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University of Delhi - B.Sc. Prog. Syllabus

Posted Date: 17-Jun-2008  Last Updated:   Category: Syllabus    
Author: Member Level: Gold    Points: 5

(Effective from July, 2005)
The Restructured B.Sc. Programme in Physical Sciences, Life
Sciences, Applied Physical Sciences and Applied Life Sciences will come
into effect from July, 2005. The Programme will replace the earlier B.Sc.
(General) Group A; B.Sc. (General) Group B; B.Sc. (General) in
Electronic, Computer Science, Industrial Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry,
Biochemistry and B.Sc. (General) in Environmental Science, Sericulture,
Agrochemicals and Pest Control. The Academic Council of the University
of Delhi adopted the report of the Empowered Committee on Restructuring
of the Undergraduate Science Programmes set up by the Vice-Chancellor
in its meeting held on 11 and 12 October, 2004. Subsequently, the syllabi
and readings of all Foundation Courses (Ist year) of the Restructured B.Sc.
Programme in Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Applied Physical
Sciences and Applied Life Sciences were approved by the Academic
Council in its meeting held on 17th March, 2005. Syllabi and readings for
2nd and 3rd years were approved by the Academic Council in its meeting
held on 14-2-2006 and 21-4-2006.
The objectives of the Restructured B.Sc. Programme are :
- To provide students a broad-based exposure to the critical
domains of the sciences i.e. Physicas, Chemistry, Biology, in
both single science domain and multiple science domain
- To provide students adequate background of Mathematical
Sciences, and tools and techniques such as Computer
Applications, Modern Instrumentation and Electronics, and
Analytical Techniques;
- To enable students to enhance their technical writing and
communication skills;
- To provide students adequate exposure to global and local
concerns that explore the many aspects of societal relevance
in Environmental Science; and
- To permit students an opportunity to explore the multidisciplinarity
in science, particularly in those emerging areas
that lie at the intersection(s) of physical, chemical, life and earth
sciences including such cutting-edge areas like astrobiology,
theoretical biology, geophysics, molecular paleontology,
biogeochemistry, etc.
Keeping these objectives in view, the restructuring of B.Sc. Programme
was done. The essentials of the Restructured B.Sc. Programme are given
in the following pages:
Every candidate shall be required to take an examination at the end of
the I, II, III years respectively as per the schemes given below:
Scheme of Examination
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
PH 101 Physics 3 100
PH 102 Physics Laboratory 5 50
CH 103 Chemistry 3 100
CH 104 Chemistry Laboratory 6 50
BY 105a Biology
BY 105b Biology for Physical Science 3 100
BY 106a Biology Laboratory
BY106b Biology Laboratory for Physical
Science 4 50
MA 107a Mathematics
MA 107b Mathematics for Life Sciences 3 100
IN 108 Laboratory : Electronics and Modern
Instrumentation 4 50
IN 109 Laboratory : Analytical Techniques 4 50
CS 110 Laboratory : Computer Science and 4 50
ES 111 Environmental Studies 2 60
HU 112 Technical Writing and Communication 2 40
in English
Total Marks 800
25% of the marks in each Theory paper will be reserved for internal
assessment. 50% marks in Practical Papers will be reserved for internal
assessment which will include marks for performance throughout the year,
record book, and viva voce (20% + 20% + 10% respectively).
II Year and III Year
In the II year every student shall opt for three domain courses, each
domain consisting of 2 Theory papers and a Laboratory (if required). The
total marks for each domain will be 300. In addition every student shall
opt for either an elective course or a project of 50 marks.
In the III year, the student shall continue with the same domains which
he had opted in the II year; the overall distribution of marks shall be as
follows :
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
D1 201/301 Science Domain (1) I 3 100
D1 202/302 Science Domain (1) II 3 100
D2 203/303 Science Domain (2) I 3 100
D2 204/304 Science Domain (2) II 3 100
D3 205/305 Science Domain (3) I 3 100*
D3 206/306 Science Domain (3) II 3 100*
D1 207/307 Laboratory - I Science Domain (1) 3 to 6** 100
D2 208/308 Laboratory - II Science Domain (2) 3 to 5** 100
D3 209/309 Laboratory - III Science Domain (3) 3 to 6** 100
EL 210/310 Elective/Project 2 50
Total Marks 950
* In courses, where there is no laboratory, theory papers shall be of
150 marks. Similar distribution of marks will be there for III year.
** Practical Examinations in Chemistry/Analytical Chemistry/
Industrial Chemistry shall be of 6 hours duration; in Physics of 5 hours
duration, and in all other subjects of 3 to 4 hours duration.
The following combinations will be available :
A. Physical Sciences
1. Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics
B. Life Sciences
1. Chemistry, Botany and Zoology
C. Applied Physical Sciences
1. Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science
2. Physics, Mathematics and Electronics
3. Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry and Mathophysics
4. Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry and Mathophysics
5. Mathematics, Computer Science and Operational Research
6. Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics
D. Applied Life Sciences
1. Chemistry, Biology and Environmental Science
2. Chemistry, Biology and Agrochemical & Pest Management
3. Chemistry, Biology and Sericulture
4. Chemistry, Biology and Mathophysics
Scheme of Examination
(for different science domains)
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
II Year Examination
CH 201 Inorganic & Physical Chemistry 3 100
CH 202 Organic & Physical Chemistry 3 100
CH 203 Chemistry Laboratory-I 6 100
III Year Examination
CH 301 Inorganic & Physical Chemistry 3 100
CH 302 Organic & Physical Chemistry 3 100
CH 303 Chemistry Laboratory-II 6 100
II Year Examination
PH 201 Mathematical Physics 3 100
PH 202 Thermal Physics 3 100
PH 203 Physics Laboratory-I 6 100
III Year Examination
PH 301 Electromagnetic Theory 3 100
PH 302 Modern Physics 3 100
PH 303 Physics Laboratory-II 6 100
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
II Year Examination
MA 201 Calculus and Geometry 3 150
MA 202 Algebra and Differential Equations 3 150
III Year Examination
MA 301 Real Analysis 3 150
MA 302 Algebra and Mechanics 3 150
BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY (Life Sciences I and II)
II Year Examination
LS 201 Biodiversity I : Plants 3 100
LS 202 Biodiversity II : Animals 3 100
LS 203 Cell Biology, Biochemistry & Immunology 3 100
LS 204 Genetics, Genomics & Molecular Biology 3 100
LS 205 Life Sciences Laboratory 4 100
LS 206 Life Sciences Laboratory 4 100
III Year Examination
LS 301 Development Biology and
Physiology : Plants 3 100
LS 302 Development Biology and
Physiology : Animals 3 100
LS 303 Ecology and Environmental Management 3 100
LS 304 Applied Biology and Biotechnology 3 100
LS 305 Life Sciences Laboratory 4 100
LS 306 Life Sciences Laboratory 4 100
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
II Year Examination
CS 201 Programming and Data Structures 3 100
CS 202 Computer System Architecture 3 100
CS 203 Laboratory (Based on CS 201 & CS 202) 4 100
III Year Examination
CS 301 Operating Systems and Networks 3 100
CS 302 Software Engineering and Databases 3 100
CS 303 Laboratory (Based on CS. 301 & CS 302) 4 100
II Year Examination
ST 201 Statistical Methods and Probability Theory 3 100
ST 202 Applied Statistics 3 100
ST 203 Statistics Laboratory-I 4 100
III Year Examination
ST 301 Statistical Inference 3 100
ST 302 Sample Surveys and Design of Experiments 3 100
ST 303 Statistics Laboratory-II 4 100
II Year Examination
OR 201 Optimization 3 150
OR 202 Inventory Management and
Queueing Theory 3 150
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
III Year Examination
OR 301 Reliability and Statistical Quality Control 3 150
OR 302 Forecasting and Case Studies 3 150
II Year Examination
EL 201 Analog and Digital Circuits 3 100
EL 202 Semiconductor Devices and Fabrication 3 100
EL 203 Electronics Lab-I 4 100
III Year Examination
EL 301 Electronic Communication 3 100
EL 302 Microprocessors and Micro Controllers 3 100
EL 303 Electronics Lab-II 4 100
II Year Examination
IC 201 Industrial Chemicals & Environment 3 100
IC 202 Fossil Fuels and Fermentation Industries 3 100
IC 203 Industrial Chemistry Lab-I 6 100
III Year Examination
IC 301 Industrial Chemicals in Agriculture
and Medicine 3 100
IC 302 Polymers and Instrumental Methods
of Analysis 3 100
IC 303 Industrial Chemistry Lab-II 6 100
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
II Year Examination
AC 201 Basic Principles & Laboratory
Operation 3 100
AC 202 Quantitative Methods of Analysis 3 100
AC 203 Analytical Chemistry Lab-I 6 100
III Year Examination
AC 301 Separation Methods in Analytical Chemistry 3 100
AC 302 Instrumental Methods Analysis 3 100
AC 303 Analytical Chemistry Lab-II 6 100
II Year Examination
ES 201 Concepts in Ecology 3 100
ES 202 Natural Resource Management 3 100
ES 203 Environmental Science Lab-I 4 100
III Year Examination
ES 301 Environmental Concerns and Health 3 100
ES 302 Environmental Protection and Management 3 100
ES 303 Environmental Science Lab-II 4 100
II Year Examination
BIO 201 Biology of Animals : Form, Structure
and Function 3 100
BIO 202 Biology of Plants : Form, Structure
and Function 3 100
BIO 203 Biology Lab-I 3 100
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
III Year Examination
BIO 301 Cell & Molecular Biology and
Development Biology 3 100
BIO 302 Genetics, Biotechnology and Immunology 3 100
BIO 303 Biology Lab-II 3 100
II Year Examination
ACP 201 Agricultural Botany, Plant Pathology
and weeds 3 100
ACP 202 Fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides 3 100
ACP 203 Agrochemicals and Pest Management Lab-I 4 100
III Year Examination
ACP 301 Applied Entomology 3 100
ACP 302 Insecticides, Pesticide Formulation,
Analysis, Quality Control 3 100
ACP 203 Agrochemicals and Pest Management Lab-II 4 100
II Year Examination
MP 201 Mathematics-I 3 150
MP 202 Thermal Physics and Electromagnetism 3 100
MP 203 Physics Lab-I 4 50
III Year Examination
MP 301 Mathematics-2 3 150
MP 302 Optics, Electronics and Modern Physics 3 100
MP 303 Physics Lab-II 4 50
Course Course Title Duration Max.
Code (Hours) Marks
II Year Examination
SC 201 General Sericulture, Soil Science 3 100
SC 202 Mulberry & Silkworm Studies 3 100
SC 203 Sericulture Lab-I 4 100
III Year Examination
SC 301 Sericulture Crop Improvement and
Management 3 100
SC 302 Silkworm Seed Technology and
Silk Technology 3 100
SC 303 Sericulture Lab-II 4 100
One Elective subject in II year may be chosen out of the following :
Economics/Entrepreneurship/Organizational Behaviour/Psychology/
Financial Accounting/Financial Management or a Project of
equivalent weightage in any one of these elective subjects.
One Elective subject in III year may be chosen out of the following :
Green Chemistry/Polymer Science/Biotechnology/Forensic Science/
Earth System Science/Intellectual Property Rights/Computational
and Discrete Mathematics*/Mathematical Methods in Life Sciences.
*Only for students of B.Sc. Physical Sciences/Applied Physical
Promotion Rules
1. The minimum marks required to pass the I year examination shall
be 36% in the aggregate of all the Theory papers taken together and
36% in the aggregate of all the Practical papers taken together. The
candidate shall have to secure 36% marks separately in the
University examination, as well as in the total of the University
examination and internal assessment.
2. The minimum marks required to pass the II year or III year
examination in the three subjects of Science Domains shall be 36%
in the aggregate of the Theory papers taken subject-wise and 36%
in the Practical examination in each subject, and 36% in the Elective/
Project in each year separately. The criteria will be applied
separately to the University examination as well as in the total of
the University examination and internal assessment.
3. At the end of II year, a candidate, who has secured pass marks
(separately in Theory and Practical) in at least 2 of the Science
Domains and has secured 25% marks in the aggregate including
the elective subject/project may be permitted to proceed to the III
Year class, and take subsequently the examination in the remaining
subject of II year (in which he has not secured the pass marks) along
with the University examination of the III year.
4. At the end of the III year, a candidate, who has not passed the third
year examination, but has secured at least 36% marks in any
subject/subjects (Theory and Practical separately for each subject)
will be exempted for reappearing in those subjects.
5. The successful candidate will be classified on the combined results
of I, II and III year examinations as follows :
(a) First Division : 60% Marks or more in the aggregate
(b) Second Division : 50% Marks or more in the aggregate
(c) Third Division : All others
Note :
Candidates who have failed or have been absent in any year of the
B.Sc. Examination may be allowed to reappear at the examination
on being enrolled as ex-student in accordance with the rules and
regulations prescribed in that behalf irrespective of whether they had
secured the minimum pass marks in the practical papers.
Candidates who have already secured the minimum pass marks in
the practical papers and, or Project Report/Field Work Report at a
previous examination shall not be allowed to reappear in the practical
papers and Project Report/Field Work Report as the case may be.
Subject to the provisions of Ordinance VII-Conditions for Admission
to Examination : a candidate for the B.Sc. I year Examination shall
not be deemed to have satisfied the required conditions of
attendance unless he has attended, in all the subjects of I year taken
together, not less than two-thirds of the lectures and practicals, held
in the college. In the II and III year the student should have attended
not less than two-thirds of the lectures and practicals separately, held
in the college in each academic year.
Provided that a student of the I year class who does not fulfill the
required conditions of attendance as provided in the Clause above,
but has attended, in all the subjects taken together, not less than
40 per cent of lectures and practicals, held during the I year, may,
at the discretion of the Principal of the College concerned, be allowed
to appear at the Part I Examination; but such a candidate shall be
required to make up the deficiency of lectures and/or practicals, as
the case may be, of the I year, during the II year.
Provided further that a student of the II year class who does not fulfill
the required conditions of attendance as above, but has attended in
all the subjects taken together, not less than 40 per cent of the
lectures and practicals, separately, held during the II year class, may,
at the discretion of the Principal of the College concerned, be allowed
to appear at the Part II examination provided that he makes up the
deficiency of the II year by combining the attendance of the first year
Provided further that a student of the II year class, who was short
of attendance at the end of I year class, but was allowed to appear
at the I year examination, subject to his making up the deficiency of
attendance during II year, and who has not been able to make up
the deficiency as above, but has attended in all the subjects taken
together not less than 55% of the lectures and practicals, separately,
held during the I year class and the II year class, taken together,
may, at the discretion of the Principal of the College concerned, be
allowed to appear at the II year examination, subject to his making
of the deficiency of the two years taken together, as above, during
the III year class.
Provided further that a student of the III year class, who does not
fulfill the required conditions of attendance as above, but has
attended, in all the subjects taken together not less than 40% of the
lectures and practicals, separately held during the III year class, shall
be allowed to appear at the III year examination, if by combining the
attendance of the III year with the attendance of I and II years, the
candidate has put in two-thirds of attendance in all the subjects taken
together, separately, in lectures and practicals held during the three
Explanation : A student who has failed at the I year or II year or III
year Examination and has rejoined the I year or II year or III year
class, as the case may be shall be required to put in the requisite
attendance as above, afresh, and the attendance previously put in
by him for the respective year will not be taken into account.
I. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the foregoing
provisions :
(a) A candidate for the III year examination, appearing at the
examination initially, during the pendency of the course, may, with
a view to improving his previous performance, be allowed to reappear,
once only, at the examination in one or more subject(s) of
II year, alongwith the III year examination on foregoing in writing,
his earlier performance, in the subject(s) of II year. No candidates
shall be allowed to re-appear in the subject(s) of II year after he has
passed the III year examination.
(b) A candidate who has cleared the papers of the III year examination
after having appeared at the Examination initially, during the
pendency of the span period, may with a view to improving his
earlier performance, be allowed to re-appear, once only, at the
examination in one or more subject(s) of III year either at the
Supplementary Examination immediately held thereafter or if he fails
to appear then at the next Annual Examination on foregoing, in
writing, his previous performance in the subject(s) concerned of III
year examination.
Explanation : No candidate will be admitted to the examination after the
expiry of six years after admission to the I year class, five
years after admission to the II year class and three years
after admission to the III year class.
Note : In the case of a candidate, who offers to reappear in any subject(s)
under the aforesaid provision, on surrendering his earlier
performance but fails to re-appear in the subject(s) concerned,
for satisfactory reasons, the marks previously secured by the
candidate in the subject(s) in which he failed to re-appear may
be taken into account while determining the results of the
examination held currently, on application by the candidate which
should reach the University within a fortnight of the termination
of the current examination.
1ST Year
(70 Lectures)
The primary objective of this course is to lay the foundation of Physics
essential for the undergraduate students of Physical Sciences, Life
Sciences and Applied Sciences. This course provides the basic
understanding of core concepts in Physics and deals with their impact
on modern day technology. The concepts of physics has been elaborated
by some examples with the purpose of understanding the impact on other
Essentials of Physics
Unit I Mechanics (12 L)
Galilean invariance and Newton’s Laws of motion. Dynamics of a system
of particles, Conservation of momentum and energy, work energy theorem.
Conservation of angular momentum, torque, Motion of a particle in central
force field. Kepler’s Laws, Satellite in circular orbit and applications
(Synchronous satellite, GPS, Artificial gravity, apparent weightlessness).
Physiological effects of acceleration and angular motion.
Unit II Special Theory of Relativity (6 L)
Constancy of speed of light, postulate of Special theory of relativity, length
contraction, time dilation, relativistic velocity addition, Mass-energymomentum
Unit III Waves and Oscillations (8 L)
Simple harmonic motion, damped and driven harmonic oscillator, coupled
oscillator, energy relation and energy transfer, normal modes, Wave
equation, Travelling waves, superposition principle, pulses. Doppler effect,
effects of vibrations in humans, physics of hearing, heartbeat.
Unit IV Modern optics (10 L)
Two slit Interference, Diffraction, Resolving power, Resolution of the eye,
Laser characteristics, Principle, Population inversion, Application of laser
in medical science, Polarization of EM wave, Malus Law, Polarizing
materials, Polarizer, Analyzer.
Unit V Statistical Mechanics (8)
Phase space, micro and macro states, Thermodynamic probability,
Concept of entropy, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Connection to
Unit VI Electronics and Semiconductor Physics (8 L)
PN junction diode, transistor, Operational amplifier, Inverting and noninverting
amplifier OP-Amp as adder, subtractor, comparator, integrator
and differentiator, Digital : Half adder and full adder, Multiplexer, clocked
RS Flip Flop, 1-bit memory cell, J-K flip-flop, D to A converter (ladder
network), Block diagram of A to D converter.
Unit VII Quantum Mechanics (8 L)
Inadequacy of classical mechanics, photoelectric effect, Compton
scattering, wave particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis, two slit experiment
with electrons, Heisenberg’s uncertainty Principle, basic postulates of
Quantum Mechanics, Particle in a box.
Unit VIII Applied Physics (10 L)
Viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation, Application to blood flow in human body,
Principal for measuring the blood pressure, Physiological effects of electric
current, Electrical forces in molecular biology; DNA structure and
Replication, Resting and action potential, Nerve conduction (Propagation
of action potential in neuron), capacitance of axon.
Nano-particles and its properties, Methods of synthesis of nanostructures-
Physical & Chemical, introduction to Fullerenes and Carbon nano-tubes.
1. Fundamentals of Physics, Halliday, Resnick and Walker, John Wiley.
2. Physics, Paul A. Tipler, CBS Publishers and Distributors.
3. Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, Serway
and Beichner, Thomson, Brooks/Cole.
4. Physics (5th Edn.) : Principles with applications, Douglas C. Giancoli,
Prentice Hall.
5. Physics (5th Edn.), John D. Cutnell & Kenneth W. Johnson, John
Willey & Sons, Inc.
6. Plasma Physics, F. F. Chen.
7. Nanoelectronics & Information Technology, Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co.
8. Op-Amps and linear integrated circuits, Ramakant A. Gayakwad,
Prentice Hall.
9. Digital Principles and Applications, A.P. Malvino and D. P. Leach,
Proposed Experiments
1. Moment of Inertia using Fly Wheel
2. g by Katers Pendulum/Free fall
3. To study the Coupled Oscillator
4. Frequency of tuning fork by Melde’s experiment
5. Single slit & Double slit diffraction using laser
6. Specific rotation of cane sugar by Polarimeter
7. Coefficient of thermal conductivity by Lees disc method using
resistive heating.
8. Boltzman constant by PN junction
9. Poiseuilles method (Viscosity of fluid)
10. Characteristics of RC circuits
11. Forced Oscillation in LCR (series & Parallel) resonance circuit
12. Determination of Planks constant by LEDs
13. e/m by Bar Magnet/Magnetic focusing
Practical Physics, Nelson and Jon Ogborn
The Primary objective of this course is to promote an understanding of
the fundamental concepts of Chemistry and their applications while
retaining the excitement of Chemistry. The course also emphasizes the
development of problem solving skills in students.
Unit I. Atomic Structure (14 L)
Wave Mechanical Model of the Hydrogen Atom :
Recapitulation of : Bohr’s theory and its limitations, dual behaviour of
matter and radiation, De-Broglie’s relation, Hé is enberg Uncertainty
principle. Need of new approach to the atomic structure.
What is Quantum mechanics (wave mechanics)? Time-independent
Schrodinger equation (H ?= E?) and meaning of various terms in it.
Schrodinger equation for hydrogen atom. Need of polar coordinates,
transformation of cartesian coordinates (x,y,z) into polar coordinates
(r,?,F). Outline of various steps in the solution of the electronic
Schrodinger equation for hydrogen atom. Radial and angular parts of the
hydogenic wavefunctions (atomic orbitals) and their variations for 1s, 2s,
2p, 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals. Radial and angular nodes and their significance.
Radial distribution functions and the calculation of the most probable
distances for 1s and 2s atomic orbitals (by taking actual wavefunctions
for these orbitals). Significance of quantum numbers, orbital angular
momentum and quantum numbers m1 and m1. Shapes of s, p and d atomic
orbitals - charge cloud diagrams and boundary surface diagrams, nodal
planes. Discovery of spin, spin quantum number (s) and magnetic spin
quantum number (ms).
Multi-electron Atoms
Recapitualation of : rules for filling electrons in various orbitals, Electronic
configurations of the atoms. Stability of half-filled and completely filled
orbitals, concept of exchange energy. Relative energies of atomic orbitals,
Anomalous configurations.
Total orbital angular momentum, Total spin angular momentum and total
angular momentum, Spin-orbit coupling, Term symbols for light atoms
containing no unpaired electron, one unpaired electron and two nonequivalent
unpaired electrons (s-s, s-p and pp electrons) and their
importance (including the fine spectrum of H atom).
Unit II Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (13 L)
Ionic Bonding :
Recapitualation of : the general characteristics of ionic bonding
Energy considerations in ionic bonding, lattice energy and solvation energy
and their importance in the context of stability and solubility of ionic
compounds, Derivation of Born-Lande equation for calculation of lattice
energy, Born-Haber cycle and its applications, polarizing power and
polarizability, Fajan’s rules, ionic character in covalent compounds, bond
moment, dipole moment, percentage ionic character.
Covalent Bonding :
VB Approach
Recapitulation of : Lewis theory, VSEPR theory to explain the shapes of
molecules, salient features of the Valence bond (VB) theory and the
concept of hybridization.
Shapes of some inorganic molecules and ions on the basis of VSEPR
and hybridization with examples of linear, trigonal planar, square planar,
tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal andS noCc1tah,e SderOalC a1rra, nIOgeFm,e Cn1tsO Fsuc, hX eaOs , BeCl , XeO F .
NO , CO , SF , C F , XeF , IF , XeF , IF , XeF , BrF , CIO , CIO
2 2 4 3 3 2 2 2
4 1 3 2 5 4 7 6 5 3
3 3
Concept of resonance, resonating structures and resonance energy in
various inorganic and organic compounds.
MO Approach
Recapitulation of : limitations of the VB approach, salient features of the
MO theory.
Rules for the LCAO method, bonding and anti-bonding MOs and their
characteristics for s-s-, s-p and p-p combinations of atomic orbitals, nonbonding
combinations of orbitals MO treatment of homonuclear diatomic
molecules of 1st period (including idea of s-p mixing) and heteronuclear
diatomic molecules such as CO, NO, NO4, CN–, HF, HCI.
Comparison of VB and MO approaches.
- -
Unit III Chemical Thermodynamics (20 L)
Recapitulation of : objectives and limitations of thermodynamics, state of
system, state variables, thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamic
properties, intensive and extensive properties, various types of systems
and processes.
First Law of Thermodynamics : Recapitulation of : First law of
thermodynamics, concepts of internal energy and enthalpy.
Calculation of work (w), heat (q), change in internal energy (?E) and
change in enthaply (?H) for expansion or compression of ideal gases
under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for both reversible and
irreversible processes. Calculation of w, q, ?E, and ?H for processes
involving changes in physical state.
Thermochemistry : Recapitulation of : laws of thermochemistry, intenal
energy and enthaply changes for physical and chemical processes
including formation, neutralisation, combustion, ionisation, fusion and
Concept of standard state and standard enthapies of formation, integral
and differential enthalpies of solution and dilution. Calculation of bond
energy, bond dissociation energy and resonance energy from
thermochemical data. Variation of ethalpy of a reaction with temperature-
Kirchhoff’s equation.
Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics : Recapitulation of : second
law of thermodynamics, concepts of entropy, Gibbs free energy and
Helmoltz free energy.
Various statements of the second law of thermodynamics. Calculations
of entropy change and free energy change for reversible and irreversible
processes under isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Criteria of
spontaniety, Gibbs - Helmholtz equation. Maxwell’s relations,
thermodynamic equation of state.
Third Law of thermodynamics : Statement of the law, calculation of
absolute entropies of substances.
Unit IV. Ionic Equilibria (7 L)
Recapitulation of : strong, moderate and weak electrolytes, degree of
ionization, factors affecting degree of ionization., ionization constant and
ionic product of water, ionization of weak acids and bases. pH scale,
common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, buffer solutions and solubility
Multistage equilibria of acids and bases. Salt hydrolysis - calculation of
hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis and pH for different salts. Buffer
solutions-buffer capacity, calculation of pH of different buffer solutions.
Solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts - applications
of solubility product principle.
Acid-base titrations : calculation of pH at various stages of different
titrations, acid-base titration curves, Theory of acid-base indicators, pH
changes and selection of indicators in different acid-base titrations.
Unit V. Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry (13 L)
Recapitulation of : Hybridization in organic compounds, classification and
nomenclature of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, cleavage of covalent
bondshomolysis and heterolysis.
Electronic effects : Electronic effects and their applications - inductive,
resonance and hyperconjugation effects. Structure and stability of reactive
carbon species - carbocations, carbanions, free radicals and carbenes.
Relative strengths of carboxylic acids (both aliphatic and aromatic),
alcohols, phenols, amines (aliphatic, aromatic and heteroaromatic) and
the effect of solvent and substituents (including their steric effects) on their
Molecular Forces : Intermolecular and intramolecular forces, types of
intermolecular forces and their characteristics : ion-dipole, dipole-dipole,
dipole-induced dipole and dispresion (London) forces. Hydrogen bond
(both intramolecular and intermolecular), Effect of inter/intramolecular
forces on physical properties such as solubility, vapour pressure, melting
and boiling points of different compounds.
Aromaticity : Criterion of aromaticity : Huckel’s rule and its applications
to aromatic (homonuclear and heteronuclear) and non-aromatic
Unit VI. Stereochemistry (13 L)
Recapitulation of : Meaning of stereochemistry and its importance. Optical
isomerism - optical activity, plane polarized light, enantiomerism, chirality,
specific molar rotation.
Stereoisomerism with two chiral centers : Diastereomers,
mesoisomers, threo and erythro isomers. Physical and chemical properties
of enantiomers and diastercomers. Resolution of racemic modification. A
brief introduction to optically active compounds with no chiral center.
Projection diagrams of stereoisomers : Fischer, Newman, Sawhorse
and Flying Wedge projections. Illustration of interconversion of different
projections with different examples.
Relative Configuration : D/L designation in carbohydrates and amino
Absolute Configuration : R/S nomenclature of chiral centers, sequence
rules of priority order.
Conformational isomerism — ethane, butane, 1, 2-dihaloethane and 1,
2 diols, energy diagrams and relative stability of conformers. Ring strain
in cyclopropane, cyclobutane. Baeyer strain theory and its limitations,
cyclohexane and its conformers.
Geometrical isomerism : cis/trans and E/Z nomenclature in olefins.
Foundation Course Chemistry
1. Preparation of standard solutions of different molarities.
2. Estimation of oxalic acid by titrating with sodium hydroxide.
3. Estimation of sodium carbonate by titrating with hydrochloric acid.
4. Estimation of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate/sodium
hydroxide present together in a mixture.
5. Estimation of Fe (II) ions by titrating with KMnO4.
6. Estimation of oxalic acid by titrating with KMnO4.
7. Estimation of water of crystallization in Mohr’s salt/oxalic acid using
8. Estimation of Fe(II) ions by titrating with K2Cr2O7 using internal
9. Estimation of Cu(II) ions iodom etrically using Na2S2O3.
10. Detection of extra elements (N, S, C1, Br, I) in organic compounds
(containing not more than one extra element).
11. Purification of organic compounds by crystallization (from water or
alcohol) and distillation.
12. Determination of melting and boiling points of organic compounds.
13. Determination of heat capacity of a calorimeter directly (Heat gained
= Heat lost by water) or by using known enthalpy data.
14. Determination of enthalpy of neutralization of hydrochloric acid with
sodium hydroxide.
15. Determination of enthalpy of ionization of acetic acid.
16. Determination of integral enthalpy of solution of salts (KNO3,
17. Verification of Hess’s law of constant heat summation.
Suggested Readings
1. J. D. Lee : A new Concise Inorganic Chemistry, E L. B. S.
2. F. A. Cotton & G. Wilkinson : Basic Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley.
3. T. W. Graham Solomons : Organic Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons.
4. Peter Sykes : A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry,
Orient Longman.
5. E. L. Eliel : Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds, Tata McGraw
6. P. W. Atkins : Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press.
7. G. W. Castellan : Physical Chemistry, Narosa Publishing House.
Additional Reference Books
1. Douglas, McDaniel and Alexader : Concepts and Models in Inorganic
Chemistry, John Wiley.
2. James E. Huheey, Ellen Keiter and Richard Keiter : Inorganic
Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, Pearson
3. F. A. Carey : Organic Chemistry, Tata Mc-Graw Hill.
4. I. L. Finar : Organic Chemistry (Vol. I & II), E. L. B. S.
5. W. J. Moore, Physical Chemistry, Prentice-Hall.
6. G. M. Barrow, Physical Chemistry, Tata McGraw-Hill.
7. R. T. Morrison & R. N. Boyd : Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall.
(74 Lectures)
Biology addresses three questions with regard to organisms. One,
how should one explain the causation of the beildering variety in form and
function that we notice in living organisms. Two, can the living process
be analyzed through the concepts and techniques of Physics and
Chemistry? And three, how has biology contributed to the human welfare
on one hand and to understanding of the mind and matter in a larger sense
on the other hand? This course looks at functional unity underlying
structural diversity in living organisms. It tries to explain the origin and
evolution of biological diversity.
This course summarizes the essence of biology. It is a
conceptualized presentation of the whole of biological science for recall
and reflection. It provides a framework for further indepth study of biology
for students of life sciences. It presents biology as a unitary, integrated
and universal science. It combines organismic biology and reductionistic
biology to provide a new theme of philosophy of biology i.e. organism.
Unit I : Biological Systems & Environment (24 L)
Origin of Life on Earth-perspectives
Cell as a unit of Life
Description of biodiversity
Concept of Evolution
Five kingdom classification of living organisms
Hierarchy of organization of living processes and ecological concepts
Systematics and phylogeny
Living in Groups - Conflict and Cooperation (e.g. Social Insects, symbiosis,
Parasitism, etc.)
Unit II : Functional Unity and Chemical Context of living
process (24 L)
Cellular basis of living processes
Nutritional requirements of organisms - autotrophs and heterotrophs
Dynamic state of body constituents
Bioenergetics - generation, flow and utilization of energy; photosynthesis
and respiration
Patterns of growth & reproduction
Introduction to structural and functional organization of genomes
Regularity Networks
Unit III : Biology and Human Welfare (26 L)
Nutritional and Genetic disorders, Infectious diseases
Clinical diagnostics - principles
Enzyme technology, protein engineering and recombinant DNA
Transgenic microbes, plants and animals - products and applications
Plant and animal tissue culture - applications
Food Security - biofertilizers and aquaculture
Fertility regulation - reproductive technologies
Bioresource conservation
Suggested Readings
1. P. H. Raven and G. B. Johnson : Biology 6th Edition, McGraw Hill
2. A. E. Magurran : Measuring Biological Diversity, Blackwell Science
Ltd. (2004)
3. Lodish, H. et al. : Molecular Cell Biology, W. Freeman Publishers
4. Campbell : Biology, Benjamin Publishers
5. Wolfe : Biology : The Foundation, Wadsworth Publisher.
1. Field Trip to any one ecosystem - practical description
2. Field Trip to botanical garden and Zoo-ex-situ conservation analysis
3. Biodiversity indices-measurement
4. Protein and Nucleic Acid Data Base - phylogenic analysis
5. Analysis of Modelling Data
6. Statistical analysis of biological Data - any one tool
7. Atomic Models of 10 biomolecules (e.g. amino acids, sugars,
nucleotides, vitamins, peptides, steroids, antibiotics, fats and oils,
8. One animal behaviour experiment
9. Haemolysis - quantitation
10. Observation of Cell structure
11. Observation of Cell division (Mitosis)
12. Observation of Cell division (Meiosis)
13. One experiment in photosynthesis - quantitative measurement
14. Measurement of any one Circadian rhythm
15. One experiment on adsorption
16. Qualitative analysis of 2 sugars and 11 amino acid and 1 vitamin
17. One physiological experiment, on a live animal/plant.
18. Type study of 6 representative each of plants and animals
19. Extraction and quantitation of one plant pigment / oil
20. Examination of histological sections (permanent slides)
(72 Lectures)
Biology is the science of the living state. It is a science of the living process
and of life forms. It is a historical science in more than one sense. Biology
tells us the story of life on the earth. All the currently living organisms
are not only connected to each other but also connected to all the
ancestors who ever lived on the earth in the past. This course presents
processed information on Biology in a capsular and conceptualized form
to physical scientists.
