# ACHARYA NAGARJUNA UNIVERSITY I B.PHARM SYLLABUS

Living and non-living and their main features, differences between plants and animals – plant and animal cell structures, cell inclusions and cell divisions – mitosis and meiosis.

A brief study of the leading sub divisions of the plant kinds thallopytes, brophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms with examples. Structure, physiology and life history of bacteria and yeast.

General morphology of root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit – Different kinds of fissues – anatomical structure of a root stem and leaf. Very brief account of pillination, fertilization, fruit and seed formation. Fruit and seed dispersal.

Taxonomy :

A systematic study of the following families : Announaceae, solanceae, liliaceae, Umbelliferae

Plant Physicology:

A brief study of (i) Transpiration (ii) Photosynthesis and (iii) Respiration.

The Animal kingdom, outline classification with salient features and examples of each phylum. The structure life history and physiology of Amoeba paramecium, cockroach & Mosquito.

Classification of Choroata, comparative anatomy of the vertebrate series of animals with special reference to cardiovascular and nervous system. Principles of the hgistology of animal fissues.

Parasitology introduction to the more important protozoan and helmitnth parasites in man and domesticated animals. Outline of the life history of plasmodium, Trypanasoma and round worm.

PRACTICALS :-

Care anduse of the Microscope

Technical description of plants belonging to the Angiosperms families prescribed in the syllabus and referring them to their respective families.

Microscopic study of different tissues and the primary anatomical structure of a root, stem and leaf.

Microscopic and macroscopic examination and identification of the types prescribed in the syllabus

Preparation of herbarium sheets.

Experiments in Zoology based on Theory.

T. 1.1 B MATHEMATICS

ALGEBRA :- Arithmetic Progression – Geometric Progression – Permutations and combinations – Binomical theorem – Partial fractions Matrices – Determinats – Applications of determinates to solve simultaneous equations (Cramer’s rule)

TRIGONOMETRY :- Trigonometric ratios and the relations between them. Sin (A+B), Cos (A+B) Tan (A+B) formulae only. Trigonometric ratios of multiple angles- Heights and distances (simple problems thereon)

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY :- Distance between two points-Area of a triangle Co-ordinates of a point dividing a given segment in a given ratio – locus equations to a straight line in different form – Angle between straing lines – point of intersection.

Differential Calculus :

Continuity and limit : Differentiation, derivability and derivative, R.H. derivatives and L.H. derivatives, Differentiation General theorems of derivation. Derivatives of trigonometric functions (excluding inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions) Logarithmic differentiation. Partial differentiation maxima and minima (elementary)

Integral Calculus :

Integration as inverse process of differentiation definaite integrate integration by substitution, integration by parts integration of algebraic function of ex Evaluation of area in simple cases.

Differential equations :

Formation of a differential equation, order and degree, derivation of a differential equation. Introduction to Laplace transforms and their use.

T1.2 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-1 (INOGANIC)

A review of electronic structure of atom and periodic classification and group properties of elements

An outline of methods of preparation and test for purity (including limits test) of the following classes of inorganic compounds included in the pharmacopoeia of India. The discussion of assays shall be excluded.

Acids and Bases, Buffers and Pharmaceutical aids, antioxidants, water.

Gastro – Intestinal agents , acidifying agents, antacids, protectives and adsorbents. Saline cathartcs.

Major intra and extra cellular electrolytes. Major physiologicalions Eletrolytes used for replacement therapy. Physiological acid – base balance. Electrolytes used in acid base therapy. Electrolytic combination therapy.

Essential and trace elements. Transition elements and their compounds. Iron and Haematinics. Mineral supplements.

Inorganic pharmaceuticals used for systemic effects. Drugs used primarily for cationic components. Drugs used primarily for anionic components.

Topical agents : Oxygen therapy. Antimicrobiasl and Astringents.

Gases and vapours. Oxygen therapy. Anaesthetic gases. Respiratory stimulants.

Dental products. Anticarries agents and dentifrices.

Complexation and chelation.

Radio pharmaceuticals. Nuclear decomposition. Biological application of radio active drugs. Radio-opaques.

Miscellaneous inorganic pharmaceutical agents.

Sclerosing agents Cathartics and enemas. Eperctorants and emetics. Poisons and antidotes. Sedative.

P1.2 PRACTICALS :

1. Systematic qualitative analysis of inorganic compounds containing up to 4 radicals.

2. Preparation of inorganic pharmaceutical compounds.

3. Limit tests and tests for impurities

4. Assay of inorganic pharmaceuticals.

Text Books :

Roger’s Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Inorganic Medical and pharmaceutical Chemistry – by Block Roche, Soine and Wilson.

Modern Inorganic pharmaceutical Chemistry by Discher.

Text book of pharmaceutical chemistry by bentely and driver revised by L.M. Atherden.

Indian pharmacopoeia.

