake was initially a quarry of black impervious stone and as such very less quantity of water is lost due to percolation. Approximately 150cm of water is lost by evaporation annually. The water flowing out over waste weir is used for irrigation. The lake has not dried out any time in the past. Two major streams feed the lake from southern side. There is development of residential area or southern side particularly in the catchment of the lake. Sewage from here, if otherwise not connected to the drainage system, finds its way in the natural stream flowing towards the lake. Kolhapur Municipals Corporation has made provision to tap these two streams and divert this sewage. This long pending overdue project was completed with effect from August 2001.
During rainy season and in the durations of power failure, it is not possible to control the sewage flow into the lake. A pump house on one of the stream with 10hp diesel pump lifts the sewage and diverts it to another pumping station near Sham society. Here one pump of 50hp and two pumps of 30hp each are provided, which divert the flow in the stream to a location on the down stream of Rankala. This sewage ultimately flows towards Dudhali nalla pumping station. Around 4000 Kw hour of power is consumed per month for the diversion. About 4000 million Liters of sewage otherwise would have entered and polluted the lake water.
Characteristics of the lake water and feeding stream are tabulated below.

Parameters Lake
Water Feeding
stream General standards for Discharge of effluent for irrigation
PH 8.1 7.5 5.5-9.0
Total Solids 1686 800
Total dissolved Solids 162 292 2100
Total suspended Solids 1524 508 200
B.O.D.s20 degree C 48 140 100
C.O.D.s20degree C 104 255
Dissolved Oxygen 4.45 2.02

Note-All values except pH are in mg per liter.
The water quality standards for different purposes are given in Annexure A.
Part of the lake water is used for irrigation. There are three outlets provided, which irrigate about 80 hectors of the land in the region of Fulewadi, Mira bag and ‘Dhunyachi Chavi’ About 2 hectors of marshy land known as Partala located on western side, near silent zone, supports breeding of birds. This land is connected to Lake Water and remains wet for most of the year.

Apart from the lake, there are two independent quarries full of water one is used for swimming and bathing and other used for immersion of Ganesh idols during Ganesh festival, protecting the lake from pollution. Some of the household Ganesh idols are immersed in lake directly.

Climate and Nutrient Dynamics-
Temperature regulates the kind of Biota and the biological processes such as production and decomposition in the lake. Lakes are rich in nutrients, which supports high growth rates.
Kolhapur is tropical city with temperature varying from 10 degree c. in winter to 40 degree c. in summer. Sunlight is received for about 250 to 300 days in the year. Considerable growth of residential area, without any provision of sewers, causes mixing of sewage from this area in the lake water. This sewage contributes organic matter, Silt and also nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake water. As the lake is having large suffer area (107 hectors) and good sunlight, it supports rapid growth of water hyacinth.
Flora and Fauna-
The Lake beholds a healthy ecosystem consisting of wide variety of avifauna with significant species of migrating birds visiting it every year. The lake water contains phytoplankton flora and zooplanktons.
The lake water supports a rich phytoplankton flora, in all, about 57 species belonging to chlorophyceae, bacillariophyceae and dinophyceae are observed. Phytoplankton clearly shows an increase or decrease in both number of species as well as abundance with organic pollution, intensity of light and temperature of water. The phytoplankton can serve as a ‘bio indicator’ of pollution.
Eichhornia crassipes well known as water Hyacinth is growing in the Lake since 1994, at vary fast rate. The net primary annual production of water hyacinth ranges from 5 to 50 tons per hectare. Values as high as 100 tons per hectare have also been recorded, Submerged aquatic plants such as hydrialla is also found in the lake water. The net primary annual production of hydrialla and other submerged macrophytes affect the movement of water fowls such as dividing ducks and causes difficulty in their search for food. K.M.C. is exerting continuous efforts to remove this water hyacinth and hydrilla. It has incurred more than Rs.10 Lakes. For this purpose in 1996, Durand April 2000 to October 2000 around 2000 trucks of water hyacinth was removed manually and mechanically. K.M.C. with the help of private individual agencies and NGO’s removed about 2973 trucks of hyacinth mechanically during July 2001 to September 2001.
K.M.C. was also made effort to control and reduce water hyacinth biologically. Weevils are found effective in this purpose. (The Weevils lay their eggs inside the petioles of leaves of water hyacinth and damage the leaves extensively.) K.M.C. has initiate biological control program with exotic weevils and fungal pathogen. The program was started on 26th April2001. Up to 28th Feb2002, about 56000 weevils were released in 10 releases. Further 47000 weevils were released up to 7th December2002. This has considerably reduced the concentration of water hyacinth, but yet some parches of hyacinth and hydrilla is seen in the lake. The growth of hyacinth had led to considerable reduction of diving ducks but now these diving ducks are again found to be increasing in number. It also has shown a considerable reduction in mosquito breeding.
Zooplankton organisms play a vital role in the food chain comprising phytoplankton and fishes. Any change in water pollution lead to change in the composition, abundance, diversity and dominance patterns of zooplankton. They are mainly copepods, cladoceres, rotifers and ostracodes. Total about 86 species of zooplankton are observed in the lake. Density of organism ranges between 720 and 103400 organisms per liter.
Lake also provides habitat for breeding of residential birds as well as a wintering ground for short and long distant migratory birds. About 5000 of 20 different aquatic and total 74 species are observed in and around the lake. The list is enclosed in annexure B.
Indian mud or flap shell turtles are observed in the lake. About 27 species of fishes reported, out of these 7 are found in the lake. Common garden lizard and about 11 species of butterflies are observed in the garden.
There are about 986 trees and 28 species on the banks of Rankala. About 35 new trees are planted in the newly developed ‘Pad Path Udyan’. The list of the trees is given in Annexure C. During the development of this new garden, old trees have not been disturbed or removed from the area.
It is necessary plant and develop flowering plants on the southwest bank of the lake viz. coral tree, flame of the forest, Indian laburnum, birdbary silk cotton tree, focus bingal enisis(wad), Bengalian Sisoo which supports nesting.