Unit I : Biodiversity and Evolution (24 L)
Characteristics of living organisms. Origin of Life on Earth-problems and
perspectives. Description of diversity of life forms, habitats and
ecosystems. Hierarchy of interacting systems-molecules to Communities.
Biosphere-Geosphere interactions through geological periods. Concept of
Evolution- Elemental factors, speciation, phylogeny and bioinformatic
tools. Mathematical modeling of any one biological phenomeon such as
bioreactors, foraging behaviour, metabolic networks, population genetics
Unit II : Chemical Biology (24 L)
Structural Diversity of biomolecules. Physical properties of biological
structures. Nutritional requirements of Organisms. Metabolism, energy and
work. Macromoleculs - structure and functions, Regulatory networks.
Physical phenomena in biological systems - analysis of any two (e.g.
membrane transport, photobiology, Body and Tissue Design, etc.)
Unit III : Biology and Human Welfare (24 L)
Medicinal Plants and products. Genetic Engineering, Ethical issues.
Immuno-diagnostics. Immobilized enzymes and Biosensors. Fossil fuels
and Biofuels. Bioimplants. Microscopy and Imaging techniques. Stem Cell
technology and tissue engineering.
Suggested Readings
1. P.H. Raven and G. B. Johnson (2004) : Biology, 6th Edition, McGraw
2. A. E. Magurran : Measuring Biological Diversity, Blackwell Science
Ltd. (2004)
3. Lodish, H. et al. : Molecular Cell Biology, W. Freeman Publishers
4. Campbell : Biology, Benjamin Publishers
5. Wolfe : Biology : The Foundation, Wadsworth Publishers.
1. Field Trip to any one ecosystem - practical description
2. Field Trip to botanical garden and Zoo-ex-situ conservation analysis
3. Biodiversity indices-measurement
4. Protein and Nucleic Acid Data Base - phylogenic analysis
5. Analysis of Modelling Data
6. Statistical analysis of biological Data - any one tool
7. Atomic Models of 10 biomolecules (e.g. amino acids, sugars,
nucleotides, vitamins, peptides, steroids, antibiotics, fats and oils,
8. One animal behaviour experiment
9. Haemolysis - quantitation
10. Observation of Cell structure
11. Observation of Cell division (Mitosis)
12. Observation of Cell division (Meiosis)
13. One experiment in photosynthesis - quantitative measurement
14. Measurement of anyone Circadian rhythm
15. One experiment on adsorption
16. Qualitative analysis of 2 sugars and 1 amino acid and 1 vitamin tablet
17. One physiological experiment on a live animal/plant
18. Type study of 6 representative each of plants and animals
19. Extraction and quantitation of one plant pigment / oil
20. Examination of histological sections (permanent slides)
(72 Lectures)
The objective of this course is to lay the foundations of Mathematics
required for the study of Physical Sciences. The focus is on introducing
mathematical concepts using examples and problems from various
science domains. Rigorous approaches including proofs and derivations
are exemplified in a few topics. Visual, graphical and application oriented
approaches are introduced, wherever appropriate.
Unit I. Matrices (24 L)
R, R2, R3 as vector spaces over R and concept of Rn. Standard basis for
each of them. Concept of Linear Independence and examples of different
bases. Subspaces of R2, R3. Translation, Dilation, Rotation, Reflection in
a point, line and plane. Matrix form of basic geometric transformations.
Interpretation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for such transformations
and eigenspaces as invariant subspaces. Matrices in diagonal form.
Reduction to diagonal form upto matrices of order 3. Computation of matrix
inverses using elementary row operations. Rank of matrix. Solutions of a
system of linear equations using matrices. Illustrative examples of above
concepts from Geometry, Physics, Chemistry, Combinatorics and
Unit II. Calculus (36 L)
Sequences to be introduced through the examples arising in Science
beginning with finite sequences, followed by concepts of recursion and
difference equations. For instance, the sequence arising from Tower of
Hanoi game, the Fibonacci sequence arising from branching habit of trees
and breeding habit of rabbits. Convergenee of a sequence and algebra
or convergent sequences. Illustration of proof of convergence of some
simple sequences such as (–1)n/n, I/n2, (1+1/n)n, sin n/n, xn with ?x? < 1.
Graphs of simple concrete functions such as polynomial, trigonometric,
inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions
arising in problems or chemical reaction, simple pendulum,
radioactive decay, temperature cooling/heating problem and biological
Successive differentiation. Leibnitz, theorem. Recursion formulae for
higher derivative.
Functions of two variables. Graphs and Level Curves of functions of two
variables. Partial differentiation upto second order. Verification of known
basic solutions of wave equation, heat equation, Laplace equation and
diffusion equation arising from diffusion of Potassium ions in cells.
Computation of Taylor’s Maclaurin’s series of functions such as ex, log
(1 + x), sin (2x), cos x. Their use in polynomial approximation and error
Formation and solution of Differential equations arising in population
growth, radioactive decay, administration of medicine and cell division.
Unit III. Statistics (12 L)
Elementary Probability and basic laws. Discrete and Continuous Random
variable, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance of Binomial,
Poisson and Normal distribution. Sample mean and Sampling Variance.
Hypothesis testing using standard normal variate. Curve Fitting. Corelation
and Regression.
Suggested Readings
1. George B. Thomas, Jr., Ross L. Finney : Calculus and Analytic
Geometry, Pearson Education (Singapore); 2001.
2. D. Waltham : Mathematics, a simple tool for Geologists, Blackwell
Science, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, Reprint from Chennai,
India (2000).
3. Richard A. Johnson : Miller and Freund’s Probability and Statistics
for Engineers, Pearson Education; 2005.
4. T.M. Apostal : Calculus, vol. 1, John Wiley and Sons (Asia) : 2002.
Note : It is desirable that softwares should be used for demonstrating
visual, graphical and application oriented approaches.
(72 Lectures)
The objective of this course is to lay the foundations of Mathematics
required for life sciences. The focus is on introducing mathematical
concepts using relevant examples and in developing problem solving
skills. Visual, graphic and application oriented approaches are used,
wherever appropriate.
Unit I Calculus (24 L)
Sets. Functions and their graphs : polynomial, sine, cosine, exponential
and logarithmic functions. Motivation and illustration for these functions
through projectile motion, simple pendulum, biological rhythms, cell
division, muscular fibres etc. Simple observations about these functions
like increasing, decreasing and, periodicity. Sequences to be introduced
through the examples arising in Science beginning with finite sequences,
followed by concepts of recursion and difference equations. For instance,
the Fibonacci sequence arising from branching habit of trees and breeding
habit of rabbits. Intuitive idea of algebraic relationships and convergence.
Infinite Geometric Series. Series formulas for ex, log (1+x), sin x, cos x.
Step function. Intuitive idea of discontinuity, continuity and limits.
Differentiation. Conception to be motivated through simple concrete
examples as given above from Biological and Physical Sciences. Use of
methods of differentiation like Chain rule, Product rule and Quotient rule.
Second order derivatives of above functions. Integration as reverse
process of differentiation. Integrals of the functions introduced above.
Unit II Sequences and Multivariate Calculus (30 L)
Points in plane and space and coordinate form. Examples of matrices
inducing Dilation, Rotation, Reflection and System of linear equations.
Examples of matrices arising in Physical, Biological Sciences and
Biological networks. Sum and Produce of matrices upto order 3.
Functions of two variables. Partial differentiation upto second order.
Modeling and verification of solutions of differential equations arising in
population growth, administration of medicine and diffusion equation
arising from diffusion of Potassium ions in Cells.
Unit III. Statistics (18 L)
Mesures of central tendency. Measures of dispersion; skewness, kurtosis.
Elementary Probability and basic laws. Discrete and Continuous Random
variable, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance of Binomial,
Poisson and Normal distribution. Sample mean and Sampling variance.
Hypothesis testing using standard normal variate. Curve Fitting.
Correlation and Regression. Emphasis on examples from Biological
Suggested Readings
1. H. S. Bear : Understanding Calculus, John Wiley and Sons (Second
Edition); 2003.
2. E. Batschelet : Introduction to Mathematics for Life Scientists,
Springer Verlag, International Student Edition, Narosa Publishing
House, New Delhi (1971, 1975)
3. A. Edmondson and D. Druce : Advanced Biology Statistics, Oxford
University Press; 1996.
4. W. Danial : Biostatistics : A foundation for Analysis in Health
Sciences, John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2004.
Note : It is desirable that softwares should be used for demonstrating
visual, graphical and application oriented approaches.
The primary objective of this Laboratory Course is to provide hands-on
exposure to basic electronic components, devices, commonly used circuit
blocks, test procedures and datagathering techniques. The emphasis will
be on introducing sensors and transducers used in measurement of
physical quantities. The course includes basic familiarization exercises,
characterization and analysis of pre-designed circuits and design
applications. Students will develop a working knowledge of functional
circuit blocks and integrated circuits commonly used in instrumentation.
The recommended systems approach is conceptually simple and would
enable the students to set up fairly advanced measurement systems for
project work.
List of Experiments
Unit I : Introduction to Basic Electronic Components, Test
and Measurement Instruments (2 L)
1. To gain familiarity with basic electronic components.
2. To become familiar with the use of analog and digital multimeter for
measurement of resistance, current and voltage in different ranges
and testing of components.
3. To gain familiarity with Function Generator and cathode ray
oscilloscope and
(a) Investigate signal waveforms using an oscilloscope and
calibrate frequency.
(b) Calibrate the Audio Oscillator against main frequency.
(c) Measure the phase difference between two independent
Unit II : DC Circuits (2 L)
1. To verify Ohm’s Law for a resistor across a power supply for a range
of values of R and determine the error as R is increased to mega
2. To investigate the I-V characteristics of (a) Tungsten bulb, (b) diode,
and (c) Solar cell.
Unit III : RC Circuits (3 L)
1. Measure the time constant of an RC circuit.
2. To construct the RC differentiator and study the response to time
varying signals.
3. To construct the RC integrator and study the response to time
varying signals.
4. To model chemical and biological systems as RC analogs.
Unit IV : Diode Circuits (2 L)
1. To design a semiconductor power supply of given rating using (a)
half wave, and (b) full wave bridge recitifier circuits; investigate the
affect of introducing C-filter; and study voltage regulation using a
semiconductor IC.
Unit V : Transistor Circuits (2 L)
1. To investigate the transistor characteristics of a common-emitter
circuit and design an amplifier of given gain.
2. To study the use of transistor as a switch and
a. design a light operated switch circuit using a photoresistor.
b. design an opto switch using in infra-red source-sensor pair.
c. design a relay driver circuit to light a bulb.
Unit VI : Operational Amplifiers (5 L)
1. To design an amplifier of given gain using Op-Amp in inverting and
non-inverting configurations.
2. To measure EMF using Op-Amp.
3. To design and calibrate a differential input Op-Amp Amplifier for
measuring temperature in a given range using a thermocouple.
4. To design and calibrate three Op-Amp instrumentation Amplifier for
measuring temperature in a given range using a Resistance
Temperature Device (RTD).
Unit VII : Timers (2 L)
1. To design an astable oscillator of given specifications using Timer
IC 555.
2. To design a monostable oscillator of given specifications using Timer
IC 555.
Unit VIII : Digital Gates and Combinatorial Logic Circuits (3 L)
1. To design basic logic gates OR, AND, NAND, NOT, NOR using
discrete components; verify the truth tables using LED as output
2. To design a logic system for a given real life application such as
water level indicator, vending machine, combinatorial lock, traffic light
system, etc.
3. To study use of 4-bit binary counter; use a decoder IC to display an
input 4-bit binary number as a hexadecimal number on a seven
segment display.
Unit IX : Data Converters (2 L)
1. To study and calibrate the circuit for a digital-to-analog converter.
2. To study and calibrate the circuit for analog-to-digital converter with
LED display unit for measurement of output voltage.
Unit X : Transducer Circuits (4 L)
1. To design a photometer using a photo-diode and use this to :
(a) determine how the intensity of light varies with distance from
the light source
(b) verify Lambert-Beer’s Law
2. Study of off-balance Wheatstone bridge for measurement of
fractional changes in electrical resistance of resistive transducers,
such as Resistive Temperature Device (RTD) or Strain Guage.
Project Work Based on Microcomputer-based Data-Acquisition
and Control Systems
Students may be encouraged to take up projects using microcomputerbased
techniques for real-time measurement of physical quantities and
simple control applications. This would entail use of Analog to Digital and
Digital to Analog data converter circuits along with transducer/control
circuits already studied in this laboratory course.
Suggested Readings
1. The Art of Electronics, P. Horowitz and W. Hill, Cambridge University
Press (Cambridge, 1980).
2. Student Manual for The Art of Electronics, T. C. Hayes and P.
Horowitz, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1989).
3. Physics Through Experiments 1, EMF Constant and Varying, B Saraf
et. al, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. (Delhi, 1992).
4. Operational Amplifiers, George Clayton, Steve Winder and G.B.
Clayton, Newnes; 5 edition (April, 2003).
5. Operational Amplified Experiment Manual, G. B. Clayton,
Butterworth-Heinemann (May, 1983).
6. Data Converters, G. B. Clayton, Halsted Pr (1982).
7. Digital Design, M. Morris Mano, Morris M. Mano, Pearson Higher
Education (1990).
The objective of this paper is to provide the students an exposure to
instrumental methods and analytical techniques commonly used in
Chemistry and Biology.
Experimental errors and their statistical treatment
Types of errors, precision and accuracy, absolute and relative uncertainty,
Gaussian distribution, mean value and standard deviation. Students’ T and
Q tests, confidence intervals, central charts spread sheets and finding best
straight line. The students must be encouraged to perform these tests
wherever possible using computational techniques.
Separation Techniques
1. Chromatography (5 Lab.)
(a) Separation of mixtures
(i) Paper chromatographic separation of Fe3+, Al3+ and Cr3+
Paper chromatographic separation of Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+ and
(ii) Identify and separate the components of a given mixture
of amino acids (glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and
tyrosine) by paper chromatography.
(iii) Separate and identify the monosaccharides present in the
given mixture (glucose and fructose) by paper
chromatography. Report and Rr values.
(b) Separate a mixture of Sudan Yellow and Sudan Red by T.L.C.
techniques and identify them on the basis of their Rr values.
(c) Chromatographic separation of the active ingredients of plant/
flower juices by TLC.
(d) Separation of ortho and para-nitroaniline by Column
2. Solvent Extraction (2 Lab.)
To separate a mixture of Ni2+ and Fe3+ by complexing Ni2+ with DMG
and extracting the Ni2+ - DMG complex in CHCl3. Also record the
absorbance of the extracted complex at A. ? max .
3. DNA Isolation (2 Lab.)
Isolation of DNA from an actively growing tissue by disruption of noncovalent
bonds among various macromolecules (cauliflower or onion
can be used).
Electroanalytical Methods : (10 Lab.)
1. Conductometry
(a) (i) Determine the equivalent conductance of a weak
electrolyte (acetic acid) at different concentrations.
(ii) Determine the pH and conductivity of a soil sample.
(b) (i) Determine the strength of the given HCI solution by
titrating it against NaOH solution conductometrically.
(ii) Determine the strength of the given Ch3COOH solution
by titrating it against NH4OH solution conductometrically.
2. pH-Metry and Potentiometry
(a) (i) Prepare buffers of
(i) CH3COOH and CH3COONa
(ii) Citric acid and Na2HPO4
and determine their pH values using glass electrode.
(ii) Determine the pH of given aerated drinks, fruit juices,
shampoos and soaps. (Use diluted solutions of soaps and
shampoos to prevent damage to the glass electrode)
(b) Titrate given solution of HCI with NaOH pH-metrically.
(c) Determine the isoelectric point of an amino acid (e.g. glycine)
by pH-metric titration with a weak acid or a weak base.
(d) Determine the strength of given solution of K2Cr2O7 by titrating
with Mohr’s salt solution potentiometrically.
3. Electrophoresis
(a) Separation of mixture of 2 or 3 amino acid viz. Glycine, arsine/
lysine, aspartic acid/glutamic acid by electrophoresis.
Introduction to Spectroscopic Techniques (6 Lab.)
(a) To plot absorbance Vs wavelength curve for a given coloured
complex {Fe(SCN)2+} and identify ? max for the complex ion.
(b) To draw calibration curve [Absorbance at ? max vs concentration]
for various concentrations of Fe3+ in Fe(SCN)2+ complex and
estimate the concentration of Fe3+ in a given solution.
Flame photometry : Determine the concentration of Na+ and K+ using flame
Project Work
Students must be encouraged to do projects using the above techniques
and also the kits prepared by other Institutions such as Central Pollution
Control Board, Development Alternatives.
Suggested Readings
1. Vogel, Arther I. : Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis- (Rev.
by G. H. Jeffery) 5th Ed. - Singapore : Addison.
2. Willard, Hobert H. et al : Instrumental Methods of Analysis-6th ed. -
Delhi : C.B.S. Pub., 1986.
3. Christian, Gary D.; Analytical Chemistry-6th ed., - New York-John
Wiley, 2004.
4. Harris, Daniel C. : Exploring Chemical Analysis-2nd ed., - New York-
W.H. Freeman, 2001.
As application of computers plays a central role in the study of science,
the course aims at familiarizing the students with basic concepts and
applications of computers. The course would enable the student to make
use of computers for document preparation, data analysis, visual
interpretation and electronic communication. The student would also be
able to develop small programs for solving scientific problems, making
use of suitable tools.
Unit I : Introduction : (2 Lab.)
Computer Fundamentals : Logical organization of computer, memory :
primary, secondary; input-output devices; keyboard, monitor, printers; data
representation : bits and bytes, words, number systems : decimal, binary,
octal, hexadecimal, BCD; ASCII, EBCDIC; byte codes.
User Computer Interface : Functional familiarity with operating system:
Linux/Windoes, security.
Unit II : Presentation and Communication Tools : (16 Lab.)
Document Preparation : Creating a document, entering and editing text,
formating text, using spell check, applying styles and fonts, columns,
tables and frames, merging and indexing, inserting links, working with
other applications, inserting pictures, inserting symbols.
Spreadsheet Handling : Working with worksheets : Creating a
spreadsheet, entering and formating information, basic functions and
formulas, creating charts, tables and graphs.
Presentation Software : Creating a presentation : applying special effects
(animation and sound), working with images, linking with other documents
or spreadsheets.
Internet Technology : Introduction to network terminology, internet and
intranet, connecting to internet, internet services : telnet, ftp, www, e-mail,
electronic publishing.
Unit III : Programming : (12 Lab.)
Introduction to Scientific Programming Environment : Introduction to
High level language, problem solving using algorithmic notation,
prorgramming fundamentals : input-output statements, data types and data
structures such as array, control structures for selection and looping,
functions, introduction to files : opening, closing, reading and writing; use
of geometric transformations for 2D and 3D objects, use of scientific
functions such as finding derivatives, interpolation, roots, use of statistical
functions such as mean, median, standard deviation, variance and
histogram, use of functions for scientific visualization, introduction to
molecular modeling tool kit (overview).
Note : Use of Star Office is recommended as it is freely downloadable,
Python to be used for programming.
Reference manuals of Star Office
Star office Companion, Solveing Haughland, Floyd Jones, SYBEX
Python : How to Program, Harvey M. Deitel & Paul J. Deitel, Prentice Hall
How to Think Like a Computer Scientist : Learning with Python, Allen
(36 Lectures)
This course aims to provide an overview of the environmental and natural
resource system that are essential for a sustainable earth. The course
emphasizes the issues related to environmental degradation affecting
abiotic and biotic components with typical Indian examples. This course
would also expose the students to good practices of measures adopted
for effective management, and conservation of earth resources.
Unit I : Introduction to the Environment (8 L)
Components of the Environment & Natural Resources : Water, air, rocks,
soils, sediments and living organisms; kind’s of natural resources.
Levels of Ecological Organization : populations, communities, ecosystems,
biomes, biosphere.
Linkages within and among Components of Ecosystem : Food chain and
webs, energy flow and cycling of chemical substances and other materials
in ecosystem, hydrological cycle.
Finiteness of resources : carrying capacity; human population and
resource utilization; humanecological interrelationships.
Resources and Development : Concept of Mother Earth; Conflict between
development and environment; conservation and sustainable
development; biodiversity. Environmental Protection, global and regional
Field Trip
Unit II : Environmental Problems with Special Reference to
India (10 L)
Deforestation, soil degradation and desertification
Air pollution - sources and sinks, pollutants
Water pollution - sources and sinks, pollutants
Soil pollution - sources and sinks
Noise pollution
Mining related environmental problems
Hazardous wastes and Radioactive Pollution
Solid Wastes Disposal, Sewage Treatment and Sanitation
Energy and Environment - patterns and trends in energy consumption and
Environment, Public Health and Hygiene.
Field Trip
Unit III : Impact of Environmental Degradation (8 L)
Climate Change, Acid Rain and Damage to Forests
Pollution and damage to National Heritage Monuments
Radioactive Pollution, Nuclear winter and Mass Destruction
Biodiversity, Losses and Species Extinction
Oil Spills and Loss of Marine Life
Natural Disasters - earthquakes and seismicity, floods, drought, Tsunamis
and cyclones
Reduction of Agriculture Productivity and Pastures and associated Food
Security Concerns, Poverty and Famines.
Field Trip
Unit IV: Management of Environment and Sustainability (10 L)
Technological choices in agriculture, industrial and domestic spheres,
population, resources and sustainability.
Technological solutions : pollution abatement technologies, clean
technologies, alternate sources of energy; afforestation programmes
(Social forestry, agroforestry and alley cropping); restoration technologies
for ecological rehabilitation of degraded lands; water shed management;
bioremediation; resource recycling and biotechnologies.
Environmental auditing, environmental impact assessment and
environmental laws.
Field Trip
Suggested Field Activities and Visits
1. Walk/boating along Yamuna Banks
2. Sites of dumping of coal ash by power houses
3. Visit to Pollution Monitoring Units
4. Visit to Biodiversity Park
5. Visit to Bird Sanctuary.
Suggested Readings
1. Miller, G.T. Jr. Environmental Science. 10th Ed. Thomson/Brooks-
Cold (Indian edition available) 2004
2. Roy, S. Environmental Science. Publishing Syndicate, Kolkata 2003
3. Singh, H.R. and Neeraj Kumar. Ecology and Environmental Science.
Vis. Jallandhar 2004
4. Shormila Mukherjee. Fragile environment. Manak Pub. Pvt. Ltd.
Laxmi Nagar, Delhi, 2004.
This is an enabling course which aims to give students a formal and
methodical exposure to technical writing and professional communication
skills. The approach is practical in nature. The course will provide an
opportunity to use computer-based tools for effective document
preparation and presentation.
Unit I (10 L)
Communication : Language and communication, differences between
speech and writing, distinct features of speech, distinct features of writing.
Unit II (10 L)
Writing Skills; Selection of topic, thesis statement, developing the thesis;
introductory, developmental, transitional and concluding paragraphs,
linguistic unity, coherence and cohesion, descriptive, narrative, expository
and argumentative writing.
Unit III (10 L)
Technical Writing : Scientific and technical subjects ; formal and informal
writings; formal writings/reports, handbooks, manuals, letters,
memorandum, notices, agenda, minutes; common errors to be avoided.
Suggested Readings
1. M. Frank. Writing as thinking : A guided process approach,
Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall Reagents.
2. L. Hamp-Lyons and B. Heasely : Study Writing; A course in written
English. For academic and professional purposes, Cambridge Univ.
3. R. Quirk, S. Greenbaum, G. Leech and J. Svartik : A comprehensive
grammar of the English language, Longman, London.
4. Daniel G. Riordan & Steven A. Panley : “Technical Report Writing
Today” - Biztaantra.
Additional Reference Books
5. Daniel G. Riordan, Steven E. Pauley, Biztantra : Technical Report
Writing Today, 8th Edition (2004).
6. Contemporary Business Communication, Scot Ober, Biztantra, 5th
Edition (2004).
2nd Year
(3 Lectures per week)
Unit I : (34 L)
General Principles of Metallurgy
Chief modes of occurrence of metals based on standard electrode
potential. Hydrometallurgy. Ellingham diagrams. Methods of refining and
purification of metals : electrolytic, oxidative refining. Kroll Process, Parting
process, van Arkel - de Boer method, Mond process. 5
s- and p - Block Elements
Periodicity in s - and p- block elements w.r.t. electronic configuration,
atomic and ionic size, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,
electronegativity (Pauling and Mullikan scales), allotropy and catenation,
oxidation states (with special reference to elements in unusual and rare
oxidation states like in alkalides, carbides, nitrides), inert pair effect,
diagonal relationship and anomalous behaviour of first member of each
Solutions of alkali metals in liquid ammonia and their properties.
Complexes of s- and p- block elements.
Hydrides and their classification (ionic, covalent and interstitial), structure
and variations in properties with respect to stability, reducing behaviour
and acid/base strength of hydrides of various Groups of p- block elements.
A study of the following compounds with emphasis on structure, bonding
and their important properties like oxidation/reduction, acidic/basic nature
and their applications in industrial, organic and environmental chemistry:
Hydrides of nitrogen (NH3, N2H4, N3H2 NH2OH)
Oxides and oxo-acids of N. P. S and Cl.
Halides - SiCl4, Sncl2, PCl3, PCl5, SOCl2, SO2Cl2. 23
Inorganic Polymers : Comparison between inorganic and organic
polymers. Synthesis, structural aspects and applications of borazine,
silicates, silicones and phosphazine. 6
Unit II : Bio-Inorganic Chemistry (11 L)
A brief introduction to bio-inorganic chemistry. Role of metal ions present
in biological systems with special reference to Na2, K2,Mg2- ions : Na/K
pump; role of Mg2 ions in energy production transmission of impulses
along nerve fibers and chlorophyll; role of ca2- ions in blood clotting,
muscle contraction, stabilization of protein structures and structural role
(bones). 5
Chemistry Toxicity : Toxicity of As, Cd, Pb. Hg, CO, NOx, SOx, H2S,
their sources of contamination. Causes of toxicity (biochemical effects)
and antidotes. 6
Unit III : States of Matter (13 L)
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Collision cross section, collision number, collision frequency, collision
diameter and mean free path of molecules and also effects of temperature
and pressure on them (for ideal gases). Viscosity of gases, relation
between mean free path and coefficient of viscosity. Temperature and
pressure dependence of coefficient of viscosity. Degrees of feedom of
motion, principle of equipartition of energy.
Maxwell distribution laws of molecular velocities and molecular energies
(only graphical representation - derivation not required) and their
importance. Temperature dependence of these distributions. Most
probable, average and root mean square velocities (no derivation).
Real gases, compressibility factor, deviation of real gases from ideal
behaviour. Causes of this deviation van der Waals equation of state for
real gases. Brief mention of various other equations of state of real gases
(viz. the Virial equation and the Berthelot equation). Calculation of Boyle
temperature from van der Waals equation of state. Principles of
liquefaction of gases. Critical phenomena, critical constants and their
calculation from van der Waals equation. Andrews isotherms of CO2.
Continuity of states. Law of Corresponding States. Derivation of the
reduced equation of state and its physical significance. 10
Surface tension and its determination using stalagmometer. Viscosity of
a liquid and determination of coefficient of viscosity using Ostwald
viscometer. Effect of temperature on surface tension and coefficient of
viscosity of a liquid (qualitative treatment only). 3
Unit IV: Systems of Variable Composition and Solutions (12 L)
Systems of Variable Composition
Partial molar quantities and their physical significance. Chemical potential,
variation of chemical potential with temperature and pressure. Free Energy
and entropy of mixing of ideal gases. Gibbs - Duhem equation. 2
Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions : ideal Solutions and Raoult’s law.
Deviations from Raoult’s law - non-ideal solutions. Isothermal vapour
pressure - composition (and isobaric boiling point-composition) curves of
ideal and non-ideal solutions. Distillation of ideal and non-ideal solutions.
Lever rule. Azeotropes., Partial miscibility of liquids. Critical solution
temperature. Immiscibilty of liquids. Principle of steam distillation. 5
Colligative Properties of Dilute Solutions
Thermodynamics of dilute solutions : thermodynamic derivations (from
chemical potential) of the expressions in terms of molailty for the elevation
in boiling point, depression in freezing point and osmotic pressure of a
dilute ideal solution. Relationship between different colligative properties.
Determination of molar masses of non-volatile solutes (non-electrolytes).
Colligative properties of electrolytic solutions, van’t Hoff factor and its
applications. 5
(3 Lectures per week)
Unit - I : Organic Reactions and their Mechanisms
(Substitution, Addition, Elimination, Rearrangement);
Oxidation and Reduction Reactions (40 L)
Addition Reactions
Alkenes and Alkynes (Ethene, Propene, Ethyne and Propyne) :
Hydrogenation, Halogen addition, hydrohalogenation (Markovnikov’s and
anti Markovnikov’s), hydration, hydroboration, hydroxylation (cis and
trans), oxymercuration - demercuration, ozonolysis and carbene addition.
Reactivity of alkenes vs alkynes.
Alkadienes (Butadiene) : Hydrogenation, halogen addition and Diels-Alder
Aromatic hydrocarbons (Benzene) : Hydrogenation, halogen addition
and ozonolysis.
Aldehydes and ketones (Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde
and acetone) :
Addition reaction with sodium bisulphite, hydrogen cyanide and alcohols.
Addition-elimination reactions with ammonia and its derivatives as well
as the following name reactions - Aldol, Cross - Aldol, Perkin, Claisen,
Knoevengel, Wittig, Cannizzaro, Cross Cannizzaro and Benzoin
condensation. 9
Substitution Reactions
(a) Free radical substitution reactions : Halogenation of alkanes,
allylic compounds and alkyl benzenes.
(b) Nucleophilic substitution reactions : Alkyl, Allyl and Benzyl
halides- Substitution of halogen by important nucleophiles. Mechanism
of SN1 and SN2 reactions (stereochemistry, nature of substrate,
nucleophile and leaving group).
Aryl halides : Substitution reaction of chlorobenzene by SnAr and
benzyne machanism.
Benzenediazonium chloride : replacement of diazo group (nucleophilic
and free radical mechanism).
Benezene sulphonic acid : substitution of sulphonic acid group by
important reagents.
Alcohols, Phenols and Amines : substitution of active hydrogen.
Replacement of hydroxyl group in alcohols (using PCL5, SOCl2, and Hl),
glycol and glycerol (using Hl).
Carboxylic acid derivatives : Hydrolysis.
Ethers - cleavage of ethers by hydroiodic acid.
(c) Electrophilic substitution reactions (Aromatic compounds) : General
mechanism of electrophilic substitution, directive influence of substituents
and the following reactions; Nitration. Halogenation and sulphonation,
Alkylation (Friedal Craft’s alkylation). Acylation (Friedal Crafts and Hoesch
condensation), Formylation (Gattermann, Gattermann - Koch and Reimer-
Tiemann reactions) Carboxylation (Kolbe-Schmidt reaction) and coupling
of benzenediazonium chloride with phenols and amines. 16
Elimination Reactions
Alkyl halides (dehydrohalogenation), vicinal dihalides (dehalogenation),
alcohols (dehydration) — Quaternary ammonium salts (Hofmann’s
elimination) and Cope elimination (Amine-oxides). Mechanism of E1 and
E2 reactions (nature of substrate and base) and elimination vs
substitution. 5
Rearrangement Reactions
Pinacol - Pinacolone, Hofmann bromamide. Curtius, Schmidt, Lossen,
Beckmann, Benzil - Benzilic acid. Benzidine. Fries rearrangement.
cumene hydroperoxide (phenol from cumene). 5
Aromatic side chain oxidation with potassium permanaganate, potassium
dichromate, chromium trioxide-acetic anhydride. Etard reaction.
Alcohols with potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate, catalytic
dehydrogenation and Oppenauer oxidation, Oxidation of 1.2 - diols with
periodic acid and lead tetraacetate.
Aldehydes with Chromic acid, potassium permanganate, selenium
dioxide, Tollen’s and Fehling solution.
Ketones with Potassium permanganate, selenium dioxide, sodium
hypoiodite (iodoform reaction) and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation.
Amines with Hydrogen peroxide. Trifluoroperoxy acetic acid and
peroxydisulphuric acid. 3
Aldehydes and ketones : Catalytic hydrogenation, reduction with sodium
borohydride, lithium aluminium hydride. Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner,
Meerwein Ponndorf-Verley, Bouveault-Blane reduction and formation of
Carboxylic acids and derivatives : Lithium aluminium hydride, Sodiumethanol,
Stephen’s reaction and Rosenmund reduction.
Nitro benzene : Acidic, alkaline and neutral reducing agents, Lithium
aluminium hydride and electrolytic reduction.
Diazonium salts : Benzenediazonium chloride - reduction to aniline and
phenyl hydrazine. 2
Unit II : Active Methylene Compounds and Grignard
Reagents (5 L)
Active methylene compounds - preparation, properties and synthetic
applications of Ethyl accetoacetate and diethyl malonate. 5
Grignard Reagents - preparation and reactions.