T1.3 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY -II (ORGANIC-I)

The subject of Organic Chemistry will be treated in its modern perspective keeping for the sake of convenience of the usual classification of Organic compounds but laying emphasis on the following aspects:

Structure and properties: Energy of activation, Transition state; Free-radical substitution; cyclo-alkanes; Nucleophilic aliphatic substitution, carbocations; Elimination; Electrophilic and Free-radical addition; Conjugation and Resonance; Nucleophilic addition and Nucleophilic acyl substitution. Chemistry of aliphatic compounds, including preparation and reactions of alk-enes, alkynes, alkylhalides, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ke-tones, carboxylic acids and esters.

P1.3 PRACTICALS:

1. Organic Chemistry Laboratory Techniques.

(a) Filtration Techniques.

(b) Determination of Boiling point & Melting point

(c) Crystallization Techniques.

2. Experiments in simple qualitative analysis including prepara

tion of derivatives. (Monofunctional and water insoluble com

pounds should be given.)

3. Preparation of simple organic compounds illustrating different techniques.

TEXT - BOOK:

1. R.T.Morrison and R.N. Boyd. 'Organic Chemistry'. Allyn and

Bacon, In., Boston.

2. I.L Finar, 'Organic Chemistry'. Vol. 1, the English Language

Book Society, London.

3. B.S. Fumiss, A.J. Hannaford, V. Rogers, P.W.G. Smith and

A.M. Tatchell, Vogel's Text Book of Practical Organic Chemis

try (Including qualitative organic analysis). The English Language Book Society.

4. Study guide to accompany the T.B. of organic chemistry by

Morrison and Boyd - Morrison & Boyd.5.

Problems and their solution in Organic Chemistry - I.L Finar.

T 1.4 PHYSICAL PHARMACY -1

Intermolecular forces and States of matter; Binding forces between molecules, the states of matter, the Gaseous state, the liquid state, solids and the Crystalline state, Phase equilibria and the phase rule.

Thermodynamics: The first law of thermodynamics, Thermo-chemistry. The second law of thermodynamics. The third law of thermodynamics Free energy functions and applications.

Some physical properties of Drug Molecules : Dielectric con-stant Induced polarization, Dipole moment, Refractive Index and Molar Refraction, Optical Rotation, Optical Rotatory Dispersion.

Solutions : Concentration expressions, solutions of nonelec-trolytes, ideal and real solutions, colligative properties, molecular weight determinations.

Solutions of Electrolytes : Properties of solutions of electrolytes, The Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, The modern theory of strong electrolytes and other coefficients for expressing colligative properties.

Ionic equilibria : Modern theories of acids, bases and salts, Sorensen's P H scale, Species concentration as a function of PH, Calculation of PH. Graphical solution of PH problems, acidity constants.

Buffers and Buffered Isotonic Systems; The Buffer Equation, Buffer capacity, Buffers in pharmaceutical and Biological systems, Buffered isotonic solutions, methods of adjusting tonic-ity and PH.

lectromotive Force and Oxidation - Reduction systems: Electrochemical cells, Electrometric determination of PH and re-dox.

Viscosity : Viscosity, Poisseulli's formula for liquids. Experimental determination of viscosity, Ostwald viscometer. Comparison of viscosities.

P1.4 Practicals :

Experiments based on theory Text Books:

1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin

2. Bentley's Text book of Pharmaceutics by E.A. Rawlins

3. Remington's pharmaceutical Sciences

T 1.5 PHARMACEUTICS -1

1. History of Pharmacy : Pharmacy Profession, Pharmacy as a career, Evolution of Pharmacy - Pharmacopoeia of India and other countries, B.P., B.P.C., U.S.P.

Metrology : Systems of Weights and Measures - Metric and Imperial systems - Percentage calculations and adjustment of products - Interconversions - Use of alligation method in calculations - Isotonic solutions and proof spirits - Weighing -Selection and care of Weights and balances.

2. Packaging and Labelling of Pharmaceuticals : Desirable features of a container - Types of containers - Study of glass and plastics as materials for containers and rubber as a material for closures - their merits and demerits - Labelling requirements.

3. Introduction to Dosage Forms - Classification - Types with examples, Definitions and essential characteristics of different dosage forms - Formulation and its purpose formulation Additives : Solvents, Vehicles for Liquids, Antioxidants, Preservatives, Colouring agents, Sweetening and flavouring agents in Liquid dosage forms.

4. Liquid oral dosage forms : Definitions, general formulation, methods of preparation, uses of official and other products in common usage of the following :

Solutions, Aromatic Waters, Spirits, Syrups, Elixirs, Dry Syrups, Mixtures.

5. Monophasic Liquids for external and other uses : Definitions,

general formulation, methods of preparation, uses of official

and other products in common usage of the following:

Lotions, Liniments, throat paints, gargles, mouthwashes, glycerins, collodions, Ear drops, Nasal drops and Sprays, Douches.