Socio-Economic Aspects-
Lakes and wetlands all over the world are subjected to interaction by human society in the one-way or other. One of the ways is use of lake for tourism. Advantage of promoting tourism is to increase awareness of ecological importance of among the people. Tourism is less likely to damage the environment than the other more exploitative activities.
K.M.C. has recently started boating in the lake, with private sector participation. Paddleboats are provided for this purpose. A motor launch is also provided for emergencies Necessary arrangements of dustbins and lifejackets are provided in the boats.
K.M.C. has developed garden and walkway on the west side of the lake. A southern part of this walkway is declared as silent zone. Although there was some opposition, these developments have won the overwhelming endorsement of Kolhapurkars. It can be seen from the fact that every day, on an average, at least thousand people visit this newly developed garden. So far, more than 2 to 3 lakh people have visited the walkway garden, developed in 2002.

Time Tambat
Res. Kaman
Laundry Sandhya
Res. Math
Laundry Raj
Res. Ghat
0800to0900Hrs. 26 06 18 02 19 00
0900to1000Hrs 21 05 17 00 24 00
1000to1100 Hrs 34 04 19 00 08 00
1100to1200 Hrs 12 00 21 00 17 00
1500to1600 Hrs 10 00 05 00 12 00
1600to1700 Hrs 07 00 03 00 10 00
1700to1800 Hrs 05 00 03 00 10 00
TOTAL 115 15 86 02 100 00

The chouparti on the northern side of the lake is considered as multiple use area. Food stalls and public conveniences are located here. It is observed that about 2000 people visit the lake everyday and more than 5000 people visit on holidays and during winter and summer vacations. More than 100 people also enjoy swimming in the quarry in the morning regularly.

Lake water is also used for washing of clothes and cattle. ‘Tambat Kaman’. ‘Sandhya Math’ and ‘Raj Ghat’ areas on the eastern side of the lake are used for these activities. Data regarding total number of persons using the lake for cloth washing is given in the table below

Total 17 laundry men from Shanivar Peth, Parit Galli, Hujur Galli and Sant Gadage Maharaj Galli are daily coming here for washing of cloths. Five laundry men regularly wash clothes near office of the irrigation Department. It is necessary to divert them to ‘Dhunyachi Chavi’ for washing of clothes.

Chapter 4:


The wise use of lakes is their sustainable utilization for the benefit of mankind in a way compatible with the maintenance of the natural properties of this ecosystem. Suggestions for the conservations and improvement of the lake are-
1. Prevention of mixing of sewage by lying of servers in the lake catchment within a period of two years.
2. Prohibition of washing of cloths, cattle and vehicles on the lake and diverting those to ‘Dhunyachi Chavi’ immediately. About 50 connections are working and remaining 70 connections need to be repaired at this place. It is necessary to make notification and display appropriate prohibition boards near the lake
3. Construction of compound wall –from old Vashi Naka to the area acquired by irrigation department, a length admeasuring about 500 meters and between irrigation department and fisheries, a length admeasuring about 200 meters. This work may be completed within six months.
4. Shifting of slum on the western side and construction of a compound wall for the remaining portion may be completed within two years.
5. Removal of water hyacinth and hydrilla as when found excessively grown on the water surface,
6. Plantation of specific trees, which provides a nesting place for the birds in the southwest side. It may be initiated immediately for the area free of any slum. This area can be converted in urban forestry within a period of three years.

7. Development of eastern bank without disturbing mud flaps near Vashi Naka by suitable soil filling for development of lawn and provision of amusement games. (Similar to Ramoji Film city Hyderabad on private sector participation within one year.)
8. Food waste, tree leaves, papers and other waste generated on the banks of the lakes may be converted into compost/vermicompost. A place on the eastern side of the walkway, about 50 meters ahead of the newly developed lawn, can be suitable used for this purpose. The large crowd visiting this lake frequently will be instigated on individual level by this culture. The compost prepared here can be utilized in the municipal gardens. This work may be taken up immediately and completed within 3 months.
9. While walking on the ‘Pad Path Udyan’ people watch the planted trees on the trees on the sides and may be influenced and attracted to plant the same species at there premises. If plants of the same species were made available at the lake by starting a nursery over here, it would be a step towards people participation in the awareness. K.M.C. will also generate some revenue, which may be contributed towards the operation and maintenance of ‘Pad Path Udyan’. A green house may be constructed at the southern end of the newly developed garden, covering an area of 3 meter x 30 meter. This development may be need 6 months.
10. This works of lake restoration and development can be completed within a period of three years.
project on water pollusion

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Responses to "project on water pollusion"
Author: Shyni     31 May 2008Member Level: Gold   Points : 2
Very Nice Information


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