Unit III : Conductance & Electrochemical Cells (16 L)
Conductance and its measurement conductivity, equivalent and molar
conductivity. Explanation of variation of conductivity, equivalent and molar
conductivity with dilution of weak and strong electrolytes. Kohlrausch law
of independent migration of ions. Transference number and its
experimental determination using Hittorf and Moving boundary methods
Ionic velocity and ionic mobility. Applications of conductance
measurements : determination of degree of ionisation of weak electrolyte,
solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts, ionic product of
water, hydrolysis constant of a salt. Conductometric titrations (only acidbase).
Activity and activity coefficient of strong electrolytes Ionic strength of a
solution. Debye Huckel theory of activity coefficients (derivation not
required. 8
Electrochemical Cells
Reversible and Irreversible cells. Measurement of EMF of a cell :
Thermodynamics of a reversible cell : calculation of thermodynamic
properties ?G, ?H and ?S from EMF data. Nernst equation Types of
electrodes (including reference electrodes such as glass and calomel
electrodes). Standard electrode potential. Determination of standard EMF
of a cell. Calculation of equilibrium constant from EMF data.
Concentration cells (both electrode and electrolytic) with transference and
without transference. Liquid junction potential. pH determination using
hydrogen electrode, glass electrode and quinone-hydroquinone electrode.
Potentiometric titrations.
Unit IV : Chemical Equilibrium & Phase Equilibrium (9 L)
Chemical Equilibrium
Thermodynamic derivation of the law of chemical equilibrium. van’t Hoff
reaction isotherm ?GO = - RT In KP. Distinction between ?G and ?GO, Le
Chatelier’s principle, Thermodynamic treatment of temperature and
pressure dependence of equilibrium constant - van’t Hoff equation.
Phase Equilibrium
Explanation of the terms : phase (P), component (C) and degree of
freedom (F), Criteria of phase equilibria. Gibbs Rule (F + P = C + 2) and
its themodynamic derivation. Derivation of Clausius - Clapeyron equation
and its importance in phase equilibria. Phase diagrams of one component
systems (water and sulphur systems) and two component system (leadsilver
system to explain desilverisation of lead). Nernst Distribution Law
(derivation not required) and its applications.
Note : Practical examination will include three exercises - one each out
of the following physical, organic and inorganic chemistry
1. Determination of critical solution temperature for phenol - water
2. Comparison of osmotic pressures of different concentrations of
aqueous solutions of sugars, salts by measuring the heights to which
the solvents rise.
3. Determination of surface tension of a liquid using a stalgmometer.
4. Determination of relative and absolute viscosities of a liquid using
on Ostwald viscometer.
5. Preparation of the following compounds :
a. Carboxylic acids by alkaline hydrolysis of an Ester/Amide
b. Benzoyl derivatives of amines and phenols.
c. m-Dinitrobenzene from nitrobenzene.
d. Osazone of glucose / fructose
6. Following organic transformations using biocatalysts
a. Fermentation of sucrose with yeast and lab test of the alcohol
so formed (iodoform test).
b. Hydrolysis of an ester.
c. Organic estimation of :
(i) Aniline by Bromate - Bromide method
(ii) Glycine by Sorensen’s method
7. Semi-micro qualitative analysis using H2S/ PTC / Thioacetamide or
any other reagent of mixtures containing not more than six ionic
species (three anions and three cations and excluding insoluble salts
and interfering anions) out of the following. Spot tests should be
carried out wherever feasible :
- - - -
+ + + + + - - - - - - -
+ + + + + + + + + + + + +
3 4
2 3
2 3
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2
,1 , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
NH Pb Ag Bi Cu Cd Sn Fe Al Co Cr Ni Mn
Suggested Readings
1. J. D. Lee : A New Concise Inorganic Chemistry, E.L.B.S.
2. F.A. Cotton & G. Wilkinson : Basic Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley.
3. D. F. Shriver and P. W. Atkins : Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford
University Press.
4. Gary Wulfsberg : Inorganic Chemistry, Viva Books Pvt. Ltd.
5. T. W. Graham Solomons : Organic Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons.
6. R. T. Morrison & R. N. Boyd : Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall.
7. I. I. Finar : Organic Chemistry (Vol. I & II) E. L. B. S.
8. Jerry March : Advanced organic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons
9. P. W. Atkins : Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press.
10. G. W. Castellan : Physical Chemistry, Narosa Publishing House.
Additional Reference Books
1. K. M. Mackay and R. A. Mackay, Introduction to Modern Inorganic
Chemistry, Intertext.
2. James E, Hubeey, Ellen Keiter and Richard Keiter : Inorganic
Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, Person
3. Peter Sykes : A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry,
Orient Longman.
4. F. A. Carey : Organic Chemistry, Tata Mc-Graw Hill
5. W. J. Moore : Physical Chemistry, Prentice-Hall.
6. G. M. Barrow - Physical Chemistry, Tata McGaw-Hill.
(Physical Sciences / Applied Physical Sciences)
(70 Lectures)
Vector analysis: (18 L)
Scalar and vector products. Vector calculus; gradient, divergence and curl
of a vector Gauss’ theorem and stokes’ theorem. Line, surface and volume
integrals. Line, surface, volume elements and ?2 in cylindrical and
spherical polar coordinates.
Complex variables: (25 L)
Complex variables, complex numbers and their graphical representation.
de Moiver’s theorem, Roots of complex numbers. Euler’s formula.
Functions of complex variables. Analytic functions. Multiple valued
functions. Cauchy-Reimann condition. Analytic functions. Singularities.
Differentiation and integration of function of complex variable. Cauchy’s
integral Formula. Residue theorem. Taylor and Laurent series. Singular
point, poles, essential and removable singularities. Contour integration.
Special functions: (11 L)
Legendre, Bessel, Hermite and laguerre functions, Generating function.
Recurrence relations. Legendre, Bessel and Hermite differential equations.
Orthogonality. Gamma functions.
Fourier series: (6 L)
Fouries series, Dirichlet conditions. Since and cosine series. Applications
to square wave, triangular wave. Half wave and full wave rectifier and
simple functions.
Integral transform: (10 L)
Fourier transform: Sine and cosine transform. Solution of one- dimensional
differential wave equation.
Laplace transform: transform of elementary functions, derivatives and
integrals, unit step function, periodic functions. Translation, substitution.
Solution of first and second order differential equations with constant
Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Erwin Kreyszing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Schaum outline series (Vector analysis, Complex variable, Fourier Analysis), Tata
Mathematical Physiscs; a modern introduction to its foundation, Sadri Hassani,
Advance Engineering Mathematics, C. Ray Wylie and Louis C. Barrett, Tata
McGraw-Hill Edition.
(Physical Sciences / Applied Physical Sciences)
(70 Lectures)
Thermodynamics: (15 L)
Zeroth and first of thermodynamics. Reversible and irreversible processes.
Carnot’s cycle, Carnot’s theorem. Second law of thermodynamics and
entropy. Thermodynamic temperature. Entropy change in reversible and
irreversible processes.
Thermodynamic potentials. Enthalpy, Gibbs’ and Helmholtz’s functions.
Joule’s Thomson effect, cooling of Van der Waals gas, Maxwell relations
and their applications. Claussius-Clapyron equation.
Kinetic theory: (15 L)
Derivation of Maxwell’s law of distribution of velocities and its experimental
verification. Mean free path. Law of equipartition of energy and its
applications to specific heat of gases. Transport phenomenon ; viscosity,
conduction and diffusion. Brownian motion.
Statistical mechanics: (5 L+20 L+15 L)
Micro and Macro states, Thermodynamic probability. Partition Function,
Entropy, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, Thermodynamic properties of
Bose-Einstein Distribution Function, Thermodynamic properties of photon
gas, Bose Einstein Condensation and its experimental verification
(qualitative treatment only). Bose derivation of Planck’s Law. Its special
cases i.e. Rayleigh Jeans and Wein’s displacement law. Stefan-Boltzman
Fermi Dirac Statistics: Fermi Dirac Distribution function, Completely and
Strongly degenerate Fermi gas. Specific heat of metals. Relativistic
degenerate Fermi gas. Chandrashekhar mass limit for white dwarf stars.
Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Greiner, Springer
Heat and Thermodynamics, Zemanskay and Dittman, Mc Graw Hill
Statistical Mechanics, R.K. Patharia, Pergamin press, Oxford
(Physical Sciences/Applied Sciences)
1. Determination of Stefan’s constant.
2. Thermal conductivity of good conductor by Searles method
3. Temperature coefficient of resistance by PRT
4. Calibration of Thermocouple.
5. Study of BG (charge sensitivity, CDR)
6. High resistance by Leakage method
7. Ratio of two capacitances by De-Saughty bridge
8. Coefficient of Mutual inductance by absolute method
9. Determination of ? of light by Newton’s ring.
10. Low resistance by Carey Foster Bridge
11. Determine the Cauchy’s constant and dispersive power of Prism.
12. Determination of ? of Na light by diffraction grating.
13. To determine the ? of light by Fresnel’s biprism
14. Programming using 8085 microprocessor.
Add and subract two 8-bit numbers.
Multiply two 8-bit numbers.
Divide two 8-bit numbers.
Check the parity of a number.
A Minimum of ten experiments are to be performed by each student.
(4 Lectures+1 tutorial a week)
Total marks 150
Examination 112
Internal Assessment 38
Unit I: Geometry of complex numbers and polynomial equations
(15 marks)
Geometrical representation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division of complex numbers. Lines half planes, circles, discs in terms of
complex variables. Statement of the Fundamental Theorem of Algerbra
and its consequences, Relation between roots and coefficients for and
polynomial equation. Results about occurrence of repeated roots, rational
roots, surd roots and complex roots. De Moivre’s theorem for rational
indices and its simple applications.
Unit II: Calculus 60
Limit and continuity of a function: (e, d) and sequential approach.
Properties of continuous functions including intermediate value theorem.
Differentiability. Darboux’s theorem, Rolle’s theorem, Lagrange’s mean
value theorem, Cauchy mean value theorem with geometrical
interpretations. Uniform continuity.
Definitions and techniques for finding asymptotes singular points,
concavity, convexity, points of inflexion for functions. Tracing of standard
Integration of irrational functions. Reduction formulae. Rectification.
Quadrature. Volumes. Surfaces of revolution.
Unit III: Geometry and Vector Calculus 37
Techniques for sketching parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Reflection
properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola . Classification of quadratic
equations representing lines, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Polar
equations of conic sections.
Differentiation of vector valued functions, gradient, divergence, curl and
their geometrical interpretation.
Spheres, Cylindrical surfaces. Illustrations of graphing standard quadric
surfaces like cone, ellipsoid.
Recommended Books
1. H. Anton, I. Bivens and S. Davis: Calculus, John Wiley and Sons
(Asia) Pte. Ltd. 2002.
2. R.G. Bartle and D.R. Sherbert : Introduction to Real Analysis , John
Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pte, Ltd; 1982
3. A.I. Kostrikin: Introduction to Algebra, Springer Verlag, 1984.
Further References
1. K.A. Ross: Elementary Analysis- The Theory of Calculus Series-
Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer Verlag, 2003
2. G.B. Thomas and R.L. Finney: Calculus and Analytic Geometry,
Pearson Education (Singapose), 2001.
3. S.L. Salas, E. Hille and G.J. Etgen: Calculus of One and Several
Variables John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
(4 Lectures + 1 tutorial per week)
Total marks: 150
Examination 112
Internal Assessment 38
Unit I : Groups, Rings and Vector spaces 6
Groups: Definition and examples of groups, examples of abelian and nonabelian
groups: the group Zn of integers under addition modulo n and the
group U (n) of units under multiplication modulo n. Cyclic groups from
number systems, complex roots of unity, circle group, the general linear
group GLn (n,R), groups of symmetries of (i) an isosceles triangle, (ii) an
equilateral triangle, (iii) a rectangle, and (iv) a square, groups of
transformations in a plane, the permutation group Sym (n), Group of
quaternions, crystallographic groups.
Subgroups, cyclic subgroups, the concept of a subgroup generated by a
subset and the commutator subgroup of group, examples of subgroups
including the center of a group. Cosets, Index of subgroup, Lagrange’s
theorem, order of an element, Euler and Fermat’s theorem, order of HK
where H and K are subgroups. Normal subgroups: their definition,
examples, and characterizations, Quotient groups.
Rings: Definition an examples of rings, examples of commutative and noncommutative
rings: rings from number systems, Zn the ring of integers
modulo n, ring of real quaternions, rings of matrices, polynomial rings,
and rings of continuous functions. Subrings and ideals, Integral domains
and fields, examples of fields: Zp, Q, R, and C. Field of rational functions.
Vector spaces: Definition and examples of vector spaces. Subspaces
and its properties Linear independence, basis, invariance of basis size,
dimension of a vector space.
Unit II : Ordinary Differential equations 37
First order exact differential equations. Integrating factors, rules to find
and integrating factor. First order higher degree equations solvable for
x,y,p=dy/dx. Methods for solving higher-order differential equations. Basic
theory of linear differential equations, Wronskian, and its properties.
Solving an differential equation by reducing its order. Linear homogenous
equations with constant coefficients. Linear non-homogenous equations.
The method of variation of parameters, The Cauchy-Euler equation.
Simultaneous differential equations, total differential equations.
Applications of differential equations: the vibrations of a mass on a spring,
mixture problem, free damped motion, forced motion, resonance
phenomena, electric circuit problem, mechanics of simultaneous
differential equations.
Unit III : Partial Differential Equations 15
Order and degree of partial differential equations. Concept of linear and
non-linear partial differential equations. Formation of first order partial
differential equations. Linear partial differential equation of first order,
Lagrange’s method, Charpit’s method. Classification of second order
partial differential equations into elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic through
illustrations only. Applications to Traffic Flow.
Recommended Books
1. Joseph A Gallian: Contemporary Abstract Algebra, fourth edition,
Narosa, 1999.
2. George E Andrews: Number Theory, Hindustan Publishing
Corporation. 1984 (Only sections 1-3 of chapter 12)
3. Shepley L. Ross: Differential equations, Third edition, John Wiley
and Sons, 1984
4. I. Sneddon: Elements of partial differential equations, McGraw-Hill,
International Edition, 1967.
Biodiversity has been referred to as “The planet Earth’s most valuable
resource”. Understanding biodiversity requires a proper analysis of
different organisms for their correct identification, proper naming and
scientific classification. Information on the relationship amongst species
is essential for evaluation biodiversity. This paper provides an evolutionary
sequence in studying Biodiversity with reference to the plant Kingdom. It
cover all groups of organisms traditionally studied by botanists, and
emphasizes the importance of taxonomy in understanding Plant Diversity.
Unit I Diversity in Nature
Three domain classification (Karl Woelse); Understanding
diversity from and evolutionary perspective from prokaryotes
(bacteria cyano bacteria) to higher plants (angiosperms).
Unit II Relevance of Plant Diversity
The importance of plants in human life.
Unit III Classification
Characterization as the basis of classification. Introduction to
taxonomic hierarchy (Kingdom, Division, Class, Order, Family,
Genus, Species) and identification; Nomenclature. Artificial,
Natural and Phylogenetic systems with special emphasis on
Bentham & Hooker’s system and Takhtajan’s system.
Introduction to Modern methods in plant taxonomy.
Unit IV Viruses and Becteria
A general account of structure, reproduction and types Diversity
in Cyanobacteria, nitrogen fixation. Study of Nostoc.
Unit V Algae
A general account with stress on the significant characters and
importance of the algae. Study of vegetative and reproductive
structure of Volvox, Oedogonium, Vaucheria, Ectocarpus and
Unit VI Fungi
An account of the general characters and the basic criteria used
in fungal taxonomy. Ainsworth’s classification. Study of
vegetative and reproductive structures of Rhizopus, Penicillium,
Albugo, Puccinia and Agaricus. A General account of the
Unit VII Archegoniatae
An introduction to the Archegoniate with emphasis on general
characters and adaptation to land habit. Concept of apogamy
and apospory; experimental studies in Bryophytes and
Pteridophytes. Characteristic features and classification of
Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. Study of vegetative and
reproductive structures of Marchantia, Funaria, Selaginella,
Equisetum and Pteris.
Unit VIII Gymnosperms
Distribution and important characters of Gymnosperms
Vegetative and reproductive structures in different groups giving
examples from Cycas, Pinus, Ephedra and Gingko. Outline of
classification and economic importance.
Unit IX Angiosperms
General account, with emphasis on important characters.
Diversity in form, structure and function.
Suggested Readings
Moore, R., Clarke, W.D., and Vodopich D. S. 1998. Botany (2nd
edition)- McGraw-Hill, New York.
Raven, P.H., Evert, K.F., and Eichhorn, S.E. 1999. Biology of Plants
(5th edition). W.H. Freeman and Co. Worth Publishers, New York.
Raven, P. H., Johnson, G.B., Losos, J.B., and Singer, S.R. 2005.
Biology. Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi.
Bold, H.C., Alexopoulos, C., and Delevoras, T. 1980. Morphology
of Plants and Fungi (4th edition). Harper and Row. New York.
Alexopoulos, C. J., C. W. Mims and Blackwell. 1996. Introductory
Mycology, 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Bhatnagar, S.P. & Moitra, A. 1996 Gymnosperms. New Age Int. Publ.
House. New Delhi.
Gurcharan Singh, 2004. Plant Systematics – Theory and Practice
(2nd Ed.) Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
Srivastava, Sheela and Srivastava, P.S. 2004 Understanding
Becteria Springer Verlag, Germany/Kluwer Acad., Netherlands.
Foster, A.S. & Gifford, E.M. (1959). Comparative Morphology of
Vascular Plants, Freeman, San Francisco.
Knowledge of animal diversity has an immense potential and utility,
integration in modern scientific fields. Contemporary study of animal
diversity cannot be carried out just in terms of their structure and functions;
these have rather to be projected as a tool in understanding varied
complexities of biological organization in order to find appropriate answers
to unresolved issues. The present syllabus provides a strong and
comprehensive base for animal diversity studies with this perspective.
Unit I Classification
General characteristics and outline classification of different
animal groups (up to classes for Non-Chordates and up to orders
for Chordates).
Unit II Protista
Locomotion, Reproduction, Economic importance of Protozoans.
Unit III Porifera
Skeleton, Canal System.
Unit IV Cnidaria
Metagenesis, Polymorphism, Corals and Coral reefs.
Unit V Helminthes
Parasitic adaptations and evolution of Parasitism.
Unit VI Annelida
Coelom, Metamerism, Excretion, Modes of Life in Polychaetes.
Unit VII Arthropoda
Vision, Respiration, Crustacean Larvae.
Unit VIII Mollusca
Torsion and Detorsion, Shell, Respiration.
Unit IX Echinodermata
Water Vascular system, Larval forms.
Unit X Protochordata
Salient features, affinities.
Unit XI Pisces
Respiration, Osmoregulation, Migration of Fishes.
Unit XII Amphibia
Respiration, Parental care.
Unit XIII Reptilia (The first Amniotes)
Terrestrial Adaptation, Biting Mechanism in snake.
Unit XIV Aves
Respiration, Flight, Endothermy.
Unit XV Mammalia
Integument, Dentition, Evolution of Man.
Suggested Readings
Barnes, R.D. (1992). Invertebrate Zoology. Saunders College
Publishers, USA.
Campbell & Reece (2005). Biology, Pearson Education, (Singapore)
Pvt. Ltd.
Miller, S.A. and Harley, J.B. (2002). Zoology. Tata McGraw Hill
Publishing Company, New Delhi.
Kardong, K. V. (2002). Vertebrates Comparative Anatomy. Function
and Evolution. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company. New Delhi.
Raven, P. H. and Johnson, G. B. (2004). Biology, 6th edition, Tata
McGraw Hill Publications. New Delhi.
After biology course in school and foundation course in first year, the
present course in cell biology, biochemistry and immunology is a logical
sequel in progression and furtherance of knowledge in life science. Cell,
the basic functional unit of life, desirably should be studied with emphasis
on structure-function correlation. To facilitate this, essentials of biochemistry
are an integral part of this paper. Immunology has been included as part of
this course to learn about the dynamics of defense mechanisms the nature
has provided to the cell.
Unit I The Cell
A brief introduction, cell theory, cell cycle and its regulation.
Unit II Tools and Techniques
Phase contrast, Fluorescence and Confocal microscopy, SEM,
TEM. Cell fractionation. Chromatography: Paper and TLC.
Electrophoresis. Use of radioisotopes: Autoradiography.
Spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction.
Unit III Cell and cell membrane
Cell wall: chemical components, structure and functions. Cell
membrane: Models of cell membrane, transport mechanisms
across cell membrane, plasmodesmata and junctions. Extracellular
matrix of animal cells.
Unit IV Cell organelles
Mitochondria: structure and function, Racker’s Experiment.
Chloroplasts: structure and function, thylakoid membrane
Structure. Nucleus: structure and function, nuclear pore complex,
nucleoius and its functions. Ribosomes: structure and function in
eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell. ER, Golgi apparatus, microbodies,
lysosomes and peroxisomes.
Unit V Cytoskleton
Microtubules: structure and function. Structure of cilia and flagella.
Unit VI Biomolecules
Carbohydrates: Structure and functional significance of mono78
di-and polysaccharides. Lipids: structure, nomenclature, and
functional significance of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids,
glycolipids and steroids, lipid peroxidation and role of antioxidants.
Amino acids and Proteins: structure and general properties, role
of chaperones in protein conformationy physiologically important
peptides and proteins.
Unit VII Metabolism
Carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, pentose
phosphate pathway, gluconeosenesis. Lipid metabolism: beta
oxidation of fatty acids, ketogenesis. Protein metabolism:
Overview of protein degradation, catabolism of amino acids
transamination, oxidative deamination, blood transport of amino
nitrogen, Fate of glycogenic and ketogenic amino acids.
Biosynthesis of urea. Intermediary metabolism: Inter-relationships
of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
Unit VIII Enzymes
Nomenclature, classification, kinetics, mechanisms of action,
Unit IX Immunology
Overview of immune system: innate, acquired immunity.
Generation of immunogenicity, recognition of antigens, properties
of B-cell and T-cell epitopes, antigen-antibody interactions.
Immune effector mechanisms: Cytokines, complement system,
hypersensitive reactions. Immune system in health and disease:
vaccines, autoimmunity, AIDS, diagnostic tools.
Suggested Readings
Lehninger, A. L. Nelson, D. K. and Cox, M. M. (1993). Principles of
Biochemistry, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
Roitt, I.M. Essential Immunology. (2001). Blackwell Scientific
Publications, New York.
Sheeler, P. and D. E. Bianchi. (1987). Cell and Molecular Biology.
John Wiley & Sons, New York.
De Robertis, E. D. P. and De Robertis, E. M. F. Jr. (2002). Cell and
Molecular Biology, Lipponcott Williams and Wilkins, USA.
Richard, A.G. Kindt, T.J., Osborne, B.A. and Kuby, J. (2003).
Immunology, W. H. Freeman and Co. New York.
This course is designed for those students who have studied a general
biology at first year level of B.Sc. Life Science. An attempt has been made
to cover most aspects of genetics and its peripheral areas, which an
undergraduate student must know. With the advent of recombinant DNA
technology, the science of genetics has crossed a major milestone. The
DNA sequences of a number of organisms including humans have already
been worked out. This represents a major advancement and a new branch
of genetics called genomics, is developing rapidly. Moreover, recent
developments in molecular biology and biotechnology have impacted
heavily almost all disciplines of biological sciences. The present syllabus
has been drafted, keeping in mind the importance of classical genetics
and molecular biology and significance of recent development keeping
human perspective in mind.
Unit I Heredity
Mendel’s Laws of inheritance, Gene interactions: allelic and nonallelic,
modified dihybrid ratios, complementary genes, epistasis,
additive, inhibitory, lethal genes, pleiotropy, polygenic inheritance,
cytoplasmic inheritance.
Unit II Genetic material and its organization
Chromosome morphology, karyotype and ideogram, Special types
of chromosomes. Salivary gland chromosome, lampbrush
chromosome. DNA/RNA as genetic material, nature of genetic
material, Watson & Crick’s model, A, B and Z forms of DNA,
chromatin organisation and packaging in eukaryotic
Unit III Variation in Chromosome number and structure
Euploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy in plants and animals.
Methylation and gene silencing. Down’s syndrome, Turner’s
syndrome and Kleinfelter’s syndrome, Chromosomal aberrations
deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation.
Unit IV Linkage and Crossing over
Linkage, frequency of recombination and crossing over,
cytological basis of crossing over; Sex determination and sexlinked
Unit V Mutation
Types of mutation, mutagens — role of mutations in plant and
animal improvements and in evolution.
Unit VI Genomics
Genome diversity and phylogeny, genetical and physical maps,
genome wide sequence, bacterial, plant, animal and human
genome (size and special features), introduction to functional
Unit VII DNA replication in pro- and eukaryotes
Gene concept, mechanisms of DNA replication, inhibitors of DNA
Unit VIII Transfer of genetic information in pro- and eukaryotes
Transcription — types and structure of RNA, role of polymerase,
initiation, elongation and termination of transcription, posttranscriptional
modifications and inhibitors; splicing mechanisms.
Translation-genetic code-features and deciphering of genetic
code, inhibitors of protein synthesis.
Unit IX Regulation of gene expression
Prokaryotes inducible and repressible systems, positive and
negative controls, DNA methylation. In eukaryotes: Tissuespecific
and developmental stage specific expression of genes,
gene amplification, puffing in polytene chromosomes.
Unit X Molecular basis of recombination
Holliday model, role of rec genes in genetic recombination.
Unit XI Cell-signaling and Programmed cell death (Apoptosis)
Modes — endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signaling, signal
transduction pathway of steroids and peptide hormones.
Mechanisms of apoptosis, Role of apoptosis in human diseases.
Unit XII Oncogenes and cancer
Types of cancers — sarcomas, carcinomas, leukemias and
lymphomas. Oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes.
Suggested Readings
Hartl, D. L. and E. W. Jones. 1998. Genetics: Principles and Analysis.
Jones and Bartlett, USA.
Hartwell, L. H. Hood, L., Goldberg, m.l., Reynolds, A. E. Silver, L.M.,
and Veres, R. C. 2004. Genetics — from genes to genomes (Second
Edition). Mc Graw Hill, USA.
Lewis, R. 1999. Human Genetics: Concepts and Applications. (3rd
Edition) McGraw Hill, Dubuque, lA.
Russel, P.J. 1998, Genetics. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing
Co. Inc., USA.
Snustad, D.P. and M.J. Simmons. 2000. Principles of Genetics, 2nd
ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Stern, C. 1973 Principles of Human Genetics. W. H. Freeman, San
Strickberger, M. W. 1985. Genetics. Collier MacMillan, Canada.
LS 205 LAB
Bio Diversity I : Plants
Paper I
1. Viruses: EM of TMV and Bacteriophage, study specimens of virus
infected plants (any two).
2. Bacteria: Types through permanent slides/ photographs, specimens
of infected plants (any tow). Nostoc
3. Algae: Mount material of (a) Volvox, (b) Oedogonium, (c) Vaucheria,
(d) Polysiphonia, and (e) Ectocarpus to study vegetative and observe
reproductive structures.
4. Fungi: Mount material to study thallus and reproductive structures in
(a) Rhizopus, and (b) Penicillium. Observe specimens and permanent
slides to study (a) Albugo, (b) Puccinia, (c) Agaricus. Lichen
5. Bryophytes: Study of (a) Marchantia from specimen and permanent
slides only, (b) Funaria: detailed study – w.m. rhizoids, leaf, operculum,
peristome, spores, permanent slides of archegonia, antheridia, and
6. Pteridophytes: Study (a) Selaginella, (b) Equisetum: from specimens
and permanent slides only, and (c) Pteris – detailed study of T. S. of
rachis, V. S. of sporophyll, W. M. of sporangium through preparations
and permanent slides.
7. Gymnosperms: Study of Cycas and Pinus from specimens and
permanent slides only.
8. Angiosperms: Taxonomic study of characters of one plant from each
of the following families: (a) Brassicaceae, (b) Malvaceae,
(c) Solanaceae, (d) Lamiaceae, (e) Asteracea, (f) Liliaceae.
Classification according to the system of Bentham and Hooker.
9. Study of morphological variations/modifications of root — through
preparation/permanent slides (tap root and adventitious root-tuberous,
fasciculate, prop, stilt), stem (tuber, bulb, rhizome, runner, corm,
cladode, phylloclade) and leaf (simple, compound — pinnate, and
palmate, phyllode, tendril).
Biodiversity II: Animals
Non Chordata
1. Study of following specimen: Radiolaria/ Foraminiferan ooze, Euglena,
Noctiluca, Paramecium, Leucosolenia, Sycon, Spongilla, Physalia,
Tubipora, Aurelia, Metridium, Alcyonium Taenia, Ascaris, Nereis,
Aphrodite, Leech, Bonellia, Peripatus, Limulus, Spider, Hermitcrab,
Balanus, Daphnia, Millipede, Centipede, Beetle, Dragonfly, Bedbug,
Butterfly, Chiton, Dentalium, Aplysia, Mytilus, Octopus, Nautilus,
Asterias, Cucumaria, Echinus and Antedon.
2. Study of Permanent Slides:
- Cross section of Sycon, Sea anemone and Ascaris.
- T. S. of Earthworm passing through pharynx, gizzard, and
typhlosolar intestine.
- T. S. of arm of Star fish. Bipinnaria and Pluteus larva.
- Trochobhore.
3. Dissections
Digestive and nervous system of Earthworm, and Cockroach.
4. Temporary mounts
– Septal & pharyngeal nephridia and ovary of earthworm.
– Mouthparts and salivary apparatus of cockroach.
5. Study of following specimens
Balanoglossus, Herdmania, Amphioxus, Petromyzon, Pristis,
Electricray, Hippocampus, Clarias, Gambusia, Labeo, Icthyophis/
Uraeotyphlus, Salamander, Rhacophorus, Chamaeleon, Draco,
Uromastix, Anguis, Naja, Python, Viper, model of Archaeopteryx,
3 common birds-(Crow, duck, Owl), Squirrel and Bat.
6. Study of following permanent slides
– Section of Amphioxus through pharynx gonads, intestine and caudal
7. Skeleton:
Rabbit (disarticulated).
8. Dissections
Afferent branchial system and cranial nerves (V, VII, IX
X) of Scoliodon/Mystus.
– Dissection of Rat: arterial, venous system and urinogenital system.
9. Temporary mount of following
– Unstained mounts of Placoid, Cycloid and Ctenoid scales.
LS. 206 LAB
Paper III–Cell Biochemistry & Immunology
1. Preparation: Squamous epithelium, epidermal peel of onion, Rhoeo
2. Study of the following techniques through photograph: Microscopy–
Phase contrast and florescent, Electron Microscope-Scanning and
Transmission: freeze fracture (membrane) technique.
3. Study of electron micrograph of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell,
chloroplast, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, endoplasmic
reticulum (SER, RER), microtubules.
4. Cytochemical demonstration of Nucleic acids, proteins and
polysaccharides (from permanent slides).
5. Temporary squash preparation to study meiosis (grasshopper testis/
Onion flower buds).
6. Demonstration of dialysis (glucose and starch). Study of plasmolysis
and deplasmolysis using red onion peel/Rhoes.
7. Separation and identification of aminoacids by paper chromatography.
8. Study of effect of temperature, organic solvent on semi permeable
membranes using beet root.
9. Measurement of cell size in epidermal peel by using stage and ocular
10. Study of effect of temperature, pH and heavy metals on the action of
salivary amylase.
11. Demonstration of primary (Bone marrow & Thymus ) and secondary
immune organs (Spleen, Lymph nodes) in Rat.
12. Isolation, staining and counting of mononuclear cells from peripheral
13. Determination of ABO Blood groups and Rh-factor.
14. Double simple immuno-diffusion test (Ouchterlony method).
Paper IV – Genetics, Genomics & Molecular Biology
1. Study of gene interaction/ deviations from the Mendelian ratios using
seed samples in the ratios of 9:7, 9:4:3, 13:3, 9:6:1, 15:1 and 12:3:1.
2. To study through photographs of the karyotype of diploid and polyploid
of the same genus; and aneuploids (Down’s, Turner’s and Klinefelter)
syndrome through photographs.
3. Preparation of the karyotype and idiogram from the given photograph
of somatic metaphase chromosomes (Vicia/ Phlox/ Allium and
4. Study of the organization of DNA in the eukaryotic chromosomes
(through illustration).
5. Study of salivary gland and lampbrush chromosomes, laggards,
bridges, multivalents and translocation ring.
6. Study of banding patterns (Q, C, G) through photograph.
7. To study sex chromosomes of Melandrium/ Coccinia (Permanent
8. Temporary preparation of Barr bodies.
9. Study of inherited characters in human: Colour blindness and PTC
10. Isolation of DNA from cauliflower by spooling method.
(3 Lectures per Week)
3 Hours, 100 Marks
Fundamentals of Object Oriented Programming
Primitive data types, abstraction and encapsulation objects, classesattributes
and methods, input-output, control flow: sequence, selection and
repetition, constructors, inheritance, reuse and polymorphism, exception
handling mechanisms, organizing large programs.
Date Structures
Sorting and searching, stacks, queues, linked lists, binary trees,
implementation using OOP language, basics of complexity of algorithms.
1. Bjarne Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language, Addison-Wesley.
2. Stanley B. Lippman, Josée Lajoie, C++ Primer, Pearson Education.
3. Herbert Schildt, C++. The Complete Reference, Tata McGraw Hill.
4. Mark Allen Weiss, Data Structures and Problem solving using C++,
5. Robert L. Kruse, Alex Ryba, Data Structures and Program Design in
c++ Prentice Hall of India.
6. Yedidyah Langsam. Moshe J. Augenstein, Aaron M. Tenenbaum.
Data Structures using C and C++, Prentice Hall of India.