6. Biphasic liquid dosage Forms : Suspensions - Definitions,

Types, Ideal requirements, Formulation additives, Typical

examples for oral and external use, Methods of preparation.

7. Galenicals : Study of extraction processes - Maceration Percolation and their modifications, continuous hot extraction - Their applications. Principles and methods of preparations of dry, soft and liquid extracts and tinctures of IP and BP (Latest editions).

8. Suppositories and Pessaries : Ideal requirements, different bases, Preparation methods - Typical examples, calculations involving displacement value - Packaging and supply.

P1.5 PRACTICALS :

Preparation of atleast 50 Pharmaceutical products.

TEXT BOOKS :

1. Bentley's Text book of Pharmaceutics Introduction to

2. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms by H.c. Ansel Cooper and

3. Gunn's - Dispensing for Pharmaceutical students

4. American Pharmacy by Sprowls

5. IP. 3rd Edition

6. Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences.

7. General Pharmacy and Professional Pharmacy by M.L. Schroff

T 1.6 PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS -1

1. Balances - different types and weighing. Types of analysis,

obtaining sample, measurement of sample and types of pi

pettes. Computation of Analytical Results : Significant num

bers, sources of errors and their rectification, statistical treat

ment of the data and rejection of data.

2. Ionic equations of solutions; stoichiometric and Analytical prob

lems: Determination of Normality, percentage purity, Molarity,

Molality and their interconversions.

3. Principles of volumetric and Gravimetric Analysis :

Standardisation; use of primary and secondary standards. Acid

base concept, common ion effect and solubility product, PH

and Buffers.

4. General Principles and theory of acidimetry, alkalimetry, Oxi

dation - reduction methods, precipitation methods. An account

of the indicators used in these titrajtions. Diazotisation titra-

tions.

5. Gravimetric methods /: Typical methods involving precipita

tion, coagulation, incineration oj^digestion procedures.

6. Complexometric Titrationr rTheory, types and application in

pharmaceutical analysis. Masking and damasking and its ap

plication.

7. Non-aqueous Titrations Theory, types and application in phar

maceutical analysis.

8. Determination of Moisture content and Alcohol content, Theory

and methods involved.

9. Polarimetry : Theory, Instrumentation and applications. Re-

fractometry, Theory, instrumentation (Abbes, Pulfrisch and

Immersion) and applications.

10. Principles of gas analysis. P1.6 PRACTICALS:

Experiments based on theory.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Quantitative Inorganic Analysis by A.I. Vogel

2. Bentley and Driver - Text book of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

3. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry - A.M. Backett and J.B.

Stenlake

4. I.P

5. Quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Chatten

T 1.7 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS AND STATISTICALMETHODS

Introduction to computers development, computer types, characteristics, anatomy - input and out put devices and other components - computer codes and arithmetic, flow chart, algorithm, languages

Basic Language : Basic Programme structure, constants, variables, expressions, let, rem, stop and end statements, input / output statements, control statements, subscripted variables, functions and sub-programmes, additional statements, simple programme writing related to statistics.

Introduction to DOS environment DOS usage.

Fundamentals of Basic language : Basic programmes, structure, loading and Unloading, Basic interpreter, Basic alphabet, constants, variables, operators, Expressions, hirarchy of operations.

Branching and looping : IF -THEN, ELSE-GO TO, ON GO TO, GO SUB, ON GO SUB, WHILE-WEND, FOR TO NEXT. Arrays: Subscribed variable, single and multiple dimensions

Graphs and sound : LINE, CIRCLE, DRAW, PSET,POINT, PAINT, PUT, GET, SOUND, PLAY etc.,

File handling: Data files, random data files, file creation, reading random files.

Introduction to dBASE III PLUS, getting started, viewing and editing data, modifying structure and file utilities, managing data base, printing reports and labels, memory variables and funtions and command files.

Programmeing with dBASE III PLUS, mathematical commands and other functions multiple data base files, designing custom screens, error conditions and program debugging aids, advanced features of the dBASE IIIPLUS, applications generator, pay-roll problem, development of inventory-control package, protection and networking. Application of Computers in Pharmacy.

2. Introduction to statistics, chance variations, collection, classification, graphical and pictorial representation of data, Measures of central tendency and dispersion, precision and Accuracy - Measures of error.

Probability, Normal and binomial distributions, sampling distributions - standard error and Fiducial limits, t - test and chi -square test of significance - Principle involved and applications.

Correlation coefficient and Regression analysis - Method of least squares.

P1.7 PRACTICALS:

Computer usage

Simple programme writing related to statistics.

Statistical Methods : Solving problems based on theory.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences.

2. Basic Computer Programming by Er. V.K. Jain

3. Biostatistics by Alwin L. Lewis

4. Computers and common sense - N. Hunt and J. Shelley.