(3 Lectures per Week)
3 Hours, 100 Marks
Introduction: Logic gates, boolean algebra, combinational circuits,
circuit simplification flip-flops and sequential circuits, decoders, multiplexors,
registers, shift registers, counters, memory units.
Data Representation: Number systems, complements, fixed and
floating-point representation, character representation.
Computer Arithmetic : Addition, subtraction, magnitude comparison,
multiplication, and division algorithms for integers.
Basic Computer Organization and Design: Computer registers, bus
system, instruction set, timing and control, instruction cycle, memory
reference, input-output and interrupt, design of basic computer.
Programming the Basic Computer: Instruction formats, addressing
modes, instruction codes, machine language, assembly language, input
output programming.
Central Processing Unit: Register organization, register transfer and
micro-operations—register transfer language, arithmetic and logical microoperations,
stack organization, micro programmed control.
Input-output Organization: Peripheral devices, I/O interface,
asynchronous data transfer, priority interrupt, direct memory access, I/O
processor, serial communication.
Memory Organization: Main memory, auxiliary memory, associative
memory, cache memory, virtual memory.
1. M. Morris Mano, Computer System Architecture, Prentice Hall of
2. William Stallings, Computer Organization and Architecture, Prentice
Hall of India.
CS 203 LAB
(BASED ON CS. 201 and CS. 202)
(4 Periods / Weed - 4 Hours, 100 Marks)
( 75 Lectures)
Statistical Methods: Concepts of a statistical population and sample
from a population, quantitative and qualitative data, nominal, ordinal and
time series data, discrete and continuous data, Presentation of data by
tables and by diagrams, frequency distributions for continuous and discrete
data, graphical representation of a frequency distribution by histogram and
frequency polygon, cumulative frequency distributions (inclusive and
exclusive methods).
Measures of location (or central tendency) and dispersion, moments,
measures of skewness and kurtosis, absolute moments. Bivariate data:
Scatter diagram, principle of least squares and fitting of polynomial and
Exponential curves, Correlation and Regression, Karl Pearson coefficient
of correlation, Lines of regression, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient,
multiple and partial correlations (for 3 variates only).
Probability Theory: Random experiment, sample point and sample
space, event, algebra of events, Definition of Probability—classical, relative
frequency and axiomatic approaches to probability, Theorems on
probability, conditional probability, and independent events.
Random Variables: Discrete and continuous random variables, p.m.f.,
p.d.f. and c.d.f., illustrations of random variables and its properties,
expectation of random variable and its properties, Moment generating
function, Transformation of variates in univariate case, Bivariate
distributions, Marginal and conditional distributions.
Distributions: Point (or degenerate), Binomial, Poisson, Geometric,
Negative Binomial, Normal, Uniform, Exponential distributions. Bivariate
Normal distribution and related marginal and conditional distributions,
Concept of multinomial distribution.
Chebyshev’s inequality, WLLN, SLLN (Statement only), applications,
central limit theorem (C. L. T. ) for i.i.d. variates and applications of C.L.T..
Suggested Readings
1. Freund J. E. (2001): Mathematical Statistics, Prentice Hall of India.
2. Goon, A. M,. Gupta M. K. and Dasgupta, B. (1991): Fundamentals of
Statistics, Vol. I, World Press, Calcutta.
3. Hogg, R. V. and Craig, A. (1999): Introduction to Mathematical
Statistics, Prentice Hall.
4. Mood, A. M., Graybill, F. A. and Boes, D. C. (2001): Introduction to
the Theory of Statistics, Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. Ltd.
5. Ross, S.M. (2003): Introduction to Probability Models, Academic
(75 Lectures)
Economic Statistics: Time Series Analysis-economic time series,
different components, illustrations, additive and multiplicative models,
determination of trend, growth curves, analysis of seasonal fluctuations,
variate difference methods. Periodogram analysis, Autocorrelation,
Correlogram for moving average and AR (1) processes. Index Numbers—
Criteria for a good index number, Different types of index numbers,
Construction of index number of prices and quantities, Paasche’s.
Laspeyre’s and Fisher’s Ideal index numbers, Time reversal, Factor reversal
and Circular tests, Construction of index number of cost of living and
industrial production. Uses and limitations of index numbers.
Statistical Quality control: Importance of statistical methods in industrial
research and practice determination of tolerance limits, general theory of
control charts, Process and product control, causes of variation in quality
control limits, summary of out of control criteria, charts for attributes—
p-chart, np-chart, c-chart, charts for variables- X , R and s charts, Principles
of acceptance sampling, problem of lot acceptance, producer’s and
consumer’s risks, single and double sampling plans and their OC and ASN
functions, concepts of AQL, LTPD, AOQL, ATI functions, Dodge and Romig
Demographic Methods: Sources of demographic data—census,
register, adhoc surveys, hospital records, demographic profiles of Indian
Census, questionnaire, errors in these data and their adjustment.
Measurement of Mortality, CDR, SDR (with respect to age and sex), IMR,
morbidity rate, standardised death rate, complete life table, its main features
and uses. Measurement of fertility and reproduction - CBR, General, specific
and total fertility rates, GRR, NRR, Vital index, graduation of mortality rates
by Gompertz and Makeham’s Law, Logistic Curve, its fitting by the method
of three selected points, pearl-Reed’s method, Rhode’s method and its
uses in population projection.
Suggested Readings
1. Croxton, F. E. and Cowden, D. J. (1969): Applied General Statistics,
Prentice Hall of India.
2. Goon, A. M., Gupta, M. K. and Dasgupta, B. (1991): Fundamentals
of Statistics, Vol. II, World Press, Calcutta.
3. Kendall, M. G. and Stuart, A. (1977): The Advanced Theory of
Statistics, Vol. III, Macmillan Publishing Co.
4. Montgomery, D. C. (2005): Introduction to Statistical Quality Control,
Fifth Education, John Wiley & Sons.
5. Mukhopadhyay, P. (1999): Applied Statistics, Books and Allied (P)
Ltd., Kolkata.
Handling of problems based on Statistical methods, Economic
Statistics, Statistical Quality Control and Demographic methods as covered
under ST. 201 and ST. 202; the practicals to be carried out on computer by
developing programs via Python/C Language.
(Three Lectures plus one tutorial per week)
Total Marks : 150
Internal Assessment : 38 marks
Examination : 112 marks
Duration : 3 Hours
Origin of Operational Research, Definition, Meaning and Development
of Operational Research, Different Phases of an Operational Research
Study, Scope and Limitations of Operational Research, Mathematical
Modelling of Real Life Problems as Linear Programming.
Solution of a System of Linear Equations, Concept of Basis, Basic
Feasible Solution, Convex Sets and Extreme Points. Theory of Simplex
Method, M-Charnes Simplex Methods, Two-Phase Simplex Method.
Degeneracy in Linear Programming, Duality in linear programming,
Economic Interpretation of Duality, Sensitivity Analysis in Linear
Programming, Transportation Problem, Assignment Problem, Linear Integer
Suggested Readings
1. K. Chandrasekhra Rao and Shanti Lata Mishra : Operations Research,
Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 2005.
2. Hadley, G. Linear Programming, Narosa Publishing House, 2002.
3. Hamdy, A. Taha : Operations Research: An Introduction, 6th Ed.,
Prentice Hall, 1996.
(Three Lectures plus one tutorial per week)
Total Marks : 150
Internal Assessment : 38 marks
Examination : 112 marks
Duration : 3 Hours
(a) Inventory Management: Introductory Concepts and Problems in
Inventory Management, Selective Inventory Control (ABC Analysis),
Different Costs in Inventory Control and Method of their Estimation.
General Inventory Models for Demand Known with Certainty, With
and Without Lead Time and With and Without Shortages. Inventory
Models with Price Breaks (All-Unit and Incremental). Multi Item Model
with Constraints. Production Scheduling Problem. Single Period
Stochastic Inventory Models.
(b) Queueing Theory: General Concepts of Queueing Systems,
Measures of Performance, Arrival and Services Processes,
Deterministic Queueing Model, Single Server and Multiserver Models
(M/M/1 M/M/c), Generalized Birth—Date Queueing System and its
Particular Cases, Erlang Distribution, M/Ek/1 and Ek/M/1 Queueing
Models (Steady State solutions Only). Application of Simple Queueing
Decision Models.
Suggested Readings
1. Donal Waters: Inventory Control & Management, John Wiley & sons,
2. D. Gross and Harris, C. M.: Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, John
Wiley, 2004.
3. Hamdy, A.: Taha Operations Research: an Introduction, 6th Ed.,
Prentice Hall, 1996.
4. Hiller, F. S. and Liberman, G. J.: Introduction to Operations research,
7th Ed., McGraw Hill, 2001.
(Total Lectures: 70)
Total Marks : 100
Network Analysis (14 L)
Current and voltage Sources.
Introduction to Network Analysis (KV L and KCL), Mesh and Node
analysis, Conversion between T and p sections.
Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Maximum Power, Superposition and Reciprocity
Two-port networks (Z, Y, ABCD and h-parameters)
Low pass, High pass and Band pass filters (RC)
Diode Circuits (5 L)
Diode as a circuit element, positive, negative and biased clipper
circuits, clamping circuits. Analysis of rectifier circuits, ripple factor and
power conversion efficiency. Reduction of ripple factor by C and L filters.
Transistor Circuits (12 L)
Review of BJT characteristics (CB, CE and CC), Transistor Hybrid
Model, quiescent point, biasing (fixed and self) of a transistor circuit.
Small signal analysis of the CE amplifier. Derivation of voltage and
current gains, input impedance, output impedance and frequency response.
Qualitative comparison of transistor amplifier circuits in CB, CE and CC
configurations. Class A, Class B and Class C amplifiers. Analysis of Class
B push-pull amplifiers (efficiency, power dissipation).
Number System (4 L)
Binary number system, binary to decimal conversion, decimal to binary
conversion, signed binary numbers (sign ,magnitude, I’s complement and
2’s complement representations), binary arithmetic (addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division), 2’s complement arithmetic, octal and Hexadecimal
Number system, Codes (straight binary code, BCD Code and Gray Code).
Logic Gates (2 L)
Basic digital Gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR),
positive and negative logic, Boolean algebra theorems, Examples of IC
Digital Logic Families (5 L)
Various logic families (Bipolar: RTL, DTL, TTL and ECL; Unipolar:
PMOS, NMOS, CMOS) and a comparison their characteristics (basic gates,
fan-out, power dissipation, noise immunity, propagation delay, clock-rate,
number of functions).
Combinational Logic Design (10 L)
Standard representation of logical functions (SOP, POS), Karnaugh
map representation and simplification (limited to four variables).
Arithmetic Circuits (half and full adders, half and full subtractors), BCD
Demultiplexers / Decoders, Multiplexers, Encoders, Code converters
(BCD-to Binary and Binary to BCD converters).
Sequential Logic Design (12 L)
Sequential systems, I-bit memory, Latch, S-R Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-Flop
(Race-around Condition, Master-Slave), T and D Flip-Flops.
Registers, Modes of operation (SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO), Shift
Registers (4-bit).
Ripple or Asynchronous Counters, Synchronous Counters, Up-Down
counters, ring counter, decade counter.
Memories (6 L)
Volatile, non-volatile memories, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM,
RAM (SRAM, DRAM), cache memory.
Suggested Readings
1. Nasar S.A., Electric Circuits, Schaum’s Outline Series, Tata McGraw-
Hill, 2005.
2. Malvino A.P., Electronic Principles, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.
3. Ryder J.D., Networks, Lines and Fields, Prentice Hall of India, 2004.
4. Jain R.P., Modern Digital Electronics, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003.
5. Bali S.P., Solved Problems in Digital Electronics, Sigma Series, Tata
McGraw-Hill, 2005.
6. Mano M.M., Digital Design, Pearson Education Asia, 2002.
7. Floyd T.L., Digital Fundamentals, Pearson Education Asia, 2004.
(Total Lectures: 70)
Total Marks : 100
Properties of Semiconductors (14 L)
Energy band in solids, Kronig Penney model, band diagram of
semiconductor, metal and insulator, Concept of Fermi level, Direct and
indirect band-gap semiconductors. Charge carriers in semiconductors —
electrons and holes, concept of effective mass, intrinsic semiconductor,
concept of doping, extrinsic semiconductor.
Carrier transport phenomenon: conductivity, mobility and sheet
resistance, effect of temperature on mobility, Hall effect.
Junction Diodes and Bipolar Transistors (16 L)
The PN junction, formation of depletion layer, space charge at a
junction, qualitative description of current flow at a junction, derivation of
electrostatic potential difference at thermal equilibrium, depletion width and
depletion capacitance for abrupt junction, diode equation and dependence
of I-V characteristics on temperature. Reverse bias breakdown (Zener and
avalanche), Zener and avalanche diodes. Basic idea of varactor diode,
tunnel diode, photo diode, solar cell, light emitting diode.
PNP & NPN transistor, transistor action, energy band diagram of
transistor in thermal equilibrium.
Metal Semiconductor Contacts (6 L)
Energy band diagram, Schottky Effect, rectifying and ohmic contacts.
Field Effect Transistors (14 L)
Construction and characteristics of Junction Field Effect Transistor
(JFET) and Metal-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET).
Basic structure of a Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect transistor
(MOSFET) and its characteristics (n, p-channel, enhancement and
depletion modes).
Semiconductor Fabrication Technology (20 L)
Introduction to semiconductor technology.
Basic fabrication steps: epitaxial growth, oxidation, photolithography,
etching, diffusion, ion implantation, film deposition and metallisation.
Process integration for Integrated Circuits, Diodes and transistors for
monolithic circuits, integrated resistors, capacitors and inductors, monolithic
circuit layout.
Moore’s Law, Medium Scale Integration (MSl), Large Scale Integration
(LSI), Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration
(ULSI). Giant Scale Integration (GSI).
Suggested Readings
1. Sze S.M., Physics of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley, 1999.
2. Millman J. and Halkias C.C., Integrated Electronics, Analog and Digital
Circuits and Systems, Tata McGrraw-Hill, 2004.
3. Millman J. and Halkias C.C., Electronic Devices and Circuits, Tata
McGraw-Hill, 2005.
4. Cathey J. J., Electronic Devices and Circuits, Schaum’s Outline
Series, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.
5. May G.S. and Sze S.M., Fundamentals of Semiconductor Fabrication,
John Wiley (WES Edition), 2004.
6. Cheruku D.R. and Krishna B.T., Electronic Devices and Circuits,
Pearson Education Asia, 2005.
Total Marks : 100
Analog Electronics
1. Verification of Network Theorems: Thevenin’s, Maximum Power and
Superposition (1)
2. T and p Networks (1)
3. h-parameters of CE configuration, design of CE Amplifier (2)
4. Operational amplifiers: clipper, clamper, integrator, differentiator (4)
5. Characteristics of SCR, DIAC, TRIAC (3).
Digital Electronics
6. Verification of Gates: OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR and XNOR
by use of NAND Gates of IC 7400 (1)
7. Arithmetic Circuits: Half and full adders and subtractors using NAND
Gates (2)
8. Multiplexers and Demutiplexers: 4×1 MUX, 1 × 4 DMUX using NAND
Gates (2)
9. Flip-Flops: Study of SR, D, JK, master slave flip-flops including
clocked SR and D flip-flops (3)
10. Four bit shift register: SISO, PISO using Flip-Flops (1)
11. Counters: Study of up-down counter, divide by N circuit and decade
counter (4).
(Total Lectures : 75)
Total Marks : 100
I. Chemical Technology
Basic principles and calculations in industrial chemical processes.
Heat transfer and mass transfer; mixing and agitation, crystallization,
filtration, drying, grinding and sieving. Fundamental concepts and
practical techniques for solving problems relating to equilibria stage
processes. Distillation, solvent extraction, solid-liquid leaching and
liquid-liquid extraction, separation by absorption and adsorption.
An introduction into the scope of different types of equipment needed
in chemical technology, including reactors, distillation columns,
extruders, pumps, mills, emulgators. Scaling up operations in chemical
industry. Introduction to clean technology.
II. Industrial Gases and Inorganic Chemicals
(a) Industrial Gases : Large scale production, uses, storage and hazards
in handling of the following gases: oxygen, nitrogen, argon, neon,
helium, hydrogen, acetylene, carbon monoxide, chlorine, fluorine,
sulphur dioxide and phosgene.
(b) Inorganic Chemicals: Manufacture, application, analysis and
hazards in handling the following chemicals: fluorine, chlorine,
bromine, iodine, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, sulfamic
acid, hydrazine, phosphoric acid, sodium carbonate and bicarbonate,
caustic soda, common salt, bleaching powder, sodium thiosulphate,
hydrogen peroxide, potash alum, chrome alum, potassium dichromate
and potassium permanganate.
III Industrial Metallurgy
Preparation of metals (ferrous and nonferrous) and ultra pure metals
for semiconductor technology.
IV. Silicate Industries
(a) Glass: Glassy state and its properties, classification (silicate and
non silicate glasses). Manufacture and processing of glass,
composition and properties of the following types of glasses: Soda
lime glass, lead glass, armoured glass, safety glass, borosilicate glass,
fluorosilicate, coloured glass, photosensitive glass, glass fiber, coated
glasses and fotoform.
(b) Ceramics: Important clays and feldspar, ceramic, their types and
manufacture. High technology ceramics and their applications, aero
space composites, super conducting and semi conducting oxides,
fullerenes carbon nanotubes and carbon fiber.
(c) Cements : Classification of cement, ingredients and their role,
Manufacture of cement and the setting process, quick setting cements.
V. Environment
(a) Air Pollution: Pollutants and their sources, pollution by SO2, CO2,CO,
NOx, H2S and other foul smelling gases. Methods of estimation of
CO, NOx, SOx and control procedures. Green House effect and Global
warming, Ozone depletion by oxides of nitrogen, chlorofluorocarbons
and Halons, removal of sulphur from coal. Control of particulates.
(b) Water pollution and Water Quality Standards: Pollutants and their
sources, Effluent treatment plants (primary, secondary and tertiary
treatment). Industrial effluent from the following industries and their
treatment: electroplating, textile, tannery, dairy, petroleum and
petrochemicals, agro, fertilizer, etc.. Sludge disposal. Industrial waste
management, incineration of waste. Water treatment and purification
(reverse osmosis, electro dialysis, ion exchange). Water quality
parameters for waste water, industrial water and domestic water.
Suggested Readings
1. E. Stocchi, Industrial Chemistry, Vol-I, , Ellis Horwood Ltd. UK.
2. R. M. Felder, R. W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes, Wiley Publishers, New Delhi.
3. W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen, D. R. Uhlmann, Introduction to Ceramics,
Wiley Publishers, New Delhi.
4. J. A. Kent, Riegel’s Handbook of Industrial Chemistry, CBS
Publishers, New Delhi.
5. S. S. Dara, A Textbook of Engineering Chemistry, S. Chand &
Company Ltd. New Delhi.
6. A. K. De, Environmental Chemistry, New Age International Pvt, Ltd,
New Delhi.
7. S. M. Khopkar, Environmental Pollution Analysis, Wiley Eastern Ltd,
New Delhi.
(Total Lectures: 75)
Total Marks : 100
I. Fuel Chemistry
Review of energy sources (renewable and non-renewable).
Classification of fuels and their calorific value.
(a) Coal: Uses of coal (fuel and non fuel ) In various industries, its
composition, carbonization of coal, coal gas, producer gas and water
gas—composition and uses. Fractionation of coal tar, uses of coal
tar bases chemicals, requisites of a good metallurgical coke, Coal
gasification (Hydro Gasification and Catalytic gasification), Coal
liquefaction and Solvent Refining.
(b) Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry: Composition of crude
petroleum, Refining and different types of petroleum products and
their applications. Fractional Distillation (Principle and process),
Cracking (Thermal and catalytic cracking), Reforming Petroleum and
non petroleum fuels (LPG, CNG, LNG, bio-gas, Fuels derived from
biomass), fuel from waste, synthetic fuels (gaseous and liquids), clean
fuels. Petrochemicals: Vinyl acetate, Propylene oxide, Isoprene,
Butadiene, Styrene, Cumene, Toluene and its derivatives, Xylene,
Naphthalene, Anthracene.
(c) Lubricants: Classification of lubricants, lubricating oils (conducting
and non-conducting) Solid and semisolid lubricants, synthetic
lubricants. Properties of lubricants (viscosity index, cloud point, pore
point) and their determination.
II. Oils and Fats
Classification of oils, fat splitting, distillation of completely miscible
and non-miscible oils, hydrogenation of oils, Soap and Synthetic
Detergent, Preparation of soap and detergent, different types of soap
and their composition, surfactants, detergent binders and builders.
III. Cosmetics and Perfumes
A general study including preparation and uses of the following: Hair
dye, hair spray, Shampoo, Suntan lotions, face powder, lipistics,
talcum powder, nail enamel, Creams (cold, vanishing and shaving
creams), antiperspirants and artificial flavours. Essential oils and their
importance in cosmetic industries with reference to Eugenol, Geraniol,
sandalwood oil, eucalyptus, rose oil, ß-phenyl ethyl alcohol, Jasmone,
Civetone, Muscone.
IV. Catalysis
General principles, description of catalysts, properties of catalysts,
homogenous catalysis (catalytic steps and examples) and
heterogenous catalysts (nature catalytic steps and examples) and
their industrial applications, Deactivation or regeneration of catalysts.
Phase transfer catalysts, application of zeolites as catalysts. Oxo-
Process, Wacker Process and Monsanto Process.
V. Fermentation Industries
Aerobic and anaerobic fermentation.
Production of (i) Ethyl alcohol and citric acid, (ii) Antibiotics Pencillin,
Cephalosporin, Chloromycetin and Streptomycin, (iii) Lysine, Glutamic
acid, Vitamine B2 Vitamine B12 and Vitamine C.
Suggested Readings
1. O. P. Vermani, A. K. Narula, Industrial Chemistry, Galgotia
Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
2. S. C. Bhatia, Chemical Process Industries, Vol. I & II, CBS Publishers,
New Delhi.
3. P. C. Jain, M. Jain, Engineering Chemistry, Dhanpat Rai & Sons,
4. R. Gopalan, D. Venkappayya, S. Nagarajan, Engineering Chemistry,
Vikas Publications, New Delhi.
5. B. K. Sharma, Engineering Chemistry, Goel Publishing House,
6. Sukumar Maiti, Introduction to Petrochemicals, Oxford Publishing Co.,
New Delhi.
Total Marks : 100
1. Percentage of available chlorine in bleaching powder.
2. Measurement of SO2 and NOx in air samples.
3. Separation of essential oils by steam distillation.
4. Analysis of oils and fats (iodine value, saponification value, acid value).
5. Analysis of the following in a water sample: temporary and permanent
hardness, Total dissolved solids (TDS), PO4
, NO2 - NO3 - SO4
2 - CI- ,
BOD, COD, DO free chlorine.
6. Preparation of talcum powder.
7. Preparation of shampoo.
8. Preparation of enamels.
9. Preparation of hair remover.
10. Preparation of face cream.
11. Preparation of Aspirin and its analysis.
12. Preparation of nail polish and nail polish remover.
13. Separation of cations and anions using ion exchange resins.
14. Estimation of glucose in a food sample.
15. Determination of heavy metals in fly ash.
16. Extraction of natural colouring and flavouring agents from flowers
and fruit.
17. Determination of alkali in water samples and soaps.
18. Testing of turmeric, milk and mustard oil for adulterants.
(Total Lectures: 70)
Total Marks : 100
I. Introduction to Analytical Chemistry
Methods of analytical determination, methods of qualitative analysis,
methods of quantitative analysis, selection of methods of analysis,
role of instrumentation in analytical chemistry, various applications
of analytical chemistry.
II. Evaluation of Analytical Data
Accuracy and precision, Methods for their expression, classification
of errors, Detection and correction of determinate and indeterminate
errors. The normal law of Distribution of indeterminate errors.
III. Statistical Tests of Data
The F test and the T test, rejection of data: The method of least
squares, Propagation of errors in computation. Significant figures.
IV. Sampling in Analytical Chemistry
Theory of Sampling, Techniques of Sampling, Criteria for good
sampling, Stratified sampling vs Random sampling. Transmission and
storage of samples, Primary and secondary standards, various units
for expressing quantitative results. E. G. Normality, Molarity, Molality,
Formality, ppm. Ppb etc.
V. Laboratory Operations
Single pan analytical balance: (operation and theory of the
balance, construction details, errors in weighing, care of an
analytical balance)
Description and use of common laboratory apparatus: (burettes,
chromatographic columns, chromatographic jars, desiccators,
drying ovens, filter crucibles, meniscus readers, pH meters,
pipettes, rubber policemen, separating funnels,
spectrophotometers, volumetric flasks, weighing bottles,
weighing paper)
Laboratory notebook.
Suggested Readings
1. S. M. Khopkar, Basic Concept of Analytical Chemistry, New Age
International Publisher.
2. F. W. Fifeld and D. Kealy, Principles & Practice of Analytical
Chemistry, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
3. D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental
Analysis, Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd. Singapore.
(Total Lectures: 70)
Total Marks : 100
A. Volumetric Method of Analysis
Theory of Volumetric titration, concept of equivalence point and end
point, Detection of end point, by visual indicator method and by
instrumentation method, Theory of indicators.
Classification of Titrations
1. Acid-Base Titration:
(a) Strong Acid vs Strong Base
(b) Strong Acid vs Weak Base
(c) Weak Acid vs Weak Base
(d) Strong Base vs Weak Acid
Calculation of pH at the end point, choice of indicators
2. Redox Titrations
Theory of redox titrations, choice of indicators, theory of redox
(a) Ce4+ {(NH4) Ce (NO3)6} vs Fe2+(Mohr slat) with ferroin as
(b) KmnO4 vs Oxalic acid with KmnO4 as self indicator
(c) Iodometric titratons, determination of available chlorine in
bleaching powder.
3. Precipitation Titration
Theory of precipitation, factors influencing solubility of
precipitates, choice of indicators, adsorption indicators in
precipitation titrations.
(a) AgNO3 vs Na2CrO4 – Mohr’s method
(b) AgNO3 vs NH4SCN-Volhard’s method, Ferric alum as an
B. Potentiometric Titrations
Basic principles, various types of electrodes-calomel electrode, glass
electrode, ion-selective electrodes, pH titrations, redox titrations
(KMnO4/ K2CrO7 vs Mohr salt).
C. Conductiometric Titrations:
Basic principles, titration cunes of acid-base titrations and their
interpretation, titration of mixture of acids (strong & weak) with base.
D. pH-meter:
Components of a pH-meter, Hydrogen ion and use of a pH meter,
maintenance of pH-meter, applications of the data.
E. Gravimetic Method of analysis
Theory and principle of gravimetric analysis, classification of various
methods in gravimetric analysis, optimum conditions for precipitation.
(a) Analysis by co-precipitation method
(b) Analysis by post precipitation method
(c) Precipitation from bemogenous solution
(d) Introduction of electro gravimetric method.
Suggested Readings:
1. J. Mendham, R. C. Denney, J. D. Barner and M.J.K. Thomas, Vogel’s
Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, Pearson Education, New
2. F. W. Fifeld and D. Kealy, Principles & Practice of Analytical
Chemistry, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
3. S. M. Khopakr, Basic Concept of Analytical Chemistry, New Age
International Publishers.
Total Marks : 100
1. Caliberation of Laboratory Apparatus
2. Volumetric titrations
(i) Acid-Base titration
(ii) Precipitation titration
(iii) Redox titration
(iv) Complexometric titration
(v) Determination of Hardness of water
(vi) Determination of total dissolved solid (TDS)
3. Gravimetric estimation
(i) By co-precipitation method
(ii) By precipitation from homogenius solution
3. Analysis of soil
(i) Determination of pH of soil
(ii) Total soluble salt
(iii) Estimation of Calcium, Magnesium and iron
(iv) Carbonate and bicarbonate estimation.
(Total Lectures: 72)
Total Marks : 100
Unit I : Introduction
Scope and relevance of ecology
Unit II : Factors in the environment
Atmosphere, Soil, Water, Light, Temperature, Wind, Climate, Topography
Optimal and limiting factors: Liebig law of the minimum, Shelford law of
Unit III : Adaptations of organisms to the environment
Ecological amplitude
Water, salt, temperature — tolerance and avoidance
Isolation, evolution, speciation
Indicator species
Unit IV : Interactions among organisms
Exploitation: Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism, Disease
Unit V : Population ecology
Population growth and structure — growth, death, age structure, equilibrium
Population regulation — abiotic factors, resource and inteference
competition, niche concept
Unit VI : Community ecology
Community structure
Community dynamics
Ecological succession
Unit VII : Ecosystem ecology
Structure and organization of ecosystems
Flow of energy and nutrients
Nutrient replenishment (Biogeochemical cycles)
Unit VIII : Major ecosystems of the world
Terrestrial ecosystems (biome types and distribution— forests, grasslands,
Aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine, estuaries, coral reefs, wetlands
Unit IX : Biogeography
Phytogeography (principles, descriptive and interpretive, Age and Area
hypothesis); Vegetation of India
Zoogeography (Barriers to dispersal, Means of dispersal, Bathymetric and
geologic distribution)
Suggested Readings
1. Odum and Barett (2005). Fundamentals of Ecology. 5th edition,
Thomsom Asia Pvt Ltd.
2. Ricklefs and Miller (2002) Ecology, 4th edition, Freeman and
3. Kormandy, E.J. (2002). Concepts of Ecology. Prentice-Hall India and
New Jersey.
4. Smith, R.L. (1996). Ecology and Field Biology. Harper Collins College
5. Begon, M., Harper, J. L. and Townsend, C. R. (1995). Ecology—
Individual, Populations and Communities. Blackwell Scientific
Publishers, Oxford.
(Total Lectures: 72)
Total Marks : 100
Unit I : Biodiversity
Microbial, plant, animal and habital diversity
Relevance, evolutionary significance
Biodiversity at local, national and global levels
Measures and documentation (including traditional knowledge)
Values — social, aesthetic and ethical
Loss — threats, endangered and extinct species (case studies)
Threats from introduced species — case studies
Hot spots (special reference to India)
Unit II : Management of biodiversity
Landscape and habitat management
Conservation — gene pool management (in situ, ex situ), germplasm banks,
Biosphere reserves, National Parks, Wild Life Sanctuaries, Botanical
gardens and Zoological parks-roles and mandates. Case studies —
biodiversity parks, herbal gardens, butterfly parks, lichen and cryptogam
collections, snake parks.
Unit III : Fresh water resources
Basic concepts— the basin, natural drainage
Properties of fresh water—quality criteria, chemical composition,
Environmental influences on quality and quantity of surface and ground
water— evapotranspiration, meterological phenomena, urbanization and
Water resource management-rain water harvesting, catchment areas
National Water Policy
Unit IV : Marine resources
Properties of marine water — quality criteria, chemical composition
environmental influences
Mineral and biological resources
Marine farming (fisheries, sea weeds)
Unit V : Forest resources
Forest dynamics, carbon and nutrient budgeting
Use and over-exploitation, Deforestation
Restoration programs
Social and Agro forestry, Joint forest Management. Captive plantations—
case studies
Unit VI : Land resources
Land use pattern, irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide related problems–case
Rangeland management (includes impact of overgrazing)
Minerals — resources and reserves
Utilization and impact assessment of mining — case studies
Restoration of degraded lands
Unit VII : Energy resources
Energy use scenario in India and different parts of the world
Strategies for utilization of conventional and non-conventional energy
sources — case studies
Clean fuel technology
Unit VIII : Sustainable utilization of resources
Concept of sustainability
Temporal and spatial dimensions
Currencies for evaluation of sustainable development
Suggested Readings
1 Ramakrishnan, P. S. (2001). Ecology and Sustainable Development,
National Book Trust, India.
2 Rogers, John, J. W. and P. Geoffrey Feiss (1998). People and Earth:
Basics Issues on the Sustainability of Resources and Environment.
Cambridge University Press.
3 Francis R: Ecology and Natural Resources. John Wiley and Sons,
New York.
4 Sagreiya, K. P. (1994). Forests and Forestry. National Book Trust.,
New Delhi.
5 Miller, G. Tyler (2004). Living in the Environment: Principles,
Connections and Solutions 13th Edition. Pacific Grove CA Brooks/
Cole-Thomson learning.
6 Groombridge, B. and Jenkins, M. D. (2002) World Atlas of Biodiversity
— Earth’s Resources in the 21st Century, University of California
Total Marks : 100
1. Measurement of microclimate variables considering different
parameters such as (a) air temperature; (b) wind velocity; (c) relative
humidity; and (d) light intensity) and correlate with different climatic
conditions and seasonal variations (i) bright sunny day, (ii) rainy day,
(iii) cloudy winter day.
2. Soil analysis
(a) Rapid field test for carbonates, sulphates, chloride, nitrate and
base deficiency.
(b) Determination of pH, field capacity, density and porosity of soil
(c) Study of soil texture using sieve method.
(d) Observation of seedling growth in two soil populations.
(e) Quantitative estimation of oxidisable organic matter present in
the soil.
3. Study of ecological adaptations (through live specimens) of
4. Study of biotic interactions in plants/animals through live materials/
museum specimens/slides/photographs;
Pollination mechanisms (e.g.. Insects and flower structure)
Predation— Drosera / Nephenthes
Parasite —Cuscuta (stem parasite)
Mutualism — Types of Lichens
5. Study of plant community study through field work :
(a) Types of sampling methods — Quadrat, Line transect, Belt
(b) Study of frequency distribution and comparison with Raunkier’s
(c) Study of diversity index of plant species in the college campus.
(d) Study of minimum quadrat size using species area curve.
6. Demonstration experiments:
(a) Models of various ecosystems— Aquatic, Desert and Grassland.
(b) Models/ photographs of Ecological Pyramids and Energy Flow.
7. Data interpretation for Ecological modeling.
8. Submission of projects on any of the following topics :
(a) Energy resources
(b) Environmental Impact—case studies
9. Field Visit to study ex-situ and in-situ conservation of plants and
animals. Submission of field report.
10. Analysis of characters of 10 plants and 10 animals (from published
sources) in the Red Data Book to draw an inference on the reason(s)
behind extinction/threat/rarity.
11. To study the techniques for preservation of plants and animals in the
herbarium and museum.
12. Study of different models of rainwater harvesting.
(Total Lectures: 75)
Total Marks : 100
Unit I Classification
General characteristics and outline classification of different
animal groups (Up to classes for non-chordates and up to orders
for chordates).
Unit II Acoelomates
Locomotion and Reproduction in Protista; Canal System in
Porifera; Metagenesis and Polymorphism in Cnidarians;
Parasitism and Parasitic adaptations in Platyhelminthes.
Unit III Pseudocoelomates
Parasitic adaptations and Evolution of Parasitism.
Unit IV Schizocoelomates
Metamerism and Excretion in Annelids; Vision and Respiration
in Arthropods; Shell and Respiration in Molluscs.
Unit V Enterocoelomates
Water Vascular System in Echinoderms; Respiration and
Osmoregulation in Fishes; Respiration in Amphibians; Terrestrial
adaptations in Reptiles; Respiration and Flight Adaptations in
Birds; Integument in Mammals.
Unit VI Tissues and Glands
Different Types of Tissues in man—Epithelial, Connective,
Muscular and Nervous; Types of Glands.
Unit VII Tissue Physiology
Membrane Potential (Action Potential) and Molecular
mechanism of Muscular Contraction in human beings.
Unit VIII Nutrition and Digestion in Man
Mechanical and Chemical Digestion of food; Control and Action
of Gastrointestinal Tract Secretions; Absorption of Digested
Unit IX Maintenance of Internal Body Environment
w.r.t. Man: Physiological Principles of Gaseous Exchange;
Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Blood; Physiology
of Kidney and Formation of Urine.
Unit X Human Circulatory System
Circulatory Body Fluids; Blood Homeostasis; Heart as a pump;
Conduction of Heart Beat.
Unit XI Human Endocrine System and Reproduction
An Overview of Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones;
Physiology of Human Male and Female Reproduction.
Suggested Readings
1. Barrington, E.J.W. (1971) Invertebrate Structure and Functions.
E.L.B.S. and Nelson.
2. Boradale, L.A. and Potts, F.A. (1961) Invertebrates: A Manual for the
use of Students. Asia Publishing Home.
3. Cambell & Reece. (2005) Biology. Pearson Education.
4. Elaine Marieb, R. N. (2002) Human Anatomy & Physiology. Benjamin/
Cummings Publishing Company, New York and London.
5. Hilderbrand, M. and Gaslow, G.E. (2001) Analysis of Vertebrate
Structure. John Wiley and Sons.
6. Kent, G.C. and Carr R.K. (2001) Comparative Anatomy of the
Vertebrates. The McGraw Companies Inc.
7. Miller, S.A. and Harley, J.B. (2002) Zoology. Tata McGraw Hill
Publishing Company.
8. Parker, T.J. and Haswell, W.A. (1995) Text Book of Zoology—
Vertebrates ELBS and McMillan.
9. Tortora, G.J. and Grabowski, S. (2001) Principles of anatomy and
Physiology. Harper Collins.
10. Vander, A.J. Sherman, J.H. and Luciano, D.S. (1975) Human
Physiology—The Mechanisms of Body Function. McGraw Hill
Publishing Co.
(Total Lectures: 75)
Total Marks : 100
Unit I Diversity of Plants
Evolutionary trends
Unit II Plant Systematics
Taxonomic hierarchy (Kingdom, Division Class, Order, Family,
Genus, Species); nomenclature, artificial, natural, and
phylogenetic systems of classification (Bentham and Hooker’s,
Takhtajan’s systems); biosystematics.
Unit III Viruses and Bacteria
A general account of structure and reproduction; economic
Unit IV Algae
Diagnostic features of identification; morphology, reproduction
and classification with special reference to Volvox, Spirogyra,
Vaucheria, and Polysiphonia; economic importance (a general
Unit V Fungi
Diagnostic features of identification; morphology, reproduction
and classification with special reference to Rhizopus,
Penicillium, Puccinia and Agaricus; lichens (a general account);
economic importance of fungi and lichens.
Unit VI Archegoniatae
Characteristic features of identification, classification and
reproduction of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes with special
reference to Marchantia, Funaria, Selaginella, and Pteris;
concept of apogamy and apospory; economic importance of
bryophytes and pteridophytes.
Unit VII Gymnosperms
Important characteristic features, classification, study of
vegetative structures and reproduction of Pinus, Cycas;
economic importance of gymnosperms.
Unit VIII Angiosperms
Anatomy of root, stem, leaf; structure and function of xylem and
phloem; economy botany of rice, wheat, cotton, spices,
cinchona, tectona, mustard, tea and rubber (a general account);
ecological anatomy.
Unit IX Water Relations
Absorption, transport, transpiration.
Unit X Nutrition
Essential elements, micro and macronutrients, physiological
basis of mineral deficiency, transport of nutrients, biological
nitrogen fixation.
Unit XI Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic pigments, mechanism of photosynthesis (light
& dark) reactions; distinguishing features of C3, C4 and CAM
pathways of carbon fixation.
Unit XII Respiration
Aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration fermentation (different
types); glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, electron transport chain, pentose
phosphate pathway.
Unit XIII Growth and Development
Seed dormancy (causes and methods of overcoming),
photoperiodism, vernalization, phytohormones (auxins,
cytokinins, gibberllins, ethylene, polyamines), signal
transduction (overview).
Suggested Readings :
1. Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims and Blackwell, (1996) Introductory
Mycology. 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc.
2. Bhatnagar, S. P. & Moitra, A, (1996) Gymnosperms. New Age Int.
Publ. House, New Delhi.
3. Carlquist, S. (1981) Comparative Plant Anatomy. Holt, Rienhart &
Winston, New York.
4. Gurcharan Singh (2004) Plant Systematics — Theory and Practice
(2nd Ed.) Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
5. Hopkins, W.G. (1999) Introduction to Plant physiology. John Wiley
and Sons, New York.
6. Lee, R.E. (1999) Physiology (3rd edition, earlier 1989 - 2nd edition).
7. Moore, R. Clarke, W.D., and Vodopich, D. S. (1998) Botany (2nd
edition), McGaw-Hill, New York.
8. Rashid, A. (1999) An introduction to Pteriodophytes, 2nd ed. Vikas
Publ. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
9. Raven, P.H., Evert, K.F., and Eichhorn, S.E. (1999) Biology of Plants
(5th edition). W.H. Freeman and Co. Worth Publishers, New York.
10. Willis, K.J. and McElwaine, J.C. (2002) The Evolution of Plants, Oxford
University Press.
11. Black J.G. (2005) Microbiology: Principles and Exploration 6th edition,
John Wiley & Sons.
Total Marks : 100
I. Biology of Animals : Form, Structure and Function
1. Study of Specimens: Amoeda, Euglena, Paramecium, Leucosolenia,
Sycon, Spongilla, Physalia, Aurelia, Tubipora, Metridium, Taenia,
Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Neries, Aphrodite, Hirudinaria, Palaemon,
Cancer, Palamnaeus, Julus, Scolopendra, Bombyx, Apis, Chiton,
Dentalium, Pila, Pinctada, Octopus, Asterias, Echinus, Cucumaria,
Antedon, Petromyzon, Pristis, Electric Ray, Hippocampus, Clarias,
Gambusia, Labeo, Uraeotyphlus, Salamandra, Rhacophorus,
Chameleon, Draco, Uromastix, Anguis, Naja, Python, Viper, Model
of Archeopteryx, 3 Common Birds (Crow, Duck, Owl), Squirrel and
2. Study of Permanent Slides: T.S. Sycon, T. S. Unio Gill, T.S. Starfish
through Arm
3. Temporary Mounts: Septal and Pharyngeal Nephridia of Earthworm;
Mouth Parts of Cockroach; Placoid, Cycloid and Ctenoid Scales;
Squamous Epithelium; Striated Muscle; Nerve Cell and Blood Film.
4. Dissections: Digestive System and Nervous System of Cockroach;
Afferent branchial System of Scoliodon; Urinogenital System of Rat.
5. Preparation of Haemin and Hemochromogen Crystals.
6. Enumeration of total leukocytes using Haemocytometer.
7. Estimation of Haemoglobin Content of Blood using Sahli’s
8. Pulmonary Volume recording in Humans using Spirometer.
9. Recording of Blood Pressure using Sphygmomanometer.
10. Examination of sections of Oesophagus, Stomach, Ileum, Pancreas,
Kidney, Lung, Adrenal. Thyroid, Ovary and Testis.
II. Biology of Plants: Form, Structure and Function
Marks: 50
1. Viruses: EM of TMV and Bacteriophage, study specimens of virus
infected plants (any two).
2. Bacteria: Types through permanent slides/photographs, specimens
of infected plants (any two).
3. Algae: Study of permanent slides and classification of (a) Volvox,
(b) Spirogyra, (c) Vaucheria, (d) Polysiphonia.
4. Fungi: Mount material to study, and classification, thallus and
reproductive structures in (a) Rhizopus, and (b) Penicillium. Study
from the permanent slides or specimen along with classification: (a)
Rhizopus, (b) Penicillium, (c) Puccinia, (d) Agaricus. Lichen
morphology along with classification.
5. Bryophytes: Study of (a) Marchantia from specimen and permanent
slides only, (b) Funaria: detailed study and classification from W.M.
rhizoids, leaf, operculum, peristome, spores and permanent slides of
archegonia, antheridia and capsule.
6. Pteridophytes: Study of (through temporary/permanent slides) and
classification of (a) Selaginella, (b) Pteris: detailed study of T. S. of
rachis, V.S. of sporophyll and W.M. of sporangium.
7. Gymnosperms: Study of Cycas and Pinus from specimens and
permanent slides only.
8. Angiosperms: Taxonomic study of characters of one plant from each
of the following families: (a) Brassicaceae, (b) Solanaceae, (c)
Asteraceae (d) Liliaceae, (e) Poaceae. Classification according to
the system of Bentham and Hooker. Study of the following tissues
from permanent slides or by maceration; Parenchyma, Collenchyma,
Schlerenchyma, Xylem and Phloem. Study of anatomy of root, stem
and leaf through permanent slides.
9. Study of Economic characters of following sps: Rice, Wheat, Cotton,
Tectona, Mustard, Tea, Rubber Tree, Clove and Pepper.
10. Determination of Osmotic potential in epidermal peel of Rhoeo
11. To study the water potential using potato tuber.
12. Study of stomatal index, stomatal frequency of any plant.
13. To study the effect of light and wind on the rate of respiration.
14. To study the effect of CO2 and light on the rate of photosynthesis.
15. Demonstration of anaerobic respiration by Kuhn’s funnel.
16. To study the rate of respiration in different parts of plants (any two).
17. To demonstrate Hill’s reaction.
Maximum Marks-100
Unit A : Agricultural Botany
Seed Physiology - Seed dormancy, types, factors causing dormancy,
mechanism and methods for breaking seed dormancy, seed viability, seed
vigour, hormonal regulation of seed dormancy and germination.
Physiology of Growth and Yield - Principal of growth analysis, sourcesink
relationship, factors affecting growth, dry matter partitioning and yield,
crop simulations and modeling, use of controlled environment for plant
growth and development studies, concept of phytotronics.
Chemical Regulation of Growth and Development - Role of hormones
in plant growth and development, commercial applications of growth
regulators, growth retardant and its usefulness.
Reproductive Physiology and Senescene - Photoperiodism, flowering
response, photo perception, critical photoperiod, photo-induction,
phytochrome and its role in flowering, hormonal regulation, vernalization,
physiology of fruit ripening, senescence, regulation of senescence.
Unit B : Plant Pathology
Introduction to Plant Pathology - Importance, concepts and types of
plant disease symptoms, causes and classification of diseases.
Fungal Diseases: Causal organism, symptomatology, disease cycle,
prevention and control of the following fungal diseases:
- White rust of crucifers
- Late blight of potato
- Downy mildews
- Powdry mildews
- Rusts of wheat
- Smut of wheat and barley
Bacterial Diseases - Causal organism, symptomatology, prevention and
control of the following bacterial diseases
- Citrus canker
- Angular leaf spots of cotton
Viral Diseases - Causal organism symptomatology, prevention and control
of the following viral diseases
- Tobacco mosaic
- Yellow mosaic of soybean
- Control — Transmission and Control of Plant Diseases
Unit C : Weeds
Biology of Weeds - Ecology of weeds, competition, reproduction of weeds.
Seed biology.
Weed Management Practices - Mechanical Practices, Cultural Practices,
Biological control.
Chemical Weed Control - Herbicide classification, Selectivity of herbicides,
absorption and translocation of herbicides, Mode of action of herbicides,
Detoxification mechanisms of herbicides. Weed resistance to herbicides.
Formulation of herbicides.
Weed Control Methods : Weed control in wheat, rice and vegetable crops.
Control of five abnoxious weeds. Integrated pest management.
Suggested Readings
1. Tai Z, and E. Zeiger, Plant Physiology, The Benjamin/Cumming
Publishing Co.
2. W. G. Hopkins, Introduction to Plant Physiology, John Wiley and Sons
Inc. USA
3. R. C. Mandal, Weed, Weedicides and Weed Control: Principle and
Practice, Agro Botanical Publishers, Delhi.
4. S. Subramanian, All about weed control. Kalyani Publishers.
5. F. M. Ashton and T. J. Monaco, Weed Science: Principles and
Practices. John Wiley and Sons. Inc.
6. V. S. Rao, Principles of Weed Science. Oxford and IBH Publishers,
New Delhi.
7. G. N. Agrios. Plant Pathology, Academic Press, USA.
8. R. S. Singh, Plant Diseases, Oxford and IBH.
9. R. S. Mehrotra, Plant Pathology, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
10. O. P. Sharma, Textbook of Fungi, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
(Total Lectures : 72)
Total Marks : 100
Unit-I Fertilizers
Types of fertilizers, macro nutrients and micro nutrients. Classification,
uses and residual effect of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium fertilizers.
Fertilizer quality control: Principles involved in the analysis of fertilizers;
Chemical titrimetric, methods for estimation of fertilizers.
Economics aspects of fertilizers: Growth and present state of fertilizer
industry in India. Effects of fertilizer production on environmental pollution.
Unit-II Herbicides
Classification, selectivity and uptake of herbicides, chemical, mode of action
of the following classes with special reference to the individual compounds
(a) Aryl alkanoic acids; 2, 4 DMCPA, dicamba and dichlorobenzil,
(b) Aromatic carbamates, barban and asulam.
(c) Triazines; simazine.
(d) Bipyridiniums and paraquat
(e) Sulfonylurea: Chlorosulfuron
(f) Uracils : Bromacil
(g) Ureas : Monuron and Isoprotureon
Unit-III Fungicides
Types of fungicides, mode of action; Chemistry of the following:
(a) copper and mercury derivatives
(b) Dithiocarbamates; thiram, ziram, nabam,
(c) Dinitro phenols; 2, 4-dinitro o-cresol (DNOC) karathane
(d) Quinines; dichlone
(e) Benzimidazoles, benomyl.
(f) Organo phosphorus fungicides: Kitazine
(g) Phenyl amides: Metalaxyl
(h) Triazoles : Propiconazole
(i) Thiophanates : Thiophanates.
Role of fumigants and fumigation techniques.
Suggested Readings
1. K. S. Buchal. Chemistry of Pesticides, John Wiley and Sons.
2. J. L. Havlin, J. D. Baton, S. L. Tisdali and V. L. Nelson. Soil fertility
and fertilizer. Pearson Education, USA.
3. A. S. Crafts. Chemistry and mode of action of herbicides, John Wiley.
4. Fertilizers, Manual, UNIDO.
5. Hanbook Fertilizers. Fertilizer Association of India.
6. R. Cremlyn. Pesticide preparation and mode of action. John Wiley.
7. K. A. Hassal. Chemistry of Pesticides, McMillan Press.
8. A. C. Edwards. Pesticides in the environment, CRC Press.
9. N. N. Melnikov, Chemistry of Pesticides, MIR Publications.
Total Marks : 100
1. To study opening and closing of stomata.
2. To determine stomatal index of the given leaf.
3. To study the effect of ethylene on shelf life of cut flowers.
4. To study the effect of cytokinin on leaf senescence.
5. To study effect of heavy metals on growth and development.
6. To study some common fungal diseases of crop plants.
7. To test the viability of weed seeds.
8. To find organic matter of soil.
9. To evaluate allelopathic effects of weeds on seed germination of crop
10. To evaluate effect of herbicides on seed germination and seedling
growth of weeds.
1. Determination of Moisture content in urea by Karl Fisher method.
2. Estimation of Biuret in urea.
3. Determination of Free acidity in ammonium sulfate (Titrametric)
4. Determination of calcium nitrate in calcium ammonium nitrate.
5. Determination of urea in given urea sample.
6. Determination of chlorides other than ammonium chloride in
ammonium chloride fertilizers.
7. Determination of Zinc in zinc sulphate.
8. Preparation of 2, 4-D, zineb, Bordeaux mixture.
9. Estimation of water soluble phosphorus in single and triple super
(For B3, B4 and D4 Combination)
(Four Lectures plus one tutorial per week)
Internal Assessment 38 marks
Total marks 150
Examination 112 marks
Duration 3 Hours
Unit I : Geometry and Vector Calculus (35 L) 38
Techniques for sketching parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Reflection
properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Classification of quadratic
equations representing lines, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Polar
equations of conic sections.
Rectangular coordinates in 3-space: spheres, cylindrical surfaces cones,
and vectors - viewed geometrically vectors in coordinate system, vectious
determine by length and angle, dot product, cross product and their
geometrical properties.
Parametric equations of lines in plane, planes in 3- space.
Differentiation of vector valued functions, gradient, divergence, curl and
their geometrical interpretation.
Unit II: Calculus (45 L) 58
Definition and techniques for finding asymptotes singular points, concavity,
convexity, points of inflexion for functions. Tracing of standard curves.
Integration of irrational functions. Reduction formulae. Rectification.
Quadrature. Volumes and Surfaces of revolution.
Limit and continuity of a function: (e, d) and sequential approach. Properties
of continuous functions including intermediate value theorem. Uniform
continuity. Differentiability. Derboux’s theorem, Rolle’s theorem. Lagrange’s
mean value theorem, Cauchy mean value theorem with geometrical
Unit III: Geometry of complex numbers and polynomial equations
(16 L) 16
Geometrical representation of algebraic operations on complex numbers.
Section formula, Centroid, Incentre, orthocentre and Circumcentre of a
triangle in complex form. Lines, half planes, circles, discs in terms of
complex variables. Statement of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
and its consequences. Relation between roots and coefficients for a
polynomial equation. Results about occurence of repeated roots, rational
roots, surd roots and complex roots. De Moivre’s theorem for rational
indices and its simple applications.
Recommended Readings
1. H. Anton. I. Bivens and S. Davis, Calculus, John Wiley and Sons Pvt.
Ltd, 2002.
2. Frank Ayres, Jr. & Elliott Mandelson, Calculus, Fourth Edition, Tata
McGraw Hill, 2005.
3. E. Fischer, Intermediate Real Analysis, Springer Verlag, 1983.
4. A. I. Kostrikin: Introduction to Algebra, Springer Verlag, 1984.
5. K. A. Ross, Elementary Analysis – The Theory of Calculus Series—
Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer Verlag, 2003.
6. S. L. Salas, E. Hille and G. J. Etgen, Calculus of one and several
variables, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1999.
7. Murray R. Spiegel, Vector Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005.
8. G. B. Thomas and R. L. Finney: Calculus and Analytic Geometry,
Pearson Education (Singapore), 2001.
(70 Lectures)
Total Marks : 100
Thermodynamics: (10 L)
Zeroth and first law of thermodynamics. Reversible and irreversible
processes. Carnot’s cycle, Carnot’s theorem. Second law of
thermodynamics and entropy. Thermodynamic temperature. Entropy
change in reversible and irreversible processes. Thermodynamic potentials.
Enthalpy, Gibbs’ and Helmholtz’s functions.
Kinetic Theory (10 L)
Derivation of Maxwell’s law of distribution of velocities and its experimental
verification. Law of equipartition of energy and its application to specific
that heat of gases. Mean free path, Drude’s theory of metallic conduction.
Statistical Mechanics (15 L)
Recapitulation of micro and Macro states, thermodynamic probability.
Partition function, Entropy, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.
Thermodynamic properties of ideal gas.
Bose- Einstein distribution function, thermodynamic properties of photon
gas, Planck’s Law, Rayleigh Jean’s and Wein’s Law displacement law and
Stefan- Boltzman Law.
Fermi- Dirac Statistic, Completely degenerate Fermi gas.
Electromagnetism (35 L)
Coulomb’s law, electric field intensity and electric potential. Gauss’s law
and its applications. Electric field in a dielectric media.
Magnetic induction and Bio-Savart law. Divergence and curl of magnetic
induction. Lorentz’s force on a point charge. Charged particle dynamics
in uniform electric and magnetic field. Ohm’s law, electromagnetic force,
Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Energy stored in magnetic
Conservation of charge, modification of Ampere’s law, Maxwell’s equations
in vacuum and in matter. Boundary conditions.
Electromagnetic waves; Wave equation, plane wave solution, transverse
nature, wave velocity, description of linear, circular and elliptical polarization
pointing theorem. Electromagnetic waves in non-conducting and conducting
medium, reflection and refraction at normal incidence, skin depth. Wave
propagation in dilute ionized media.
Recommended Readings
F. W. Sears and G. I. Salinger: Thermodynamics. Kinetic Theory and
Statistical Thermodynamics.
David J. Griffiths: Introduction to Electrodynamics, 2nd Edition (Prentice
Hall India).
Total Marks : 50
1. Determination of Stefan’s constant.
2. Thermal conductivity of good conductor by Searle’s method.
3. Temperature coefficient of resistance by PRT.
4. Calibration of Thermocouple.
5. Joule mechanical equivalent by Callender and Barnes method.
6. Low resistance by Carey foster’s bridge.
7. Study of ballistic galvanometer (charge sensitivity, CDR)
8. Ratio of capacitances by De Saughty’ method.
9. Mutual inductance by absolute method.
10. High resistance by leakage method.
11. Self inductance by Anderson’s bridge (ac).
12. B-H curve solenoid.
Note : At least eight experiments should be performed by each student.
(75 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
Section - A — General Sericulture
1. Introduction to sericulture (3 L)
Introduction, scope of sericulture.
2. Origin & History of Sericulture (5 L)
Origin of Sericulture, Silk Road, Spread of sericulture to various parts
of world.
3. Silk Industries (5 L)
World silk production, Production of silk in India, Export potential &
exports from India, An overview of silk industries in the world with
special reference to India.
4. Different types of Sericulture (18 L)
Mulberry & Non-mulberry sericulture-Introduction and their
importance, Mulberry sericulture practices in different conditions,
factors affecting silk production. Non Mulberry Sericulture: Wild Silks/
Vanya Silks of India, Different types of Non Mulberry silks — tasar,
eri and muga and their culture — Primary and secondary food plans,
propagation of primary food plants, morphological features of
silkworms, rearing techniques, seed cocoon production/grainage
operations, pathogens, pests and predators, reeling process —
traditional and modern, reeling and weaving sectors, employment
5. Sericulture Education & Development (10 L)
Extension education, role of sericulture in rural development,
Communication, Extension teaching methods, Importance of
sericulture education, Sericulture education through universities,
research institutes, NGO and other related organizations Role of
various agencies in spreading sericulture at state and national level,
need for sericulture development, Financial support system in India.
Economics of sericulture.
Section - B — Soil Science
1. Introduction to soils (8 L)
Classification, types of rocks, soil profile, factors affecting soil
development, Chief soil types of India.
2. Physical Properties of soil (10 L)
Soil texture, structure, density and porosity, permeability, colour,
temperature, plasticity, cohesion and adhesion, aeration, drainage.
Soil Water — Classification, measurement, irrigation, management.
3. Chemical properties of soil (13 L)
Inorganic and organic components, Colloidal properties of many clays,
Fe-AI oxide clays, isomorphous substitution Percent base saturation,
Soil reaction and buffering action, factors affecting soil fertility,
availability of nutrients in soil, Problem soils and their reclamation.
4. Soil organic matter (5 L)
Humus, role of humus, factors affecting rate of humification, Nitrogen
and organic matter management in soil, role of soil microorganism.
5. Soil requirement for mulberry (2 L)
Physical and chemical properties of soil required for mulberry.
Suggested Readings
1. Agarwal, H. O. and Sethi, M. K.: Sericulture in India - Volume - I,
2000, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Publishers and Distributors
of Scientific Books, Dehradun.
2. FAO United Nations, Rome: F A O Manuals on Sericulture
(Volume I— Mulberry Cultivation, II — Silkworm Rearing, III — Silk
Reeling, IV — Non-Mulberry Silks), FAO, united Nations, Rome.
3. Koshey, T.D.: Silk: Production and Export Management, Ashish
Publishing House, New Delhi.
4. Koshey, T.D.: Silk Exports and Development, Ashish Publishing
House, New Delhi.
5. Brady, N. C.: Nature and Properties of Soil, 9th Edition, The Macmillan
Publishing Co., Reprint, 1998.
6. Shukla, R. S. and Chandel, P. S. : Plant Ecology and Soil Science,
9th Revised and Enlarged Edition, S. Chand & Company Ltd., 2000.
(75 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
Section - A — Mulberry
1. Introduction to Mulberry (10 L)
Salient features of Moraceae, Mulberry, Distribution, Factors affecting
Habitat, morphology and variations, Important Cultivars of Mulberry
and their characteristics, Anatomy and Embryology, Economic
Importance of Mulberry with special reference to sericulture.
2. Mulberry Physiology (8 L)
An Overview of transpiration, photosynthesis, phytohormones, relation
between growth and environment, water stress and physiological
consequences, role of essential elements.
3. Establishment of Mulberry Garden (6 L)
Under irrigated and rain fed conditions, Planting Season, Selection
and Preparation of Land, Selection and planting of Material, Planting
systems, Inter cultivation practices.
4. Propagation of Mulberry (12 L)
Nursery practices, propagation through various methods, manures
and fertilizers, inter cultivation practices, mulching and weed
management, plant nutrition management, water management in
mulberry cultivation, pruning and its significance, leaf harvesting and
effects on mulberry, harvesting methods, transportation and
preservation of mulberry leaves.
5. Estimation of Leaf Yield and Economics (3 L)
Importance of Leaf Quality and Quantity, Leaf — Cocoon ratio,
Economics of Mulberry cultivation.
Section - B — Silkworm
1. Introduction to Silkworm (5 L)
Systematic position and characteristic features, classification on the
basis of geographical regions, moultinism and voultinism, life cycle.
2. Anatomy and Physiology (20 L)
Study of different organ systems — digestive, excretory, respiratory,
circulatory, muscular, nervous and reproductive, Glands and their
secretions. Silk Glands — Location, structure and function, embryonic
development. Concept of synthetic diet in sericulture.
3. General Account of disinfectants and relative efficiencies (3 L)
4. Silkworm Rearing (8 L)
Rearing Appliances and their disinfection; Different rearing methods
and practices; Different phases of silkworm culture, rearing in
traditional and non-traditional areas.
Suggested Readings
1. Agarwal, H. O. and Sethi, M. K. : Sericulture in India — Volume - II &
III, 2000, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal singh Publishers and
Distributors of Scientific Books, Dehradun.
2. FAO United Nations, Rome: FAO Manuals on Sericulture (Volume I -
Mulberry Cultivation, Volume - II — Silkworm Rearing, FAO, United
Nations, Rome.
3. Ganga, G. and Shetty, J. S. : Introduction to Sericulture, Oxford &
IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1991.
4. Jolly, M. S.: Appropriate Sericulture Techniques, Director, ICTRETS,
5. Sarkar, Dilip De: Silkworm Biology., Breeding and Genetics, 1st
Edition, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, 1998.
(Based on Paper SC 201 & SC 202)
Total Marks: 100
1. Sericulture maps of the world and India, Silk Road, organizational
set up of Sericulture in India.
2. Preparation of histogram, pie charts and line graphs on important
sericultural data e.g., World silk production, Silk and other silk fibers
in India, Different types of silk production in India, Mulberry silk
production in different states, Mulberry and non-mulberry silk
production in India, Silk production over period of ten years, Silk yarn
and other textile fibers production over period of ten years.
3. Identification and study of sericulture products. Different types of
Cocoons and silk yarn. Identification and study of sericulture byproducts:
pupae, silk waste, spun yarn, noil yarn and other byproducts.
4. Comparative account of economics of sericulture and other cash crops
e.g., tobacco. sugarcane, cotton etc.
5. Morphological study of primary food plants of non-mulberry silk worms.
6. Morphology of egg., larvae, pupae and moths of different non-mulberry
7. Study of appliances used in rearing and seed preparation of nonmulberry
8. Study of different reeling machines in non-mulberry sericulture
(drawing and sketches), (identification of different yarns.
9. Microscopic observation of different pathogens of non-mulberry
10. Soil sample analysis: Soil profile, soil colour, bulk and particle density,
porosity, water holding capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, CaCO3
organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus potassium and sodium content.
11. Preparation of Non-Projected visual aids for sericulture extension
purpose, Result and Method Demonstration, Use of Audio Visual Aids.
12. Conduction of survey at a village level to study the rate of adoption of
any one technique through questionnaire method.
13. Preparation of Sericulture Project & Feasibility report for taking up
sericulture in a new area.
14. General habitat and structure of mulberry plant.
15. Botanical aspects of Mulberry — Inflorescence, flower, fruit, floral
formula and diagram. Anatomy: Structure of primary and secondary
root, stem, Structure of mulberry leaf.
16. Identification of different mulberry varieties e.g., V-1, K-2, Mysore
local, S-13, S-34, S-36, S-54.
17. Propagation and nursery preparation, Cultivation practices for irrigated
and rain-fed conditions, Calculation of manures and fertilizer doses.
18. Common Weeds and their control.
19. Harvesting methods and estimation of leaf yield.
20. Characteristics of some evolved varieties of mulberry, study of disease
resistant and draught tolerant genotypes of mulberry.
21. Study of bio fertilizers, green manures, growth hormones used in
mulberry cultivation.
22. Microchemical tests for detection of proteins in mulberry.
23. Biochemical analysis of leaves of various mulberry cultivars for soluble
proteins, crude proteins, ash content, chlorophyll (a , b and total) and
moisture percentage.
24. Study of life cycle of Bombyx mori, morphology of different stages
and sexual dimorphism.
25. Dissection and display of Digestive system, Silk glands, Nervous
system, Reproductive system of male and female moth and mounting
of mouth parts and spiracles.
26. Cocoon characters of different silkworm races — univoltine, bivoltine
and multivoltine races.
27. Disinfectants — Different types, concentration and preparation.
28. Silkworm Rearing — Models of rearing houses, rearing appliances
and their uses. A complete silkworm rearing program and submission
of silkworm life cycle and rearing report.
29. A Visit to pre cocoon sector of sericulture, research institutes.
One Elective Subject in II year may be chosen out of the following:
Sr. No. Subject
1. Economics
2. Entrepreneurship
3. Organizational Behaviour
4. Psychology
5. Financial Accounting
6. Financial Management
A Project of equivalent weightage in any one of these elective
EL 210 (i) : ECONOMICS
(Total Lectures: 50)
Total Marks: 50
The purpose of this course is to expose the students of science stream
to the basic principles and concepts of Economics.
Unit I: Microeconomics
What economics is all about: Choice making and the concept of
opportunity cost; Micro and macroeconomics; Positive and normative
economics; Construction of an economic theory.
Market forces of demand and supply: Determinants; Market
equilibrium; Role of price mechanism in solving central problems of
an economy.
Consumer’s behaviour: Consumer’s equilibrium and law of demand
through ‘utility analysis’ and ‘indifference curve analysis’. Price
elasticity of demand. Consumer surplus.
Producer’s Behaviour: Input - Output relation; output-cost relation;
Price elasticity of supply.
Price determination and equilibrium of firm: Rules of equilibrium
of firm; Price determination and equilibrium of firm under perfect
competition, monopoly and monopolistic competition; Game theory—
Dominant strategy, Nash equilibrium, and Prisoners’ Dilemma.
International trade: Basis; Theory of comparative cost advantage;
sources of comparative advantage.
Unit - II: Macroeconomics
Issues; National income — meaning and the three approaches;
Concepts of economic growth, economic development, economic
welfare and sustainable development.
Money: Meaning; functions; money supply.
Banking: Basic Structure; Commercial banks — functions, creation
of money. Central bank — functions, regulation of credit creation.
Balance of payments: Meaning; format (India); autonomous and
induced transactions.
Foreign exchange: Meaning; Determination of foreign exchange rate.
Government budget: Format (India); taxation; government
expenditure; fiscal deficit (basic elements only).
Suggested Readings
1. Karl E. Case and Ray C. Fair Principles of Economics, Prentice Hall,
Pearson Education, (6th Ed.).
2. R. Lipsey and A. Chrystal; Economics, Oxford University Press, (10th
( 50 Lectures)
Total marks: 50
The purpose of this paper is to provide to the students of science an
awareness and appreciation of the desirability and feasibility of
entrepreneurship as an alternative career option vis-a-vis employment.
Unit I
Introduction to the world of business and entrepreneurship. The spectrum
of business activities— industry, trade and commerce. Growing importance
of services sector in the economy and the resurgence of Indian
manufacturing sector. An awareness of the forms of business organization.
Meaning and importance of entrepreneurship. Role and functions of
entrepreneurs in relation to the business and in relation to economic
development. Virtues of being your own boss (YOB) vis-à-vis JOB.
Unit II
Entrepreneurship as an interface between the personal abilities and
motivations and the environmental influences. Theories of entrepreneurship
with emphasis on resource based theories. Role of personal resources —
business background, education and work experience and technical,
conceptual and interpersonal skills. Entrepreneurial motivation.
Contemporary role models from the world of business. (The students may
be advised to read Business Magazines and Browse the internet for writeups
on living entrepreneurs). Entrepreneurial environment impact of WTO
on entrepreneurship. Dynamics of the relationship between science,
technology and entrepreneurship. Roles of technology parks, business
incubators and venture capital.
Unit III
Opportunity scouting for business venturing. Primary and secondary
sources of information on business opportunities. Schemes of
entrepreneurship development, especially those relating to science and
technology entrepreneurship. Salient sectors and prominent clusters of
entrepreneurship. (The students may be advised to focus on the chosen
one, two or three industries and examine their structure thoroughly).
Emerging business opportunities: Franchising, Multilevel Marketing,
E-commerce and Business Process Outsourcing.
Unit IV
Test of feasibility for the proposed business idea and development of a
business plan. Aspects of techno-economic and commercial-financial and
legal-administrative feasibility. Issues in developing and presenting a
business plan. Role of consultancy organizations and utility of off the shelf
project Reports.
Unit V
Mobilising resources for implementing the business plan. Industrial
accommodation, utilities, capital and human resources. Implementation
schedule. Review of the process of entrepreneurship in a business lifecycle
Suggested Readings
1. Gupta, C. B. and Srinivasan, Entrepreneurship and Small Business
Development, New Delhi, Sultan Chand & Sons.
2. Dollinger, Marc J., Entrepreneurship: Strategies and Resources
Illinols, lrwin.
3. Saxena, Anand, Entrepreneurship; Motivation, Performance and
Rewards, Deep & Deep Publications, New Delhi.
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks: 50
The purpose of this paper is to provide the students of science, a basic
understanding of the concepts and processes of organisational behaviour
to equip them with the necessary skills to manage human behaviour at
Unit I: Introduction
Significance of Organisational Behaviour
Contribution of Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology to the field of
Organisational Behaviour. Models of Organisational Behaviour. Basic Roles
of Managers.
Unit II: Individual in the Organisation
Personality : Traits and Types. Attitudes and Values. Perception — Process
and Factors. Rationality in Decision-Making. Motivation — Maslow and
Herzberg Models. Role of Incentives.
Unit III: Interpersonal Behaviour
Transactional Analysis — Ego States, Life Positions. Interpersonal
Conflicts, Interpersonal Communication.
Unit IV: Group Behaviour
Group Dynamics. Informal Organisation. Team decision-making.
Leadership — Concept and Styles.
Unit V: Contemporary Issues in Organisational Behaviour
Creating and Sustaining Organisational Culture. Managing Workforce
Diversity. Managing Change and Creating Learning Organisation.
Suggested Readings
1. Davis, Keith, Organisational Behaviour : Human Behaviour at work,
Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1999.
2. Luthans, Fred, Organisational Behaviour, Tata McGraw-Hill, New
Delhi, 2003.
3. Sharma, R. A., Organisational Behaviour, Sultan Chand & Sons, New
Delhi, 2005.
4. Mirza, Saiyadain, Organisational Behaviour, Tata McGraw-Hill, New
Delhi, 2001.
5. Chhabra, T. N., Organisational Behaviour, Dhanpat Rai & Co., Delhi,
6. Chopra, R.K. Organisational Behaviour, Sun India, Delhi, 2005.
7. Pareek Udai, Understanding Organisational Behaviour, Tata McGraw-
Hill, New Delhi, 2001.
EL 201 (iv) : PSYCHOLOGY
(Total Lectures: 50)
Total Marks: 50
The objectives of this course is to provide the students an up-to-date
knowledge of the key concern of psychology in context of the Self and
others. The course also intends to develop an understanding of the problems
and concerns of everyday life and the strategies for healthy living.
Unit I Introduction to Psychology
Nature and Perspective Definition, Psychology as a Science,
History of Psychology — Early schools to Modern perspectives,
Methods, Scope and application — various fields of Psychology.
Unit II Emotions
Understanding of emotions — Definition, Physiological basis,
theories; Expressing emotions verbal and non-verbal
expressions; Management of emotions.
Unit III Self and Motivation
Understanding self and self-concept, Meaning of Motivation —
Definition, Motivational cycle, types of motivation; Personal
Motivation — self-direction and self-efficacy.
Unit IV Social Influences
Social perception — Impression formation and attribution. Social
influence — conformity; Social relationships — inter-personal
attraction, Development and maintenance of relationships.
Unit V Stress and well being: Meaning of stress; Causes and
reactions to stress; Coping and managing stress; well being —
Meaning and Promotion.
Suggested Readings
1. Morgan, C.T. King, R. A., J.R. & Schopler, J., Introduction to
Psychology, Tata McGraw India, (2002).
2. Kassin, S. Psychology., Prentice-Hall Inc. New York. 2001.
3. Atwater. E., Psychology for Living Adjustment, Growth and Behaviour
Today, Prentice-Hall India, 5th Ed.
4. Myers, D. G. Social Psychology. Mc-Graw Hill, 1999.
5. Taylor, S. E., Health Psychology, Mc-Graw Hill, 1999.
(50 Lecture)
Total Marks: 50
The objective of this paper is to acquaint the students with basic concepts
and techniques of financial accounting for business concerns and exposure
to the published financial statements.
Unit I Financial Accounting
Meaning, objectives and users. Theory base of accounting including
conceptual framework, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
(GAAPS) and An overview of accounting standards issued by the
Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. Basis of Accounting—
Cash and Accrual.
Unit II Accounting process
(Journal, Ledger and Trial Balance) and preparation of financial
statements for non-corporate form of business.
Unit III Accounting for depreciation
Straight Line Method and Written down Value Method. Inventory
Valuation: FIFO and Weighted Average Method.
Unit IV Accounting for companies
As per the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956. Preparation
of the financial statements as per Schedule VI of the Companies
Act: Horizontal form and Vertical form.
Unit V Financial Statement Analysis
Ratios Analysis. Cash flow statement as per accounting
standard - 3.
Suggested Readings
1. Karl S. Warren & James M. Reeve & Philip E. Fees, Financial
Accounting, Thomas Asia Private Limited, Singapore, First Indian
Reprint, 2003.
2. Shukla, Grewal and Gupta, Advanced Accounts, Vol. I and 2 ,
S. Chand & Company, (2005).
3. Sehgal Ashok and Sehgal Deepak. Advanced Accounting Vol. 1 and
2, Taxmann Allied Co. Private Limited, (2005).
4. Monga J. R., Financial Accounting, Mayur Paper Book, New Delhi,
5. Gupta Nirmal, Financial Accounting, Sultan Chand & Sons, (2005).
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks: 50
The objective of the paper is to acquaint the students with basic concepts
of financial management. It deals with short-term as well as long-term
investment and financing decision.
Unit I Introduction to Financial Management
Its nature and scope. Type of Financial decisions. Objectives of
Financial Management. Time value of money. Concept of risk and
Unit II Capital Budgeting Decision
Meaning, Types, Decision Criterion, Calculation of Relevant Cash
Flows, Methods of evaluation (Discounted cash flow methods and
Non-discounted cash flow methods). Simple Problems on Capital
Budgeting. Concept of cost of capital. Weighted average cost of
Unit III Financing Decision
Basic sources of finance. Meaning of Capital Structure. Financial
Leverage. EBIT-EPS Analysis. Simple problems on NI, NOI, and
MM Hypothesis (without taxes).
Unit IV Dividend Decision
Theories (Walter, Gordon, MM Hypotheses), Determinants of
dividend decisions. Stability of Dividend. Simple Problems on
Dividend and Valuation of Firm.
Unit V Working Capital management
Concept and importance of working capital. Elements of Working
Capital. Determinants of Working Capital. Simple Problems on
estimation of working capital requirement.
Suggested Readings
1. Vanhorne, Financial Management and Policy, Prentice Hall, India
2. Pandey, I. M., Financial Management, Vikas Publications, (2005).
3. Khan, M.Y. and Jain, P. K. Financial Management, Tata McGraw
Hill, (2005).
4. Rustagi, R.P., Fundamentals of Financial Management, Galgotia
Publishers, New Delhi, (2006).
3rd Year
(3 Lectures per week)
Unit I Transition Elements and Coordination Chemistry
Transition elements
General group trends with special reference to electronic configuration,
variable valency, colour, magnetic and catalytic properties, ability to form
complexes and stability of various oxidation states (Latimer diagram) for
3d-series. 6
Lanthanoides and actinodes : electronic configurations. Oxidation states,
colour, spectral and magnetic properties, lanthanide contraction,
separation of lanthanoides (ion exchange method only). 4
Chemistry of 3d metals:Chemistry (excluding metallurgy) of chromium,
manganese, iron and cobalt in various oxidation states and their biological
importance. 11
Coordination chemistry
Valence bond Theory (VBT): Inner and outer orbital complexes of Cr,
Fe, Co, Ni and Cu (coordination numbers 4 and 6). Structural and
Steroisomerism in complexes with coordination numbers 4 and 6.
Drawbacks of VBT.
IUPAC system of Nomenclature.
Hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) concept as applied to complexes. 8
Crystal field theory: Crystal field effect. Octahedral symmetry. Crystal
field stabilization energy (CFSE). Crystal field effects for weak and strong
fields. Tetrahedral symmetry. Factors affecting the magnitude of ?.
Spectrochemical series. Comparison of CFSE for Oh and Td complexes.
Tetragonal distortion of octahedral geometry. Jahn-Teller distortion.
Square planar coordination. 10
Unit II Organometallic Compounds (6 L)
Organometallic compounds
Definition and classification based on nature of metal-carbon bond (ionic,
s, p and multicentre bond). Structures of methyl lithium, Zeiss salt and
ferrocene. EAN rule as applied to carbonyls. Preparation, structure,
bonding and properties of mononuclear and polynuclear carbonyls. of 3d
metals. p – acceptor behaviour of carbon monoxide. Synergic effect (VB
approach). 6
Unit III Solid State & Molecular Symmetry (11 L)
Bravais lattices. Identification of lattice planes. Miller indices. X-ray
diffraction. The Bragg Law. Types of crystals— molecular, covalent,
metallic and ionic with examples. Characteristics of these crystals.
Structures of NaCl, CsCl, ZnS & CaCl2. Point defects in ionic crystals.
Colour centers and dislocations. 6
Molecular Symmetry
Symmetry elements and symmetry operations: identity (E). rotation about
an axis (Cn), improper rotation (Sn). Plane of symmetry and center of
symmetry. Assignment of point groups for simple molecules. Important
information from point groups of molecules. 5
Chemical Kinetics
Derivation of first and second order rate equations (both for equal and
unequal concentrations of reactants) Half life time. Methods for
determining the order of a reaction. Influence of temperature on reaction
rate. Activation energy and its calculation from Arrhenius equation.
Lindemann Theory of unimolecular reactions. Complex reactions such as
consecutive reactions, parallel reactions and opposing reactions (with
examples) and their differential rate equations only.
Theories of Reaction Rates: Collision theory and Activated Complex theory
of bimolecular reactions. Comparison of the two theories.
Introduction to Femtochemistry.
Mechanism and kinetics of enzyme catalysed reactions— Michaelis-
Menten equation. Effect of temperature on enzyme catalysis. 10
Absorption of light. Lambert-Beer law. Primary and secondary effects of
light absorption, Laws of photochemistry, Quantum efficiency-Reasons for
low and high quantum yields, Photoelectric cells. Phosphorescence and
fluorescence. Jablonski diagram. Chemiluminescence. 4
(3 Lectures per week)
Unit I Polynuclear, Hetero-Aromatic Compounds & Polymers (15 L)
Polynuclear and Hetero-aromatic compounds
Preparation and properties of the following compounds and important
derivatives-Naphthalene (including structure elucidation). Anthracene,
Pyrrole, Furan, Thiophene, Pyridine and Quinoline. 7
Definition and classification. Mechanism of polymerization (ionic, free
radical and Ziegler-Natta catalyst). Preparation, properties and uses of
the following polymers-nylons, polyesters, polyvinyl chloride, teflon,
bakelite, urea and melamine-formaldehyde resins. Natural rubber
(isolation, structure and vulcanization). Synthetic elastomers-buna-S, butyl
rubber, polyurethane and foam.
Use of additives in improving environmental degradability of vinyl polymers
(polyethylene). Development of bio-degradable polymers-polylactic acid
and polyhydroxybutyric acid. 8
Unit II Natural Products (20 L)
Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins
Natural and essential amino acids: Synthesis of simple amino acids by
following methods- Amination of haloacids. Gabriel’s phthalimide, malonic
ester and Erlenmeyer azlactone synthesis. Configuration of natural amino
acids and their properties.
Peptides: Primary structure determination by degradation, N-terminal
(Edman and DNP method), C-terminal (hydrazinolysis) and hydrolysis of
peptides. Synthesis of simple tripeptides only. Synthesis of peptides-by
use of N-protecting groups.
(t-butyloxycarbonyl and phthaloyl) C-activating groups, Merrifield solidphase
Proteins: Importance, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary
structures (definition only). 10
Carbohydrates: Definition, classification and nomenclature. Determination
of configuration of monosaccharides. Ascending and descending of
monosaccharides series. Interconversion of aldoses and ketoses,
Structure elucidation of glucose and fructose (open chain and cyclic),
mutarotation. Structure of sucrose, starch and cellulose (excluding
structure elucidation).
Alkaloids: Definition and classification. Structure, synthesis and uses of
Atropine. 10
Unit III Spectroscopy (10 L)
Ultraviolet and Visible: Electromagnetic radiations, electronic transitions
? max, chromophore, auxochrome, batho and hypsochromic shifts.
Application of electronic spectroscopy and Woodward rules for calculating
? max of conjugated dienes and a, ß - unsaturated carbonyl compounds.
Colour and constitution.
Infra red: IR radiations and types of molecular vibrations. Functional group
and finger print region. Sampling in IR spectroscopy, IR spectra of alkanes,
alkenes, alcohols (Inter and Intramolecular hydrogen bonding), aldehydes,
ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives (effect of substitution
on > C=O stretching absorptions).
Unit IV Quantum Chemistry & Molecular Spectroscopy (16 L)
Postulates of quantum mechanics. Discussion of observables and
quantum mechanical operators. Writing the time independent. Schrödinger
equation for different systems (e.g. particle in a box, rigid rotator, linear
harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom). Interpretation of wave function.
What is spectroscopy? Importance of spectroscopy. Role of quantum
mechanics in spectroscopy. Difference between atomic and molecular
spectroscopy. Absorption and emission spectroscopy. Regions of the
electromagnetic spectrum. Width and intensity of spectral lines. Born-
Openheimer approximation. Separation of molecular energies into
translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic components.
Translational motion: Schrödinger equation for a particle in one
dimensional box and its results (solution not required). Quantisaiton of
the translational energy levels; properties of the solutions; Generalisation
to three dimensions, concept of degeneracy.
Rotational motion: Schrödinger equation of a rigid diatonic rotator and
its results (solution not required). Quantisation of rotational energy levels.
Microwave (pure rotational) spectra of diatomic molecules. Selection rules,
Structural information from rotational spectra.
Vibrational motion: Schrödinger equation for a linear harmonic oscillator
and its results (solution not required). Brief discussion of results.
Quantisation of vibrational energy levels. Infrared (Vibrational) Spectra of
diatomic molecules. Selection rules. Structural information from vibrational
Raman spectra: A brief introduction. Rotational Raman Spectra and
Vibrational-Raman spectra. Structural information from Raman Spectra.
Vibrations of polyatomic molecules. (e.g. CO2, H2O) (qualitative treatment),
Normal modes of Vibration.
Unit V Surface Chemistry & Polymers (9 L)
Surface Chemistry : Adsorption by solids. Langmuir theory of adsorption
of a gas on a solid. Langmuir adsorption isotherm. BET theory of multilayer
adsorption of a gas on a solid. BET equation (derivation not required).
Calculation of surface area of adsorbent from the BET equation. Types
of adsorption isotherms. Adsorption chromatography. 4
Polymers: Different schemes of classification of polymers. Molar mass
of polymers and its distribution- the number average and mass average
molar masses. Methods of determining molar mass-osmotic pressure,
sedimentation, viscosity and light scattering methods. Introduction to
electrically conducting polymers. 5
Note : Practical examination will include three exercises — one each out
of the following physical, organic and inorganic chemistry
1. Determination of partition coefficient for iodine between water and
carbon tetrachloride.
2. Construction of a phase diagram of a binary system (ureanaphthalene)
by cooling curves method.
3. Study of the kinetics of the hydrolysis of methyl acetate in presence
of hydrochloric acid using (i) initial rate method and (ii) integrated
rate method.
4. Analysis of the given organic compounds containing only one of the
following functional groups:
Carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes & ketones,
carbohydrates (monosaccharides), acid amides, aromatic nitro
compounds, aromatic primary amines.
5. Preparation of tetraamminecarbanatocobalt (III) nitrate and
measurement of its conductivity.
6. (a) Preparation of potassium trioxalatoferrate (III) trihydrate and
measurement of its conductivity.
(b) Estimate the amount of iron present in the above complex or
in a standard solution as Fe2O3 gravimetrically.
7. Estimation of the amount of nickel present in a given solution as Bis
(dimethylglyoximato) nickel (II) gravimetrically.
8. Estimation of (i) Mg2- or (ii) Zn2- by complexometric titrations using
9. Estimation of total hardness of a given sample of water by
complexometric titration.
10. Determination of the composition of the Fe3+ -salicylic acid complex
in solution by Job’s method.
Suggested Readings
1. James E. Huheey, Ellen Keiter and Richard Keiter: Inorganic
Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, Pearson
2. G.L. Miessler and Donald A. Tarr: Inorganic Chemistry, Pearson
3. J.D. Lee : A New Concise Inorganic Chemistry, E.L.B.S.
4. F.A. Cotton & G. Wilkinson: Basic Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley
& Sons.
5. I. L. Finar: Organic Chemistry (Vol. I & II). E.L.B.S.
6. John R. Dyer: Applications of Absorption Spectroscopy of Organic
Compounds, Prentice Hall.
7. R.M. Silverstein, G.C. Bassler and T.C. Morrill: Spectroscopic
Identification of Organic Compounds, John Wiley & Sons.
8. R.T. Morrison & R.N. Boyd: Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall.
9. George Odian: Principles of Polymerization, Wiley-Interscience.
10. Peter Sykes: A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry,
Orient Longman.
11. P.W. Atkins: Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press.
12. G.W. Castellan: Physical Chemistry, Narosa Publishing House.
13. C.N. Banwell: Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy. Tata
McGraw Hill.
Additional Reference Books
1. Dougles, McDaniel and Alexader: Concepts and Models in Inorganic
Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons.
2. A.G. Sharpe: Inorganic Chemistry, Pearson Education.
3. F.A.Carey and R. J. Sundberg: Advanced Organic Chemistry,
Plenum Publishers.
4. W.J. Moore, Physical Chemistry. Prentice-Hall.
5. G.M. Barrow, Physical Chemistry. Tata McGraw-Hill.
6. Donald A. McQuarrie : Quantum Chemistry. Oxford University Press.
(Physical Sciences / Applied Physical Sciences)
(70 Lectures)
Electric and Magnetic field (10 L)
Gauss’ law and its applications. Potential energy of a charge distribution,
energy density in an electric field. Electric field in dielectric media.
Magnetic induction due to a current carrying conductor. Force on a point
charge in magnetic field. Hall effect. Divergence and curl of magnetic
induction. Energy stored in magnetic field. Magnetic energy in terms of
current and inductance. Magnetic force between two conductors. Magnetic
field intensity and Ampere’s law.
AC circuits (5 L)
Kirchoff’s law. Mesh and node analysis of ac circuits. LCR circuit.
Wheatstone’s bridge and its application in Wein bridge and Anderson
Charge particle dynamics (6 L)
Charged particle dynamics in uniform and time varying electric and
magnetic field. Guiding centre approximation and drift motion-electric,
curvature, gradient drifts.
Maxwell’s equations (6 L)
Conservation of charge. Modification of Ampere’s law. Maxwell’s equations
in vacuum and inside matter. Boundary conditions.
Electromagnetic waves (34 L)
Wave equation, sinusoidal waves. Polarization of E.M. waves. Brewster’s
angle. Description of linear, circular and elliptical polarization. Reflection
and transmission. Poynting’s theorem, conservation of momentum.
Electromagnetic waves in non-conducting media; monochromatic plane
waves. Plane waves in conducting media. Skin depth. Wave propagation
in unmagnetized ionized media — Plasma oscillation. Electron plasma
waves, Ion acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves, Landau wave
damping (concept only). Waves in magnetized ionized media. Electrostatic
and EM waves parallel and perpendicular to external constant magnetic
Wave-guide (9 L)
Total internal reflection. Critical angle. Optical fiber. Numerical aperture.
Acceptance angle. Types of optical fibers (Definition only). Wave guides.
Coaxial transmission line. Modes in rectangular waveguide. Energy flow.
Qualitative idea of attenuation in waveguides.
Electromagnetic fields and waves 2nd Ed., Paul Lorrain & Dale Corson, CBS
Pub. & distributors India Engineering electromagnetics, Nathan Ida, Springer
Electromagnetic waves, Shevgaonker, Tata McGraw-Hill
Electromagnetics, Joseph A. Edminister, Schaum outline series, Tata McGraw-
Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, Francis F. Chen, Springer
(Physical Sciences / Applied Physical Sciences)
(70 Lectures)
Quantum Mechanics (17 L)
Time dependent and time independent Schrodinger equation, Operators,
expectation values. Requirements of a wave function. Probabilistic
interpretation, Probability current. Solution of Schrodinger equation in one
dimension: particle in a box, step potential, barrier penetration and
tunneling, Squrare well, Bound states.
Nuclear Energy (8 L)
Binding energy. Nuclear fission and fusion. Fission reactor. Fusion energy
in Sun, Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Lawson criteria magnetically
confined system-mirrors and Tokomak. Inertially confined laser driven
Physics of Materials (20 L)
Amorphous and crystalline solids, Lattice translation vectors. Unit cell.
Reciprocal lattice. Crystal diffraction: Bragg’s law, diffraction of X-rays.
Lattice vibrations. Linear monoatomic and diatomic chains. Acoustical and
optical phonons. Qualitative description of the phonon spectrum in solid.
Brillouin zones.
Dia-, para - and ferri - and ferromagnetic materials. Classical Langevin
theory of dia- and paramagnetic domains. Quantum mechanical treatment
of paramagnetism. Curie’s law, Weiss’s theory of ferromagnetism.
Electric susceptibility, polarizability, Clausius-Mosotti equation. Classical
theory of electronic polarizability.
Elementary band theory of solids, Bloch theorem, Kronig-Penney model,
effective mass of electron. Energy band diagram in Conductor, insulator
& semiconductor. Hall effect.
Super conductor, Meissner effect. Critical field. Type I & II superconductor.
London equation. Penetration depth.
Laser (5 L)
Working principle, thermal equilibrium of radiation, principle of detailed
balance, Einstein’ A & B coefficients, population inversion, construction
and working of He-Ne laser. Semiconductor laser. Energy bands and
carrier distribution in semiconductors. Absorption and emission in a
Electronics (10 L)
UJT characteristics and relaxation oscillator, construction and working of
FET. Comparision between CE, CB and CC configurations of BJT,CE
amplifier. Static & dynamic load line. Biasing of a transistor circuit (fixed
and self). Class A, B and C amplifier (definition). Principles of feedback
in amplifiers. Negative and positive feedback. Barkhausen criteria. Phase
shift oscillator.
Modulation and detection-Basic concepts of amplitude, frequency and
phase modulations and demodulation. Detailed circuit of CE amplitude
modulator and diode detector.
Atmospheric Physics (10 L)
General structure of atmosphere-Hydrostatic and diffusive equilibrium,
Vertical variation of physical parameters like temperature, wind, relative
humidity, Stability in the different layers of atmosphere, absorption of solar
radiation, Atmospheric Ozone, Ozone loss, Tropospheric ozone, Ozone
depletion problem. Global warming. Aerosols, sources and classification
of aerosols. Mie scattering. Radio Remote Sensing of the earth’s
atmosphere, Probing of atmosphere using radars and lidars.
Concepts of Modern Physics, Arthur Beiser, Tata McGraw-Hill Edition
Theory & problems of Modern Phys., Gautreau & William, Schaum outline series,
Tata McGraw-Hill
Concepts in Space Science, R.R. Daniel, University Press
Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, Franis F. Chen, Springer
Integrated electronics, Millman Halkias, Tata McGraw-Hill
Principle of fundamental electronics, John D. Ryder, Prentice-Hall of India
Introduction to Solid State Physics, Charles Kittel, John Wiley & Sons
(Physical Sciences / Applied Physical Sciences)
1. Determination of Hall coefficient
2. Study of Elliptically polarized light
3. Polarization by simple reflection
4. Ultrasonic grating, determination of frequency
5. To study the PE Hysteresis loop of a ferroelectric crystal
6. Coefficient of Self inductance by ac bridge (Anderson bridge)
7. BH curve by using solenoid
8. Design of CE amplifier of desired gain
9. Design of Phase shift Oscillator
10. Study of UJT characteristics and relaxation oscillator
11. Amplitude modulation using CE Amplifier
12. Study of PLL IC and find out capture and lock range
13. Ionization potential of a gas
14. Design 4-bit asynchronous counter
15. To study the 4-bit shift register
A Minimum of ten experiments are to be performed by each student.
(4 Lectures per week plus tutorial)
Total Marks 150
Internal Assessment : 38 Marks
Examination 112 Marks
Unit I : Real Sequences (30 L) 36
Finite and infinite sets, examples of countable and uncountable sets. Real
line, bounded sets, suprema and infima, statement of order completeness
property of R, Archimedean property of R, intervals.
Concept of cluster points and statement of Bolzano Weierstrass’ theorem.
Cauchy convergence criterion for sequences. Cauchy’s theorem on limits,
order preservation and squeeze theorem, monotone sequences and their
Unit II: Infinite Series (42 L) 48
Infinite series. Cauchy convergence criterion for series, positive term
series, geometric series, comparison test, convergence of p-series, Root
test, Ratio test, alternating series, Leibnitz’s test. Definition and examples
of absolute and conditional convergence.
Sequences and series of functions, Pointwise and uniform convergence.
Mn-test, M-test, change or order of limits.
Power Series: radius of convergence, Cauchy-Hadamard theorem, termby-
term differentiation and integration of power series. Definition in terms
of Power series and their properties of exp (x), sin (x), cos (x).
Unit III: Calculus of several variables (42 L) 28
Limit and continuity for real valued functions on R2, differentiability of real
valued functions on R2, directional derivatives and gradients for these
functions. Schwarz theorem, Young’s Therorem, Taylor’s theorem for
functions of two variables, Maxima and Minima of functions of two
Recommended Books
1. T. M. Apostol, Calculus, Voulme-1, John Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pte
Ltd., 2002.
2. R.G. Bartle and D. R Sherbert: Introduction to real analysis, John
Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2000.
3. E. Fischer, Intermediate Real Analysis, Springer Verlag, 1983.
4. K.A. Ross, Elementary Analysis — The Theory of Calculus Series—
Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer Verlag, 2003.
5. Robert T. Smith, Roland B. Minton, Calculus, McGraw Hill
International, Edition, 2006.
6. Robert C. Wrede, Murray Spiegel, Advanced Calculus, Second
Edition, Schaum’s series, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.
(Four Lectures per week/also one Tutorial)
Internal Assessment 38 marks
Examination 112 marks
Total Marks 150
Unit I : Analysis (30 L) 37
Riemann Integral, conditions of integrability, Integrability of Continuous
and monotonic functions.
Improper integrals, Convergence of Improper integrals, Absolute and
conditional convergence of Improper Integrals. Beta, Gamma functions
and their properties.
Double integrals, repeated integrals, line integrals in R2,Statement and
illustration of Green’s theorem.
Fourier series of an integrable function on [-p, p], Fourier series expansion
of piecewise monotonic functions on [-p, p].
Unit II : Linear Algebra (30 L) 37
Internal & external direct sums of vector spaces.
Linear Transformations on real and complex vector spaces: definition,
examples, kernel, range, rank, nullity, isomorphism theorems, invertible
linear transformations (chatacterizations)
Algebra of Linear transformations and matrix of a linear transformation
Linear functional over real & complex vector spaces: definition and
Dual space, inner product spaces: definition, examples
Unit III: Mechanics (30 L) 38
Conditions of equilibrium of a particle and of coplanar forces acting on a
rigid Body, Laws of friction, Problems of equilibrium under forces including
friction, Centre of gravity, Work and potential energy.
Velocity and acceleration of a particle along a curve: radial and transverse
components (plane curve ), tangential and normal components (space
curve), Newton’s Laws of motion, Simple harmonic motion, Simple
Pendulum, Projectile Motion.
Recommended Books
Unit I
1. Frank Ayres, J. Elliott Mendelson, Calculus, Fourth Edition, Schaum
series, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005.
2. R.G. Bartle and D.R. Sherbut; Introduction to real analysis, John
Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd. 2000.
3. E. Fischer, Intermedial Real Analysis, Springer Verlag, 1983.
4. K. A. Ross, Elementary Analysis — The Theory of Calculus Series-
Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer Verlag, 2003.
Unit II
1. C.W. Curtis, Linear Algebra, an introductory approach, Springer-
Verlag, 1991.
2. David M. Blotin, Linear algebra and Geometry, Cambridge Press,
3. Seymour Lipschutz, Linear Algebra, Schauss series, Tata McGraw
Hill, 1989.
Unit III
1. A.S. Ramsay, Statics, CBS Publishers and Distributors (Indian
Reprint), 1998.
2. A.P. Roberts, Statics and Dynamics with background in
Mathematics, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
3. J.L. Synge and B. A. Griffiths, Principles of Mechanics, McGraw Hill,
Plants are immobile and represent modular systems. Many structural and
physiological adaptations expressed by plants under varied environmental
conditions play a crucial role in their survivals. This course encompasses
the basic understanding of all those developmental and physiological
events during the life of a plant that give it the capacity to grow, synthesize
food and defend itself and reproduce in a variety of ways.
Unit I Developmental Biology
Introduction and scope; significance of polarity.
Unit II Meristems and derivatives
Structural organization of shoot and root apices; vascular
cambium and its derivates; periderm.
Unit III Vascular elements
Cytodifferentiation and functions of vascular elements.
Unit IV Leaf initiation and development
Ontogeny and function of stomata and trichomes.
Unit V Structural organization of flower and flower initiation
Initiation and differentiation of floral organs; mutations affecting
floral differentiation; homeotic mutations affecting floral organ
Unit VI Anther
Structure and development, microsporogenesis, pollen
development, male sterility.
Unit VII Ovule
Structure and types; megasporogenesis; types of embryo sacs.
Unit VIII Fertilization
Pollination, pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization.
Unit IX Seed development
Types and functions of endosperm; embryogenesis;
polymbryony and apomixis.
Unit X Water Relations
Absorption and transport, transpiration and significance.
Unit XI Mineral nutrition
Essential elements, criteria of essentiality, macro and micro
nutrients and their role, physiological basis of mineral
deficiency, role of mycorrhiza, ion antagonism.
Unit XII Photosynthesis
Pigments, role of accessory pigments, photochemistry of
pigment excitation, photosystem I & II, reaction center, antenna
system, Electron transport and mechanism of ATP synthesis,
oxygen evolution, C
, C
, and CAM pathways of carbon fixation,
Unit XIII Solute transport
Transport of inorganic and organic components, transport
pathways—xylem and phloem.
Unit XIV Assimilation of nitrogen
Nitrogen compounds utilized by plants, uptake and assimilation
of ammonia, biological nitrogen fixation.
UNIT XV Respiration
Glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, tricarboxylic acid cycle,
electron transport chain, cyanide resistant respiration and its
significance, pentose phosphate pathway, salt respiration.
Unit XVI Growth, development and differentiation
Significance of polarity, photoperiodism vernilization, flowering,
seed dormancy, causes and methods of overcoming seed
dormancy, senescence, phytohormones— auxin, gibberelin,
cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, polyamines, cystamine,
brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid and their physiological
response, application. Signal transduction-an overview,
photosensors-phytocromes and cryptochromes.
Suggested Readings
Bhojwani, S.S. & Bhatnagar, S.P. (1999). Embryology of
Angiosperms. 4th ed. Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Bierhorst, D.W. (1971). Morphology of Vascular Plants. MacMillan
Company Ltd. New York.
Fahn, A. 1982. Plant Anatomy (3rd Edition). Pergamon Press,
Johri, B.M. (ed.). (1982). Experimental Embryology of Vascular
Plants. Springer, Heidelberg.
Hopkins, W.G. 1999. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley
and sons, New York.
Leopald, A.C. and Kriedemann, P.E. Plant Growth and Development.
Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M. M. 1993. Principles of Biochemistry.
MacMillan Worth Publications.
Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. 1993. Plant Physiology (2nd Edition)
Wadsworth, USA.
Developmental Biology and Physiology have progressed tremendously in
the past few decades. Development of an embryo is recognized as a
manifestation of a morphogenetic potential of individual cells. And
understanding of the fundamental principles of development would come
from studying cellular structure and function. Physiology and functional
histology constitute a dynamic area of study which emphases on the basic
principles of body mechanism.
Unit I Developmental Biology
Introduction and scope of Embryology.
Unit II Gametogenesis and fertilization
Gametogenesis, types of eggs, fertilization, Parthenogenesis.
Unit III Embryonic development
Cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation in frog, chick and man, fate
of germ layers, Formation of extra-embryonic membranes in
chick and human Placenta (physiology and types).
Unit IV Embryonic Induction
Nature and action of organizer, tissue interactions, regional
types and basis of induction.
Unit V Post-embryonic morphogenesis
Metamorphosis and regeneration.
Unit VI Genes in development
Role of genes in development, amniocentesis, stem cell culture
and cloning, transfer of genes into animal oocytes, embryos
and tissues, biosafety and ethical issues of cloning.
Unit VII Gerontology & Teratology
Growth, Ageing (concepts and model), Teratology: causes and
Unit VIII Tissues & glands
Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscular tissue, Nervous
tissue and types of glands.
Unit IX Nutrition and Digestion (Fueling body activities)
Heterotrophic forms of nutrition, transport and mixing of food
in the alimentary canal, secretory functions of alimentary tract,
digestion and absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract,
malfunction of GIT.
Unit X Functioning of excitable tissues (membrane, nerve,
Basic mechanism of transport across the membrane,
membrane potential, action potential and its propagation,
Synaptic and junctional transmission. Ultrastructure of the
skeletal muscle fibre. Molecular mechanism of muscle
Unit XI Maintenance of internal environment of the body
Pulmonary ventilation, physiological principles of gaseous
exchange transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood,
regulation of respiration. Functional anatomy of kidney,
formation of urine, control of extra-cellular fluid, osmolality and
sodium concentration (counter-current mechanism). Role of anti
diuretic hormone and aldosterone.
Unit XII Cardiovascular system
Circulating body fluids, blood haemostasis, the heart as a
pump, origin and propagation of heart beat, cardiac cycle
including ECG, blood pressure, and disorders of blood.
Unit XIII Endocrine system and reproduction
Physiology of human male and female reproduction. An
overview of other endocrine organs and their hormones.
Suggested Readings
Balinsky, B.I. (1981). Introduction to Embryology, 5th edition,
Saunders College Publishers, Philadelphia, USA.
Berril, N.J. and Carp, G. (1976). Developmental Biology, Tata-
McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
Gilbert, S.F. (2003) Developmental Biology, 7th edition. Sinauer
Associates Inc. Publishers. USA.
Guyton, A.C. and Hall, J.E. (2000). Textbook of Medical Physiology.
18th edition. Hercourt Asia PTE Ltd., W.B. Saudners Company. USA.
Vander, A.J. Sherman, J.H. and Luciano, D.S. (2005). Human
Physiology— The Mechanisms of Body Function. McGraw Hill
Publishing Co., USA.
An effort has been made in this paper to make the teaching of Ecology
and Environmental Management more interactive and informative. Besides
dealing with the fundamental aspects of population and community
ecology, ecosystems and biomes, a section on Environmental
Management has been included keeping in view the current global
environmental concerns. This section deals not only with the physical and
biological resources of the environment but also highlights topics like
urbanization, waste management, disaster management and pollution
Unit I Introduction to ecology
Inter-relationships between the living world and environment;
Biosphere and its components (Abiotic and biotic).
Environmental concepts (Theory of tolerance, laws of limiting
Unit II Ecological adaptations
Predation-types, predator-prey system, evolution and
significance, functional and numerical response; Host parasite
interactions, Social parasitism, symbiosis.
Unit III Population Ecology
Population attributes, Density, natality, mortality, age ratio, sex
ratio, dispersal and dispersion of population, exponential and
logistic growth, Verhulst-Pearl growth equation & ‘r’ and ‘k’
strategies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, Genetic drift.
Population interactions, Gause’s principle, and
multidimensional niche concept.
Unit IV Community and Ecosystem
Community characteristics— organization and succession in
different habitats. Bioenergetics and Biogeochemical cycles.
Unit V Biogeography
Bathymetric distribution, Geologic distribution, Phytogeography;
Phytogeographic region of world, Major plant communities of
world, Vegetation of India with special reference to Delhi.
Zoogeography: Barriers for dispersal, Means of Dispersal,
Zoogeographic regions of world.
Unit VI Bioresourse management
Biodiversity and regional conservation strategies success
stories with reference to India and sustainable utilization.
Principles of wildlife management, wildlife sanctuaries, parks
and biosphere reserves in India, Endangered and threatened
species of plants and animals in India. Red Data Book,
Germplasm banks.
Unit VII Environmental issues
Impact of urbanization and industrialization; Environmental
Impact Assessment; Disaster management, Restoration of
degraded ecosystems, Bioremediation, Biosafety.
Unit VIII Policies and regulation
Agencies, Legislation and International Conventions.
Suggested Readings
Smith, R.L. 1996. Ecology and Field Biology. Harper Collins College
Odum, E.P. 1983. Basic Ecology. Saunders College Publications,
Chapman, J.L. and Reiss, M.J. 1992. Ecology: Principles and
Applications. Cambridge University Press.
Cunningham, W.P. and Saigo, B. W. (2005). Environmental Science,
WCB McGraw Hill, New York.
Miller, G.T. Jr. (2005). Environmental Science, 10th edition.
Thomson/Brooke-Code. New Delhi.
Human beings live in constant interaction with a vast variety of animals
plants and microbes. Many species are useful to humans have been
harnessed to meet human requirements. For those, which are harmful,
causing deprivation of food or even inflicting disease, a perpetual fight is
on in various ways. In addition, topics on basic techniques on
biotechnology and applications of recombinant DNA technology in
industry, medicine, development of vaccines, gene therapy, plant
biotechnology and cloning of animals have been included.
Unit I Useful Animals and their products
Outlines of Apiculture and Sericulture, Edible and pearl oyster,
increasing yield of poultry products, collection and uses of
snake venom.
Unit II Animals and Human diseases
Transmission, pathogenicity and control of human diseases
associated with various animals—Dengue, Japanese
encephalitis, and Rabies, Epidemic typhus and Tuberculosis,
Amoebiasis, Kala azar, Filariasis.
Unit III Pests and Pest Control
Life cycle and economical importance of following insect pest:
Earias vitella, Heliothis armigera, Pyrilla perpusilla, Sitophilus
oryzae, Trogoderma gramarium. Principles of insect control.
Mechanical Physical , cultural, chemicals, Biological, genetic
and Integrated pest management. Rodents pests and their
Unit IV Human reproductive health and welfare
Fertility and its Control, Assisted Reproductive Technology-
IVF*, TET*, ZIFT*, GIFT*, ICSI*, PROST*, Contraception,
Sexuality transmitted diseases, Demographic terms in family
planning. (*IVF- In Vitro Fertilization, TET-Tubal Embryo
Transfer, ZIFT-Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer, GIFT-Gamete
intrafallopian Transfer, ICSI-Intra cytoplasmic Sperm Injection,
PROST- Pronuclear stage transfer).
Unit V Plant resources utilization
Food, fiber, fodder, timber, medicinal and aromatic plants,
tobacco and rubber plants. Plant introduction and quarantine.
Unit VI Resource development
Role of agriculture, floriculture, forestry, organic farming.
Unit VII Industrial microbiology
Food, Pharmaceutical, enzymes industries.
Unit VIII Introduction to Biotechnology
Historical perspectives, Scope and importance, Commercial
potential, Biotechnology in India and Global trends.
Unit IX Recombinant DNA technology
Cloning vectors- plasmids, cosmids, bacteriophages; restriction
endonucleases, DNA ligases, transformation protocols for
bacteria, plant and animal cells; construction and screening of
genomic library, molecular analysis of DNA by Southern Blot
Hybridization, PCR, DNA sequencing and microarrays.
Unit X Applications of Recombinant DNA technology
Genetically modified organism (GMOs) microbes, plants &
animals and their importance: Recombinant vaccines. Gene
therapy, DNA fingerprinting, single cell protein (SCP).
Unit XI Bioinformatics
Introduction, genetic data bases, sequence similarity and gene
identification, Sequence annotation, Construction of
phylogenetic trees, Computational tools for genome analysis.
Unit XII Biotechnology and Society
Public perception, Biopesticides, Biofertilizers, Biofuels and
Biological Control, Patenting and IPR issues, Ethical and
Biosafety issues.
Suggested Readings
Pedigo, L.P. (1996). Entomology and Pest management, Prentice
Hall, New Delhi.
Kochhar, S. L. 1998. Economic Botany in the Tropics. Macmillan &
Co. New Delhi
Atwal, A.S. (2002). Agricultural Pests of India and South East Asia
Kalyani Pub. New Delhi.
Watson, J.D. (2003). Recombinant DNA, W.H.J. Freeman and Co.,
New York.
Lewis, R. (1999). Human Genetics: Concepts and Applications. 3rd
Edition. McGraw Hill, Dubuque, USA.
Mount, D.W. (2004). Bioinformatics. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Press. USA.
LS 305 LAB
Paper V— Developmental Biology and Physiology I: Plants
1. Structure of young anther wall, glandular and amoeboid tapetum,
microsporogenesis, mature anther (permanent slides). W.m. pollen
grains showing a few types of ornamentations and apertures, w.m.
polyads, pollinia through fresh preparations/permanent slides/
2. Pollen germination by hanging drop culture, calculation of percentage
3. Study of monosporic (Polygonum) type of embryo sac development
(permanent slides/photographs).
4. Study of mature embryo sac through electron micrographs showing
egg apparatus.
5. Study of nuclear and cellular endosperm through permanent slides/
photographs. Dissection of developing seeds for endosperm showing
6. Study of different stages of development of dicotyledonous embryo,
mature dicot and monocot embryos through permanent slides.
Dissection of developing seeds for embryos at various
developmental stages.
7. Apical meristems (permanent slides/photograph).
8. Preparation of transverse section of maize/grass root and gram/
sunflower root.
9. Preparation of transverse sections of maize/grass root stem and
sunflower stem (primary and secondary growth).
10. Preparation of transverse sections of monocot and dicot leaves.
Epidermal peel showing stomata in Bryophyllum. Crinum and maize.
11. Determination of osmotic potential of plant cell sap by plasmolytic
12. Study of the effect of two environmental factors (light and wind) on
transpiration by an excised twig/leaf.
13. Calculation of stomatal index and stomatal frequency of a mesophyte
and a xerophyte.
14. Demonstration of the activity of enzymes (urease, catalase) from
various plant sources.
15. Demonstration of dye reduction by isolasted chloroplasts under
different light intensities.
16. Study of the ‘Law of Limiting factors’ (light intensity and bicarbonate
concentration) Using Hydrilla.
17. Comparison of the rate of respiration in different parts of a plant.
Demonstration Experiments
1. Phenomenon of bolting.
2. Inducing fruit ripening by ethylene.
3. Effect of auxins on rooting.
Paper VI— Developmental Biology and Physiology II: Animals
Study of developmental stages in frog-whole mounts and sections,
cleavage stages, blastula, gastrula, neurula, tail bud tadpole.
Study of whole mounts and sections of chick embryo at different
stages, primitive streak, 24, 28, 33, 48, 72 and 96 hours.
Study of Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Rat (Permanent
Examination of sections of oesophagus, stomach, ileum, liver,
pancreas, spleen, kidney, adrenal, thyroid of Mammals.
Temporary mounts of striated muscle fibres and nerve cells.
Determination of RBC count using haemocytometer.
Determination of total and differential WBC count.
Estimation of haemoglobin content in blood using
Demonstration of perfusion of the excised heart of frog.
Detection of abnormal constituents in urine.
Measurement of blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer.
A visit to Poultry farm/Hatchery/Tissue culture laboratory/Animal
breeding centers.
LS 306 LAB
Paper VII — Ecology & Environmental Management
1. Study of following microclimatic variables in different locations: soil
and air temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity and light
2. Determination of pH, field capacity, density and porosity of different
soil samples, rapid test for soil texture.
3. Rapid field test of soils for carbonates, sulphates, chlorides, nitrates,
organic matter and base deficiency.
4. Determination of minimal quadrate area by species area curve
method; quantitative analysis of herbaceous vegetation for frequency
and density.
5. Study of ecological adaptations of hydrophytes and xerophytes.
1. Study of an aquatic ecosystem-Measurement of total area, locality,
temperature and turbidity/penetration of light, determination of pH,
dissolved oxygen content (Winkler’s method) and dissolved carbon
2. Study of biotic community with specials reference to plankton.
Plotting of survivorship curves from hypothetical life table data.
3. Study of the ecological significance of phytoplankton, zooplankton,
fishes, amphibians, reptiles, aves and mammals (2 representatives
from each group).
4. Study of a few endangered reptiles, birds and masmmals of India.
5. A visit to National park/ Wildlife sanctuary/Waste management
organization/ Mahatma Gandhi Institute for non-conventional energy
sources ( Bakoli village, Gurgaon, and Sulabh International).
Paper VIII — Applied Biology & Biotechnology
1. Study of Apiculture, sericulture, and Aquaculture.
2. Study of protozoan, helminth parasites and arthropod vectors,
associated with human diseases.
3. Study of the following through habitat sketches, temporary
preparations, permanent slides, photographs, specimens, products,
microchemical tests to bring out the economic importance: Cereals
(wheat, rice), Legumes (soybean, groundnut), Sugars and Starches
(sugarcane, potato), Spices (black pepper, clove, coriander, fennel),
Beverages (tea, coffee), Oils and Fats (coconut, groundnut,
mustard), Essential oil yielding plants (Rosa, Cymbopogon, Vetiveria,
Eucalyptus and Santalum), Fiber-yielding plants (Gossypium,
corchorus and Cocos), Woods (Tectona, Dalbergia, Pinus), Rubber
(Hevea), Drug yielding plants (Cannabis, Papaver, Withania,
Rauvolfia, Aloe), Nicotiana tabacum.
4. Study of insect pests of agricultural crops and stored grains (as listed
in theory) and Insecticide dusting and spraying equipment.
5. Study of contraceptives in general use and acceptance.
6. Bacterial Staining (Gram Staining).
7. Study of genetic engineering techniques with help of photographs
(PCR, Southern blot, GISH, FISH, DNA Fingerprinting).
8. Useful bioinformatics sites on internet, gene and protein databases,
genome and organism specific databases, Multiple sequence
9. Construction of phylogenetic tree from DNA sequences from data
(3 Lectures/Week)
3 Hours, 100 Marks
Operating Systems
Introduction: Operating system functionalities, operating system
classifications, operating system services, system calls and system
programs, command line and graphical user interfaces.
Processor Management: Program and process states, process scheduling
algorithms, process synchronization.
Memory Management: Partition based memory management, paging,
segmentation, virtual memory.
File Management: Introduction to I/O interfaces, file concepts, file
operations, directory structure, file sharing and protection.
Computer Networks
Introduction: LAN, MAN, WAN internetworking, internet, intranet.
ISO-OSI reference model: Features of physical, datalink/MAC layer,
network, transport, session, presentation and application layer.
TCP/IP reference model: TCP/IP protocol stack-features of IP and TCP
protocol; application layer protocol-FTP, Telnet, SMTP, HTTP, Security.
1. Abraham Silberchatz, Peter Baer Galvin, Greg Gagne, Operating
System Concepts, John Wiley & Sons.
2. William Stallings, Operating Systems: Internals and Design
Principles, Prentice Hall of India.
3. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, Prentice Hall of India.
4. Douglas Comer, Computer Networks and Internets, Prentice Hall of
(3 Lectures/Week)
3 Hours, 100 Marks
Software Engineering
Introduction: Basic principles of software engineering, programming-in-thesmall
vs. programming-in-the-large.
Software Process: Software lifecycle, the waterfall model and variations,
risk-driven approaches, introduction to evolutionary and prototyping
approaches, system classifications.
Project management: Relationship to lifecycle, project planning, project
control, risk management, cost models, configuration management, quality
assurance, metrics.
Software requirements: Requirements analysis, requirements elicitation,
analysis tools, requirements definition, requirements specification, static
and dynamic specifications, requirements review.
Software design: Design for reuse, design for change, design notations,
design evaluation and validation.
Implementation: Programming standards and procedures, modularity, data
abstraction, static analysis, unit testing, integration testing, regression
Maintenance: Maintenance problem, planning for maintenance.
Documentation: Quality, types, techniques for each stage.
Introduction: Basic concepts and ANSI architecture.
Relational Model: Relational data model, relational algebra, SQL,
functional dependencies, normal forms (up to BCNF), data modeling using
EER diagrams, database design using these concepts.
1. Pankaj Jalote, An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering,
Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Roger S. Pressman, Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s
Approach, Tata McGraw Hill.
3. Silberschastz, Korth, Sudarshan, Database Systems Concepts,
McGraw Hill.
4. Elmsan & Navathe, Fundamentals of database Systems, Pearson
5. Raghu Ramakrishnan, et al, Databases Management Systems,
McGraw Hill.
CS 303 LAB (BASED ON CS 301 AND CS 302)
(Teaching 4 Lectures/per Week)
Duration 4 Hours,
Total 100 Marks
(75 Lectures)
Sampling Distribution: Definitions of random sample, parameter and
statistic, sampling distribution of a statistic, standard errors of sample
mean, sample variance and sample proportion, Sampling distributions of
Chi-square, t and F statistics, sampling distribution of sample mean and
sample variance for normal distribution. Distribution of sample correlation
coefficient r when P = 0.
Tests of Significance: Null and alternative hypotheses, level of significance
and probabilities of Type I and Type II errors, critical region and power of
test. Large sample tests, Use of CLT for testing single proportion and
difference of two proportions, single mean and difference of two means,
standard deviation and difference of standard deviations, Tests of
significance based on t, F and Chi-square distributions.
Estimation: Parameter space, sample space, point estimation, requirement
of a good estimator, Consistency, Unbiasedness, Efficiency, Sufficiency,
Minimum variance unbiased estimators (statement only). Methods of
estimation: Maximum Likelihood, Moments (without proof), Properties of
Maximum Likelihood estimators (without proof). Interval estimation:
Confidence intervals for the parameters of normal distribution, Confidence
intervals for difference of means and for ratio of variances, Confidence
intervals for binominal proportion and population correlation coefficient
when population is normal, Large sample confidence intervals.
Testing of Hypothesis: Statistical Hypotheses, Simple and composite
Hypotheses. Test of Statistical Hypothesis, null and alternative
Hypotheses. Critical region, Two kinds of errors, Level of significance and
power of a test, Desiderata for a test of Hypothesis, MP tests and region,
Neyman-Pearson Lemma, Critical regions for Simple Hypothesis for one
parameter, Sequential probability ratio test, Determination of stopping
bounds A and B, OC and ASN functions of SPRT for Normal and Binomial.
Non-parametric tests, One sample and two sample sign test. Wald-
Wolfowitz run test, Run test for Randomness, Median test, Wilcoxon-
Mann-Whitney test (Derivation not required, give stress on examples).
Suggested Readings
1. Dudewicz, E.J. and Mishra, S.N. (1988): Modern Mathematical
Statistics, John Wiley & Sons.
2. Goon, A.M. Gupta, M.K. and Dasgupta, B. (1985): An Outline of
Statistical Theory, Vol. II, World Press, Calcutta.
3. Hogg, R.V. and Craig, A. (1999): Introduction to Mathematical
Statistics, Prentice Hall.
4. Rohatgi, V.K. and Saleh, A.K. Md. E. (2005): An Introduction to
Probability and Statistics, Second Edn., John Wiley & Sons.
(Total Lectures: 75)
Sample Surveys: Concepts of population and sample, Complete
enumeration Vs. Sampling, Need for sampling, Principal and
organizational aspects in the conduct of a Sample Survey, Properties of
a good estimator, Sampling and non-sampling errors.
Srswr & Srswor, determination of sample size, stratified random sampling,
different allocations. Gain due to stratification, Construction of strata. Ratio
and regression methods of estimation double sampling. Systematic
sampling, Cluster sampling and two-stage sampling (with equal size
cluster/ first-stage units).
Linear Models, Estimability and BLUE, Method of least squares, Gauss
Markoff theorem.
Analysis of Variance and Covariance: Analysis of variance and covariance
in one way and two way classified data with equal number of observations
in each cell.
Design of Experiments: Principles of experimentation, Uniformity trials,
completely randomized, randomized block and Latin square designs,
missing plot technique. 2n Factorial experiments — construction and
analysis. Total and partial confounding, B.I.B. designs with intrablock
analysis, relationships among its parameters, Incidence matrix, Symmetric
B.I.B.D., Resolvable B.I.B. Design.
Suggested Readings:
1. Cochran, W.G. (1977): Sampling Techniques, John Wiley & Sons.
2. Das, M.N. and Giri, N. C. ( 1986): Design and Analysis of
Experiments, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
3. Kshirsagar, A.M. (1983): A Course in Linear Models, Marcel Dekker.
4. Montgomery, D.C. (2005): Design and Analysis of Experiments, Sixth
Edition. John Wiley & Sons.
5. Sukhatme, P.V., Sukhatme, B.V., Sukhatme, S. and Asok, C. (1984).
Sampling Theory of Surveys with Applications, lowa State University
Press, lowa, USA.
Handling of problems based on Tests of significance, Estimation, Testing
of hypotheses, Non-parametric testing, Sample surveys, Linear models
and Design of experiments as covered under ST. 301 and ST. 302; the
practicals to be carried out on computer by developing programs in
Python/C Language and using Statistical Software Packages.
(Three Lectures plus one tutorial per week)
Total Marks : 150
Internal Assessment : 38 Marks
Examination : 112 marks
Duration : 3 Hours
(a) Reliability: Basics of Reliability; Series, Parallel, Series-parallel,
Parallel-series, Bridge and Standby Configurations. Life distributions:
Exponential and Gamma Distributions. System Dependability
Measures: Reliability, Availability, Mean-Time-to-System-Failure, Up-
Time ratio. Reliability and Availability Models for One-Unit and Two
Unit Systems (Steady State Solutions Only). Discrete Replacement
Policies. Concepts of Preventive Maintenance, Corrective
Maintenance and Age Replacement.
(b) Statistical Quality Control : Elements of Statistical Quality Control,
Basic Concepts of Statistical Process Control (SPC), SPC for
Attribute Characteristics and Variable Characteristics; Process
Capabilities, Acceptance Sampling Plan (Single and Double).
Introduction to Six Sigma Quality. Elementary Concepts of ISO
Suggested Readings
1. Montgomery, D. C. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John
Wiley & Sons, 2000.
2. Rau, G. John Optimization and Probability in Systems Engineering,
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company,1970.
(Three Lectures plus one tutorial per week)
Total Marks 150 : 100 (Theory),
Case Studies : 50 marks
Theory Examination : 75 marks
Internal Assessment : 25 marks
Examination Duration : 3 hours
(a) Forecasting
Introduction to Business Forecasting, Introduction to Time Series and
its components. Errors of Forecast. Time Series Models: Moving
Averages, Exponential Smoothing, Smoothing Models for Seasonal
Data, Ratio-to-Moving average Classical Decomposition Model.
Forecasting using Simple Regression Models. Simulation and its
Applications in Forecasting.
(b) Case Studies
The work on Case Study will start in the beginning of B.Sc. Part-III
under approved supervisors from amongst the members of the staff
and the case study report is to be submitted for evaluation before
the beginning of the examination. It will carry 50 marks:
Case Study Report - 30 marks
Viva-voce - 10 marks
Internal Assessment - 10 marks
Suggested Readings
1. Armstrong, J. S. : Principles of Forecasting –A Handbook for
Researchers and Practitioners (International Series in Operations
Research & Management Science), Springer: 1, edition ( May, 2001).
2. Delurgio, S. A. : Forecasting Principles and Applications, McGraw-
Hill, 1998.
3. Hanke, J. E. and Wichern, D. W. : Business Forecasting, 8th ed.,
Prentice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2005.
4. Makridakis, S., Wheelwright and : Forecasting: Methods Hyndman
and Applications, 3rd ed., N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
5. Montgomory, D. C., Johnson, L. A. and Gardiner, J.S. : Forecasting
& Time Series Analysis, McGraw Hill, 1990.
(70 Lectures)
Total Marks : 100
Introduction (4 L)
Block diagram of an electronic communication system, modulation and
demodulation, electromagnetic spectrum band designations and
applications. Waveform spectra and effect of filtering on complex signals.
Analog Modulation (18 L)
Amplitude Modulation : Frequency spectrum of AM waves, average power,
average voltage, modulation index, AM-modulator circuits (collector and
base modulation), balanced modulator, AM-demodulator (diode detector),
single side band generation and detection.
Angle Modulation : Frequency and phase modulation, frequency spectrum
of FM waves, intersystem comparisons (FM and AM), generation of FM
(direct and indirect methods), FM-demodulator (balanced slope and
Foster-Seeley discriminator).
Frequency division multiplexing (FDM).
Transmitters and Receivers (4 L)
Communication channels for AM and FM broadcast, AM and FM
transmitter, tuned RF receiver, superheterodyne receiver.
Pulse Analog Modulation (6 L)
Sampling Theorem (with proof) and Nyquist Criterion.
Pulse Modulation: pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), pulse width
modulation (PWM) and pulse position modulation (PPM).
Time division multiplexing (TDM).
Digital Communication (16 L)
Analog to Digital Conversion: Pulse code modulation (PCM).
Digital Modulation and Demodulation Techniques (block diagrams);
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase Shift
Keying (PSK), Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase
Shift Keying (QPSK).
Concept of Multiple Access techniques (FDMA, TDMA, CDMA).
Modern Communication Systems (20 L)
Data transmission: working principles of Modem and Fax.
Mobile communication: introduction to GSM, cellular concept, multiple
access for GSM, frequency allocation, concept of CDMA, working of
CDMA systems (block diagram).
Satellite communication: line of sight communication, geostationary orbit
(derivation of orbital period), satellite antenna, satellite repeater block
diagram (basic idea of various components), earth station block diagram
(basic idea of various components).
Optical communication; block diagram of an optical fiber communication
link, the optical fiber (guidance, attenuation, dispersion and channel
bandwidth), optical sources (LEDs and Laser diodes) and detectors (PIN
and APD).
Suggested Readings
1. Hsu H., Analog and Digital Communications, Schaum’s Outline
Series, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.
2. Singh R.P. and Sapre S.D., Communication Systems; Analog and
Digital, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2001.
3. Frenzel L.E. Communication Electronics, Principles and Applications,
Tata McGraw-Hill, 2006.
4. Kennedy G. and Davis B., Electronic Communication Systems, Tata
McGraw-Hill, 2005.
5. Palais J.C., Fiber Optic Communications, Pearson Education Asia,
6. Kolimbiris H., Digital Communication Systems, with Satellite and
Fiber Optics Applications., Pearson Education Asia, 2001.
7. Schiller J., Mobile Communications, Pearson Education Asia, 2003.
(70 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
Introduction (12 L)
Introduction to microprocessors and microcomputers, machine language,
assembly language and high level language. Microprocessor architecture,
types of buses, registers, memory mapping. Basic idea of INTEL 8085,
8086, 80186, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium processors.
8085 Microprocessor : pin-out diagram, classification of the signals, bus
timings, types of machine cycles and their functioning, concepts in Memory
interfacing and address decoding, peripheral mapped I/O, IN and OUT
instruction, interfacing input and output devices, memory mapped I/O
techniques, execution of memory related data transfer instruction.
8085 Programming (14 L)
8085 programming model: Accumulator, register and flags, instruction
classification & programming concepts, stack and subroutine (CALL and
RET statements), delay subroutines, introduction to transmission format,
modes of data transfer.
Interrupts: Maskable and non-maskable interrupts, RST (Restart), vectored
interrupts & instructions (SIM & RIM).
Peripheral Devices (20 L)
Basic Input/Output, Address decoding, memory interfacing, peripheral
mapped I/O, memory mapped I/O. Timing diagrams.
8155/8156 programmable device-l/O ports, control word, timer-mode
0,1,2,3. Handshake mode.
8279 Programmable Keyboard/display interface-hardware and
functional description, keyboard can, display modes, software
8255 Programmable Peripheral interface-functional description,
operational modes.
8253 Programmable Interval Timer-modes of operation, internal
organization and interfacing.
8259 Priority Interrupt Controller-interrupt and control logic section,
read/write control logic section, vectoring data format.
8257 Direct Memory Access (DMA) controller-Block diagram, modes
of operation, Read/Write logic block, control logic block, single byte
transfer, types of modes.
Interface Standards (4 L)
Parallel interface; IEEE-488 Interface bus, GPIB signals and operation,
S-100 bus standard.
Serial interface: RS-232C, RS-422 and RS-423.
Microcontrollers (20 L)
Introduction to microcontrollers, advantages of microcontrollers.
8031/8051 Microcontroller; Architecture, register bank, flags, special
function registers, I/O ports, timers, serial communication, interrupts,
instruction set.
Suggested Reading
1. Gaonker R. S., Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and
Applications with the 8085, PRI-Penram International Publishing,
2. Sridhar P.K. and Ghosh P.R., 0000 to 8085: Introduction to
Microprocessors, Prentice Hall of India,1995.
3. Ram B., Introduction to Microcomputer and Microprocessor, Dhanpat
Rai and Sons, 1997.
4. Mazidi M.A. and Mazidi J.G., 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded
Systems, Prentice Hall, 2006.
5. Calcut D., 8051 Microcontrollers, Elsevier, 2003.
6. Mathus A.P., Introduction to Microprocessors.TataMcGraw-Hill,
Total Marks: 100
Communication Electronics
1. Fourier Components of a Signal Waveform (2)
2. AM Modulation / Demodulation (2)
3. FM Modulation/ Demodulation (2)
4. Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) (1)
5. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) (1)
6. Radio Receivers (3)
7. 8-bit Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division (3)
8. BCD Addition (1)
9. Arranging a given array in Ascending or Descending order (1)
10. Generation of A.P.Series, G.P. Series and Fibonacci series (3)
11. Decimal to Hexadecimal/ Hexadecimal to Decimal (1)
12. Generation of Clock (1)
13. Study of 8255. 8253 (3)
(75 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
1. Dyes:
General introduction and classification with special reference to
textile and edible dyes and fabric brighteners. Industrial preparation
and uses of methyl orange, malachite green, indigo, bismark brown,
2. Fertilizers and Pesticides:
(a) Fertilizers : Different types of fertilizers, Manufacture of the
following fertilizers: Urea, Ammonium nitrate, Calcium ammonium
nitrate, Calcium cyanamide, Ammonium phosphates;
Polyphosphate, Super phosphate, Double super phosphate, and
Triple super phosphate, Compound and mixed fertilizers Potassium
Chloride, Potassium sulphate.
(b) Pesticides : General introduction to pesticides (natural and
synthetic), benefits and adverse effects, changing concepts of
pesticides, structure activity relationship, synthesis and technical
manufacture and uses of representative pesticides in the following
classes: Organochlorines (DDT, Gammexene, endosulphan);
Organophosphates (Malathion, Parathion ) ; Carbamates
(Carbofuran and carbaryl); Quinones ( Chloranil) , Anilides (Alachlor
and Butachlor).
3. Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
Drug discovery, design and development; Basic Retrosynthetic
approach. Synthesis of the representative drugs of the following
classes: analgesics agents, antipyretic agents, anti-inflammatory
agents (Aspirin, paracetamol, lbuprofen); antibiotics
(Chloramphenicol); antibacterial and antifungal agents
(Sulphonamides; Sulphanethoxazol, Sulphacetamide, Trimethoprim);
antiviral agents (Acyclovir), anticancer agents (Chlorambucil),
cholinergics Methacholine), anticholinergics (Neostigmine), CNS
(Central Nervous System) agents (Phenobarbital,
Diazepam),Cardiovascular (Glyceryl trinitrate) HIV-AIDS related
drugs (AZT- Zidovudine).
4. Surface Coatings
Objectives of coatings surfaces, preliminary treatment of surface,
classification of surface coatings Paints and pigments , formulation
composition and related properties. Oil paint, Vehicle, modified oils,
Pigments, toners and lakes pigments, Fillers, Thinners, Enamels,
emulsifying agents. Special paints (Heat retardant, Fire retardant,
Eco-friendly paint, Plastic paint), Dyes, Wax polishing, Water and
Oil paints, additives, Metallic coatings ( electrolytic and electroless),
metal spraying and anodizing.
5. Battery
Primary and secondary batteries, battery components and their
role, Characteristics of Battery. Working of following batteries: Pbacid,
Ni-Cd, Li-Battery, Solid state electrolyte battery. Fuel Cells and
Solar cell.
6. Alloys
Classification of alloys, Ferrous and Non Ferrous alloys, Specific
properties of elements in alloys. Manufacture of Steel (removal of
silicon decarbonization, demanganization, desulphurisation
dephosphorisation) and surface treatment (argon treatment, heat
treatment, nitriding, carburizing). Composition and properties of
different types of steels.
Suggested Readings
1. E. Stocchi, Industrial Chemistry , Vol -I, , Ellis Horwood Ltd. UK.
2. P.C. Jain, M. Jain, Engineering Chemistry, Dhanpat Rai & Sons,
3. B.K. Sharma , Industrial Chemistry, Goel Publishing House, Meerut.
4. G.L. Patrick, Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, Oxford University
Press, UK.
5. Hakishan, V.K. Kapoor, Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Vallabh Prakashan, Pitampura, New Delhi.
6. R. Cremlyn, Pesticides, John Wiley.
7. William O. Foye , Thomas L., Lemke , David A. William , Principles
of Medicinal Chemistry, B.I. Waverly Pvt Ltd. New Delhi.
(75 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
A. Polymers
1. Organic Polymers : Preparation, Properties, Classification,
Structure property relationship (Thermoplastic and
Thermosetting). Industrial manufacture of the monomers and
the following polymers, Polystyrene, Polyacrylonitrile,
Polymethacrylate, Polymethylmethacrylate, Polyethene,
Polybutadiene, Polyvinylidene, Polycarbonates, Polyesters,
Polyurethanes, Nylon (6,6:6,6:10), Phenolic polyesters, Polyamides,
Polysulphones, Alkyds.
Speciality Polymers (Electro-luminescent, Biopolymers,
Conducting polymers), Rubbers (synthetic and natural) and their
processing, Elastomers, Cellulosics, Natural and Synthetic fibers,
fiber processing, anti wrinkle and flame retardant. Comparison of
natural and synthetic polymers, relation between molecular
structure and properties.
Polymer Processing: Moulding, compounding, blending. Polymer
designing, packaging, certification and process evaluation.
Inorganic Polymers: Classification, preparation, properties and
uses of boron containing polymers, phosphorus containing
polymers, silicon containing polymers, Silicones (fluid, elastomers
and resins) and sulphur containing polymers(SN)x.
B. Quality Control and Instrumental Methods of Analysis
1. Purification and Separation: Sample preparation (isolation using a
suitable solvent, extraction and separation), Solvent extraction.
Distillation (simple, fractional and vacuum distillation),
Crystallization. Chromatographic separation: High Performance
Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Gas Liquid Chromatography
(G.L.C), Gas Chromatography (GC), Ion Exchange Chromatography.
2. Composition Analysis : Elemental analysis both qualitative and
3. Physical Characterization: Strength, Viscosity, Rheological
properties, Molecular weight.
4. Spectroscopic Methods : Ultraviolet Spectrophotometery (UV),
Visible Spectro photometery, Infrared Spectrophotometery (IR),
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer (NMR) and Electron
Spin Resonance Spectrometer (ESR), Flame Photometry, Atomic
Absorption Spectrometer (AAS), Induced Couple Plasma
Spectrometer (ICP), Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer.
5. Electro Analytical Techniques : Potentiometery, Voltametry,
Polarography, Amperometry, Coulometry and Conductometry .
6. Thermal Methods of Analysis : Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA),
Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Differential Scanning
Calorimeter (DSC), Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA).
Suggested Readings
1. K.J. Saunders, Organic Polymer Chemistry ,Chapmann & Hall,
2. P.J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Cornell University Press,
3. G. Odian, Principles of Polymerization, John Wiley & Sons Inc, NY.
4. James E. Mark, Hary Allcock, Robert West, Inorganic Polymers,
Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NY,
5. H.H. Willard, L.L. Merrit, J.A. Dean, F. A. Settle Instrumental
Methods of Chemical Analysis ; Wadsworth Publishing Company,
6. G. D. Christian, Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley, NY.
7. S.M. Khopkar, Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry,Wiley Eastern
Ltd, New Delhi.
Total Marks 100
1. Estimation of phosphoric acid in beverages
2. Analysis of (Cu, Ni); (Cu, Zn ) in alloy or synthetic samples.
3. Analysis of Cement.
4. Preparation of Malachite Green.
5. Preparation of Methyl Orange.
6. Preparation of Maleic Anhydride.
7. Preparation of Caprolactum.
8. Preparation of Polystyrene.
9. Preparation of Poly Methyl Methacrylate.
10. Preparation of Hexamethylenediamine and Adipic acid.
11. Molecular weight determination of a polymer.
12. Estimation of amino acid.
13. Estimation of amino group.
14. Determination of composition of dolomite (by complexometric
15. Electroless metallic coatings on ceramic and plastic material.
16. Thermal Characterization of the following. (Demonstration exercise)
(i) Dolomite (for percentage composition by TGA)
(ii) Polystyrene (for glass transition temperature by DTA)
17. Demonstration or class exercises on the use of IR, Mass, UV and
NMR. spectra (Demonstration exercise).
18. Determination of free acidity in ammonium sulphate fertilizer.
19. Estimation of Calcium in Calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizer.
20. Estimation of phosphoric acid in superphosphate fertilizer.
21. Industrial project*.
* Every student would be required to undergo practical training in a chemical
industry for a period of 6-8 weeks and submit a report based on the training.
(Total Lectures : 70)
Total Marks : 100
A Chromatography:
Classification of chromatographic methods: Principles of differential
migration, description of the chromatographic process, distribution
coefficients, modes of chromatography, performance of column
Chromatography—theory and practice : Introduction, the
chromatography (elution time and volume), capacity factor, column
efficiency and resolution, sample preparation.
Techniques of paper chromatography : experimental modifications,
various modes of development, nature of the paper, detection of
spots, retardation factors, factors that affect the reproducibility of Rf
values (due to paper, solvent system, sample, development
procedure), selection of solvent. Quantitative analysis, applications.
Thin layer chromatography : stationary phase, adsorbents, liquid
phase supports, plate preparation, mobile phase, sample application,
development, saturation of chamber, detection of spot. Fro values
(effect of adsorbent, solvent, solute, development process),
quantitative analysis, applications.
Column chromatography
1. General : Columns, matrix materials, stationary phase, column
packing, application of sample, column development and sample
elution, detectors and fraction collectors, applications.
2. High performance liquid chromatography: Principle, column,
matrices and stationary phases, column packing, mobile, phase and
pumps, application of sample, detectors, applications.
3. Adsorption chromatography: Principle, adsorbents, solvents, nature
of solute, operating parameters, retention volumes and times,
4. Liquid-liquid partion chromatography: Principle, normal phase
chromatography reversed-phase liquid chromatography, ion-pair
reversed phase liquid chromatography, chiral chromatography,
counter-current chromatography, applications.
5. Ion-exchange chromatography: Principle, ion exchangers, ionexchange
equilibria, ion-exchange resin selectivity, column
operations (column development, detection of solute bands), factors
affecting retention volumes, applications.
6. Gel chromatography: Principle, types of gels, separation by gel
chromatography, applications.
7. Affinity chromatography: Principle, materials, selection and
attachment of ligand, practical procedure, applications.
8. Gas-liquid chromatography : Apparatus and materials,
preparation and application of samples, separation conditions,
detectors, applications.
B Electophoretic techniques
Principle, apparatus, support media (paper, cellulose acetate
membranes, gels), SDS-PAGE, native gels, gradient gels, isoelectric
focusing, 2D-PAGE, continuous flow electrophoresis, detection,
estimation and recovery of proteins in gels, western blotting,
electrophoresis of nucleic acids, capillary electrophoresis.
C Solvent Extraction
Distribution Equilibria, The distribution law, determination of Kd the
distribution ratio. The dissociation affect, the association affect
(Benzoic acid in water and benzene) and the complexation effect
(potassium iodide-iodine in water and chloroform).
Methods of Extraction, Batch extraction, continuous extraction and
counter-current distribution.
Suggested Readings
1. J. Mendham, R.C. Deny, J.D. Barner and MJK Thomas, Vogel’s
Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, Pearson Education,
New Delhi.
2. D. A. Skoog, F.J. Holler and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental
Analysis, Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd. Singapore.
3. F.W. Fifeld and D. Kealy, Principles & Practice of Analytical
Chemistry, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
4. O. Mikes, R.A. Chalmer, Laboratory Handbook of Chromatographic
and Allied Methods, Elles Harwood Ltd. London.
5. R.V.Ditts, Analytical Chemistry-Methods of Separation.
(70 Lectures)
Total Marks : 100
A. Spectroscopic Methods of Analysis
1. An Introduction to spectroscopic methods of analysis:
Properties of electromagnetic radiations. The Electromagnetic
spectrum Emission spectra, Absorption spectra: Atomic, IR,
UV and visible absorptions: Terms used, To Fluorescence and
2. UV and Visible Spectrophotometry: Lambert-beer’s law,
Principles, instrumentation, single/double beam instrument,
Applications, correlation of spectra with molecular structure,
Quantitative Analysis.
3. IR Spectrophotometry: Basic principles, instrumentation,
correlation of spectra with molecular structure, Quantitative
4. Flame Photometry: Theoretical principles, Emission
spectra, instrumentation, single/double beem instruments,
experimental procedure, applications.
5. Atomic Spectroscopy: Types, atomizer, Atomic absorption and
emission spectroscopy: Theory and applications.
6. Polarimetry : Theory, instrumentation, experimental procedure
and applications.
7. NMR Spectroscopy : Principles, Instrumentation, Factors
affecting chemical shifts, spin-coupling application.
B. Radiochemical Method of Analysis
(a) Radio isotope dilution method
(b) Radio immuno assay
C. Thermal Method of Analysis
Principle, instrumentation and application of thermogravimetric
analysis (TGA), particular emphasis of calcium-oxalate
D. Analytical Biochemistry
(a) Carbohydrates—Structure and properties
(b) Lipids—Structure, dassification, isolation and function
(c) Protein — Structure, classification, isolation characterization
and functions.
(d) Blood chemistry — Composition, coagulation collection of
blood samples, blood sugar, blood urea, creatine, blood
cholesterol, triglyceride, blood billurubin, blood protein.
(e) Urine Chemistry— Collection of samples, composition of
normal and pathological urine, Estimation of sugar and albumin.
E. Role of computers and Microprocessors in Analytical Chemistry
Suggested Readings
1. H. Varley, Alan H. Gowenlock and Maurice Bell, Practical Clinical
2. T.G. Cooper, Tool of Bio-Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
3. D.A. Skoog, F.J. Holler and T.A. Nieman, Principles of
Instrumental Analysis, Thomon Asia Pvt. Ltd. Singapore.
4. Brain Smith, Infra Red spectral interpretation : A Systematic
Total Marks: 100
1. Determination of Exchange capacity of cation exchange resin
and anion exchange resin.
2. Separation of organic acid by ion exchange chromatography.
3. Separation of amino acids from organic acids by ionexchange
4. Solvent extraction of Nickel with DMG from a mixture of Nickel and
5. Solvent Extraction of Zirconium with Amberclite LA-1 separation
from a mixture of iron and gallium.
6. Determination of pKa, values of indicator using spectrophotometry.
7. Structural characterization of compounds by Infra-Red spectroscopy.
8. Temperature Dependent degradation of Calcium oxalate using TGA
9. Determination of dissolved oxygen in water
10. Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
11. Determination of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
12. Identification and Estimation of the following :-
(a) Carbohydrates - Qualitative and Quantitative Determination
of Cholesterol by Liebermann-Burechard methods.
(b) Isolation of Protein and Determination of Protein by the biuret
(72 Lectures)
Total Marks; 100
Unit I Pollution biology
Types, sources (external loads) of pollutants
Impact on organisms, agriculture, forests and wildlife
Bio-monitoring. Bio-indicators and Environmental Monitoring. Case studies
(Ganga Action Plan: Introduction of unleaded petrol and CNG in Delhi).
Unit II Climate change
El Nino, Global warming, Acid rain. Ozone layer depletion, Nuclear
accidents and Holocausts — case studies.
Impact on agriculture, forests, wildlife and human health
Assessment and mitigation strategies.
Unit III Waste management
Types of wastes
Disposal and management strategies
Modem biotechnological approaches
Wasteland reclaimation, Consumerism and Waste products.
Unit IV Environmental toxicology
Classification of toxic compounds, Acute, Subacute and Chronic toxicity.
Statistical concepts of LD50
Dose effect and Dose Response Relationship. Bioaccumulation and
Biomagnification of Toxic compounds.
Influence of Ecological factors on the effects of toxicity, Toxicily threshhold
Unit V Health risks of environmental pollutants
Health Risks from Gases/Particulates, Heavy Metals (Cadmium, Mercury,
Arsenic and Lead), Pesticides and Radiation.
Occupational and Environmental Health
Biotransformation of Xenobiotics: Phase I and Phase II Reactions, Role
of Cytochrome P 450, Activation/Detoxification, Excretion, Carcinogenicity,
Mutagenicity and Teratogenicity. Ubtianization stress and health.
Unit VI Biosafety
Genetically modified organisms and biosafety assessment
Species introduction
Species invasion. Policies and Measures (in reference to India)
Cartagena protocol Intellectual Property Rights
Suggested Readings
1. R. Rajagopalam (2005). Environmental Studies: “From Crisis to
Cure” Oxford University Press.
2. Cunningham, William P. and Barbara Woodworth Saigo (1995).
Environmental Sciences. A Global Concern. 3rd Edition. Boston.
Wmc, Brown Publishers.
3. Sethi. I. Sethi M.S. and lqbal S.A. (2004). Environmental Pollution,
Causes, Effects and Control. Commonwealth Publishers, New Delhi.
4. Raghunathan, Meena and Pandya (1999). The Green Reader: An
Introduction to Environmental Concerns and Issues. Ahmedabad
Centre For Environmental Education.
5. Miller G.T. (Jr.) (2002) Living in the Environment — Principles,
Connections and Solutions. 12th Edition. Thomson Learning, Inc.
6. Jjemba, P.K. (2004). Environmental Microbiology — Principles
and Applications. Science Publishers. Inc.
(72 Lectures)
Total Marks : 100
Unit I Environmental Policies and Regulations
Environment Protection — Basic concepts of Environmental Policies of
India (Article 48A, Article 51A and
Article 21 A of Constitution of India)
Environmental Laws — The Water Act, 1974; Air Act, 1981; Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986; Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980; Indian Forest Act,
1982; Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972; Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.
Biodiversitv Act.
International Conventions — Stockholm Declaration, 1972; Ramsar
Convention; World Heritage Convention;
Kyoto Protocol; Rio Summit (Earth Summit); Johannesberg Summit, 2002.
Montreal Protocol.
Emironmentnl Certificate Systems ISO 14001
Issues involved in enforcement of Environmental legislations, Public
Unit II Remote Sensing
Principles of Remote Sensing; Application in Water Resources
Management, Land Use Planning, Mining, Landslide and Earthquake
damage assessment.
Unit III Environmental Impact Assessment
Introduction, methodologies, project planning and implementation, green
belts, role of GIS in risk assessment and mitigation measures, review and
decision making, compensatory actions: Case studies- oil refineries and
petrochemicals, tourism- coastal zone development.
Unit IV Environmental Management
Principles of air, water noise management. Management- issues and
practices (with case studies); Hazardous Waste Rules, 1989; Solid waste
management-role of microbes in waste treatment, Strategies and
regulations, Hazardous Waste Rules, 1989; Hazardous Chemical Rules,
1989: Biomedical Waste Rules, 1998. ISO Management: role of national
and international organizations. Waste treatment, Bioremediation, IPM.
Organic Fanning. Biological Control of Pests.
Unit V Disasters Management
Introduction, Natural disasters (case studies— Gujarat earthquake,
Tsunamis 2004; Industrial disasters (case studies- Bhopal Tragedy.
Chemobyl): Factories Act: Public Liability Act. Occupational Health.
Unit VI Society and Environment
Concept of eco-cities (with reference to India), Social and Civil Society
movements (case studies: National— Tehri Dam. Chipko movement.
APCO movement; International — WBCSD), Environmental Economics
and Politics. Indian concerns. Judicial Activism, Public Interest Litigation.
Suggested Readings
1. Aslopp, Seal and Gaylarde (2004). Introduction to Biodeterioration.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Fingerman and Nagabhushnam (2005) Bioremediation — Aquatic
and Terrestrial Ecosystems, Science Publishers, Inc.
3. Mohapatra, P.K. (2006) Textbook of Environmental Biotechnology.
I.K.. International Publishing House Pvt Ltd.
4. Divan, Shyam and Rosencranz (2001). Environmental Law and
Policy in India. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.
5. Wright Richard T. and Bernard J. Nebel (2004). Environmental
Science : Towards a Sustainable Future. 8th Edition, Indian Reprint.
Printice Hall of India.
Total Marks: 100
1. Water analysis: (college pond, polluted and distilled water samples)
(a) Study of pH and conductivity
(b) Measurement of chloride, sulphate and salinity of water
samples by simple titration method. (AgNO3 and potassium
(c) Estimation of total alkalinity of water samples (CO3, HCO3)
using double titration method.
(d) Measurement of dissolved oxygen content and correlate the
BOD with animal and plant diversity (Winkles method).
(e) Measurement of dissolved CO2.
(f) Measurement of COD in water samples.
(g) Study in detail the various symptoms of (human health)
diseases caused due to air and water pollution (at least two
diseases in each category).
(h) Estimation of E. coli in waste water.
2. Estimation of SPM in air samples.
3. Some common eco-toxicity tests (microbial).
4. Study of some of the common bio-indicators of pollution.
5. Determination of LD50/LC50 values from the data provided.
6. A demonstration of role of microbes in adsorption of contaminants/
heavy metals (Simple experiments can be framed).
7. Project report on selected case studies.
(a) Natural disasters
(b) River valley projects
(c) Mining
8. Project report — Waste management/recycling
9. Manual interpretation of remote sensing data.
10. Visits: Polluted sites, banks of rivers.
(75 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
Unit I The Cell
A brief introduction, cell theory, cell cycle and cell division.
Unit II Cell Organelles
Cell wall, cell membrane, organelles - mitochondria,
chloroplast, nucleus, ribosomes, ER, golgi bodies, microbodies,
lysosomes and perioxisomes.
Unit III Cytoskeleton
Microtubules, cilia and flagella, microfilaments.
Unit IV Biomolecules
Carbohydrates: Structure and functional significance of monodi-
and polysaccharides; Lipids: structure, nomenclature, and
functional significance of fatty acids, triglycerides,
phospholipids, glycolipids and steroids, lipid peroxidation and
role of antioxidants; Amino acids and Proteins: structure and
general properties, role of chaperones in protein conformation
(physiology of important peptides and proteins), Nucleic acids
— DNA and RNA types and structure.
Unit V Metabolism
Carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, pentose
phosphate patheway, gluconeogenesis; Lipids metabolism:
beta oxidation of fatty acids, ketogenesis; Protein metabolism:
Overview of protein degradation, catabolism of amino acids,
transamination, oxidative deamination; Urea cycle, Intermediary
metabolism: Inter-relationship of carbohydrates, lipid and
protein metabolism.
Unit VI Enzymes
Nomenclature, classification, kinetics, mechanisms of action,
Unit VII Molecular Biology
DNA Replication; mechanism of DNA replication, inhibitors of
DNA replication; Genetic Code: central dogma, nature of
genetic code, mechanism of transcription and translation in
protein synthesis; Regulation of Gene Expression: inducible
and repressible systems, positive and negative controls, DNA
Unit VIII Developmental Biology (Animals)
Introduction and scope of Embryology; Gametogenesis and
fertilization: types of eggs, fertilization, Parthenogenesis;
Embryonic Development: Cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation
in frog, chick and man, fate of germ layers, formation of extraembryonic
membranes in chick and human Placenta
(physiology and types); Post embryonic morphogenesis:
Metamorphosis and regeneration; Genes in development:
amniocentesis; Gerantology and Teratology: growth, ageing
(concept and model) Teratology: causes and examples.
Unit IX Developmental Biology (Plants)
Introduction and scope, significance of polarity; Meristems and
derivatives: vascular cambium and its derivatives, periderm;
Vascular elements: Cytodifferentiation and functions of
vascular elements; Structural organization of flower and
mutations affecting floral differentiation; Anther: structure and
development, microsporogenesis, pollen development; Ovule:
structure and types, megasporogenesis, types of embryo sacs;
Fertilization: pollination, pollen- pistil interaction, double
fertilization; Seed development: types and functions of
endosperm, embryogenesis, polyembryony and apomixis.
Suggested Readings
1. Becker, W.M. Rees, J.K.B. and Poenine, M.F. (2002) The world
of the cell. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, New York and
2. Bhojwani, S.S. & Bhatnagar, S.P. (1999) Embryology of
Angiosperms. 4th ed. Vikas Publ. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Bruce, A. et al. (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland
Publishing Company, New York and London.
4. Davenport. An Outline of Animal Development, Addison-Wesley.
5. De Robertis, E.D.P. and De Robertis, E.M.F. Jr. (2002) Cell and
Molecular Biology. Infomed Ltd., Hong Kong.
6. Gilbert, S.F. (1991) Developmental Biology. Sinauer Associates Inc.
7. Hames, B.D. Hopper, N.M. and Hougton, J.D. (1998) Instant notes
in Biochemistry. Viva Books Pvt. Ltd.
8. Karp, B. (2002) Cell and Molecular Biology. 3rd Edition. John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., New York.
9. Lehninger, A.L. Nelson, D.K. and Cox, M.M. (1993) Principles of
Biochemistry. CBS Publishers and Distributors.
10. Leopald, A.C. and Kriedemann, P.E. Plant Growth and Development.
Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
11. Oppenheimer, S.B. (1981) Introduction to Embryology. Allyn and
Bacon. Sussman Animal Growth and developmental. Prentice Hall.
12. Stryer, L. (1995) Biochemistry. 4th ed. W.H. Freeman.
(75 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
Unit I Genetics
(a) Transmission Genetics — Mendel’s laws of inheritance,
allelic and non-allelic interactions, modified dihybrid ratios,
polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles, extranuclear inheritance.
(b) Physical and Molecular Organization of Genetic
Material — chromosomes, chromosome morphology,
karyotype, idiogram, polytene and lampbrush chromosomes,
nucleosome, DNA/RNA as genetic material, Watson and
Crick’s model, DNA forms (right handed and left handed), RNA
(c) Genome organization — prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes,
gene structure, split and overlapping genes, gene sequencing,
cDNA, satellite DNA, repetitive DNA, genome wide sequences,
physical mapping, functional genomic.
(d) Mutations — spontaneous and induced mutations, mechanism
of mutation, genomic mutations (aneuploidy, eupolyploidy),
chromosomal aberrations.
(e) Linkage and Crossing Over — complete and incomplete
linkage, two-point and three-point test cross, gene mapping,
cytological basis of crossing over, Molecular basis of
recombination: Holliday model, role of rec gene; sex-linked
Unit II Biotechnology
(a) Recombinant DNA Technology — cloning vectors (plasmids,
cosmids, bacteriophages), restriction endonucleases, DNA
ligases, transformation protocols, gene constructs and
screening of genomic library.
(b) Genetic Engineering Techniques — PCR, Southern and
Northern Blotting, DNA finger printing, RFLP, RAPD, REMI,
stem cell research.
(c) Applications of Biotechnology — GM plants, resistance to
pathogens, pests, stress tolerance; transgenic animals for
generation of medicines, hormones, vaccines; microbial and
industrial biotechnology for production of antibiotics, alcohol,
single cell proteins, enzymes and other organic compounds,
gene therapy, biomass production, metabolomics.
(d) Ethics and Biosafety — public perception of biotechnology,
intellectual property rights, patenting, ethical and biosafety
Unit III Immunology
(a) Overview of immune system — innate, acquired immunity.
(b) Generation of immune response — Antigens, immunogens
and haptens, factors influencing immunogenicity, recognition
of antigens, properties of B-cell and T-cell epitopes, antigenantibody
(c) Immune effector mechanisms — Cytokines, complement
system, hypersensitive reactions.
(d) Immune system in health and disease — vaccines,
autoimmunity, AIDS, diagnostic tools.
Suggested Readings
1. Benjamin, P.A.B. (2002) Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. W.H.
Freeman and Co. New York.
2. Brown, T.A. Genome. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) PTE Ltd.
3. Brown, T.D. (1999) Gene cloning and DNA analysis. Blackwell
4. Hartl, D.L. and E.W. Jones. (1998) Genetics: Principles and
Analysis. John and Bartlett, USA.
5. Richard, A.G. Kindt, T.J., Osborne, B.A. and Rodwell, V.W. (2003)
lmmunology W.H. Freeman and Co. New York.
6. Roitt, 1. M. (2001) Essential Immunology. Blackwell Scientific
7. Russel, P.J. (1998) Genetics. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing
Co. Inc., USA.
Total Marks : 100
I. Cell & Molecular Biology and Developmental Biology Marks: 50
Unit I Cell & Molecular Biology
1. Cell structure — prokaryotic/eukaryotic cells, cell organelles
through photomicrographs/electron micrographs.
2. Cytochemical demonstration of Nucleic Acids, Proteins and
Polysaccharides (from permanent slides).
3. Demonstration of dialysis (glucose and starch). Study of plasmolysis
and deplasmolysis using red onion peel/Rhoeo.
4. Study of effect of temperature, pH and heavy metals on the action
of Urease, Catalase.
5. Separation and identification of amino acids by paper
6. Isolation of DNA from cauliflower by spooling method.
7. Preparation of temporary slides to study different stages of mitosis
and meiosis (Allium roots and buds) and meiosis in grasshopper
Unit II Developmental Biology (Plants)
1. Pollen germination by Hanging drop culture.
2. Study of structure of anther, types of tapetum, microsporogenesis,
types of ovules and embryo sac development (monosporic) (through
photographs/permanent slides).
3. Study of mature embryo sac through electron micrographs showing
egg apparatus.
4. Endosperm types, stages of embryo development — through
photographs/ permanent slides.
Unit III Developmental Biology (Animals)
1. Study of developmental stages in frogs — whole mount and sections
(permanent slides), cleavage stages, blastula, gastrula, neurula, tail
bud tadpole.
2. Study of whole mounts and sections of chick embryo at different
stages, primitive streak (24, 28, 33, 48, 72, and 96 hours).
II. Genetics, Biotechnology and Immunology Marks : 50
Unit I Genetics
1. Study of gene interaction/deviations from the Mendelian ratios using
seed Samples in ratio of 9:7., 9:4:3, 13:3, 9:6:1, 15:1 and 12:3:1.
2. To study of the karyotype of diploid and polyploidy of the same
genus through photographs; and aneuploids (Down’s, Turner’s and
Klinefelter’s Syndrome).
3. Preparation of karyo of type and idiogram from the given photograph
of somatic metaphase chromosomes (Allium and Human).
4. Study of the organization of DNA in the eukaryotic chromosome
(through illustration).
5. Study of salivary gland and lampbrush chromosomes, laggards,
bridges, multivalents and translocation ring.
6. Study of banding patterns (Q,C,G) through photographs.
7. To study the sex chromosomes of Melandrium/Coccinia (Permanent
8. Temporary preparation of Barr bodies.
9. Study of inherited characters in human: colour blindness and PTC
Unit II Biotechnology
1. Construction of phylogenetic tree from DNA sequences from data
2. Study of genetic engineering techniques with help of photographs
(PCR, Southern blot, GISH, FISH, DNA Fingerprinting).
3. Survey of Useful Bioinformatics sites on internet, gene and protein
databases, genome and organism specific database, multiple
sequence alignment.
Unit III Immunology
1. Isolation, staining and counting of mononuclear cells from peripheral
2. Demonstration of primary (Bone marrow & Thymus and secondary
immune organs (spleen, lymph nodes) in rat.
3. Determination of ABO blood groups and Rh-factor.
(72 Lectures)
Total Marks : 100
Unit I Fundamental of Entomology
(a) Elementary knowledge of collection, preservation and culture
techniques of insects.
(b) Classification: Basic principle of classification of insects. Characters
and examples of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera.
(c) Type study: Cockroach.
Unit II Insect Pests
(A) Bionomics and management of the following pests
(a) Rice - Leptocorisa acuta
(b) Wheat - Sesamia inferens
(c) Pulses - Helicoverpa armigera
(d) Sugarcane - Tryporyza armigera
(e) Cotton - Earias vitella, Pectinophora gossypiella
(f) Vegetable - Raphidopalpa foveicollis, Leucinodes orbonalis
(g) Fruit - Papilio demoleus
(h) Stored Grain Pests - Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus
chinensis, Corcyra cephalonica and Trogoderma granarium.
(B) Bionomics and control of locusts and termites.
Unit II Useful Insects and Practices of Pest Control
(a) Agricultural Pest: mechanical, cultural, chemical, biological, sterileinsect
technique, genetic and quarantine.
(b) Medically important Pests : Economic important and management
of Fleas, bed bugs, mosquitoes, houseflies, and lice.
(c) Outlines of sericulture, apiculture and lac culture.
Suggested Readings
1. Atwal, A.S. and Dhaliwal, G.S. (1999) Agricultural Pests of South
Asia and their management.
2. Metcalf, C.L. and Flint, W.P. (1962) Destructive and useful insects,
McGraw-Hill Book Company.
3. Ross, Herbert H. (1956) A Text book of Entomology, John Wiley and
4. Hill, Dannis S. (1993) Agricultural insects pests of the tropics and
their control; Cambridge University Press.
5. Ross David (2004) Insects of stored products, Manson Publication.
6. David and Ananthakrishan (2004) General and Applied Entomology,
McGraw-Hill Publication.
(72 Lectures)
Maximum Marks : 100
Unit I Carbamate insecticides
Preparations and pesticidal properties of following carbamate
Carbaryl, methomyl.
Mode of action of carbamate insecticides.
Unit II Organophosphorus pesticides
Nomenclature and structural diversities of organophosphorus
Preparation and pesticidal properties of the following organophosphorus
pesticides: Parathion, methyl parathion,
melathion, Mode of action of organophosphorus insecticides.
Unit III Organochlorine Insecticides
Preparation, properties and uses of DDT and its analogs: Methoxy
chlor and DDD
Bridged diphenyl acardies: Kelthane, Chlorobenzilate
Hexachlorcyclohexanes (stereochemistry).
The chlorinated cylodienes and their stereochemistry:
Chloridane, heptachlor, aldrin, dialdrin endosulfan.
Mode of action of organochlorine insecticides.
Unit IV Botanical Insecticides
(No structure elucidation or synthesis is required for the following
Nicotine and its analogs
Properties of Natural pyrethroids
Synthetic analogs of pyrethroids: Allethrin, fenvalerate,
decamethrin, Mode of action of pyrethroids.
Unit V Pesticide Formulations
Different types of formulations and their physio-chemical
characteristics and important BSI specification.
Wettable powders
Emulsifiable concentrates, Aerosols.
Unit VI Analytical Techniques involved in Pesticide Analysis
Principle underlying the following analytical techniques: Titrimetric
methods, Chromatography methods: TLC, Gas chromatography,
Liquid chromatography and Colorimetric methods.
Unit VII Analysis of formulations and pesticide residues
Principle and methods underlying the analysis of the following
DDT, BHC, Baygon, Melathion, 2,4-D, paraquat.
Unit VIII Quality Control
Objectives and importance. Responsibilities, establishment of
quality control Laboratory. Rules and regulations governing
quality. Analysis of active ingredients. CIPAC, EPA, WHO, FAO
& BIS guidelines and specifications and their comparison vis-avis
quality of materials, adulteration and common adulterants.
Suggested Readings
1. Perry, A.S., Yamamoto, I., I. Shaaya and R. Perry, Insecticides
in Agriculture and Environment, Narora Publishing House.
2. S.K. Khaitan, Pesticide Formulation, UNIDO, VIENNA.
3. B.S. Parmar and S.S. Tomar. Pesticide formulation, CBS Publishers
and Distributors, New Delhi.
4. R.J. Kuhr, H.W. Derough, Carbamate Insecticides, Chemistry,
Biochemistry and Toxicology, CRC Press.
5. R. Wade, M. Dekker, Pesticide Formulation.
6. R.L. Metcalf Organic Insecticides, their Chemistry and mode of
7. O’Brien, R.D., Insecticide, Action and Metabolism, Academic Press,
New York and London.
Total Marks: 100
1. Collection of preservation of insects.
2. Identification and life history of economically important pests listed
in the syllabus of theory.
3. Laboratory rearing of one Phytophagous, and one stored grain insect
of economic importance.
4. Prepare key for the identification of insect up to orders
(Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemitera and Diptera) given insects.
5. Formulations of insecticides.
6. Bioassay of mosquito larvae, adult housefly or stored grain pest
using any one insecticide, and calculate LD 50/ LC 50.
7. Acquaintance with insecticide dusting and spraying equipment
and its working.
8. Trip to agricultural field and granary for the on spot study of damages
caused by insect pests.
1. To calculate acidity/alkalinity in given sample of pesticide
formulations as per BIS specifications.
2. To prepare a sample of 5% granules and analyze the quality control
of formulation parameters.
3. To find the percentage purity of DDT in a given sample (hydrolysable
and non-hydrolysable chlorines).
4. Prepare emulsifiable concentrate ofmelathion and its analysis as per
specifications (cold test and emulsion stability test).
5. Preparation of WDP (Wettable Dust Powder) concentrates of DDT
and its analysis by ISI specifications (physiochemical
6. To estimate the active ingradient in the formulations and technical
products of following pesticides: Melathion, Carbaryl,2,4-D and
2,4,5 T.
7. Sampling, clean up and analytical techniques in residue analysis.
8. Preparation of simple organophosphates, phosphonates and
(4 Lectures plus one tutorial per week)
Total Marks : 150
Internal Assessment : 38 marks
Examination : 112 marks
Duration : 3 Hours
Unit I Infinite Series (24 L) 28
Convergent sequences, Statement and illustration of Cauchy convergence
criterion for sequences. Cauchy’s theorem on limits, monotone sequences
and their convergence.
Definition and a necessary condition for convergence of an infinite series.
Cauchy convergence criterion for series, positive term series, geometric
series, comparison test, limit comparison test, convergence of p-series,
Root test, Ratio test, alternating series, Leibnitz’s test. Definition and
examples of absolute and conditional convergence.
Unit II : Differential equations (38 L) 44
First order exact differential equations, Integrating factors, rules to fine
an integrating factor. First order higher degree equations solvable for
x, y, p = dy/dx. Methods for solving higher-order differential equations.
Solving a differential equation by reducing its order. Linear homogenous
equations with constant coefficients. Linear non-homogenous equations.
The method of variation of parameters. The Cauchy-Euler equation.
Simultaneous differential equations.
Applications of differential equations : the vibrations of a mass on a spring,
mixture problem, free damped motion, forced motion, resonance
phenomena, electric circuit problem, mechanics of simultaneous
differential equations.
Order and degree of partial differential equations, concept of linear and
non-linear partial differential equations, formation of first order partial
differential equations. Linear partial differential equations of first order,
Lagrange’s method, Charpit’s method, classification of second order partial
differential equations into elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic through
illustrations only.
Unit IV (Algebra) (34 L) 40
Definition and examples of real or complex vector spaces. Subspaces and
their properties. Linear independence and dependence, basis, invariance
of basis, size, dimension of a vector space. Real or complex Matrices as
Linear transformations, eigen values & eigen vectors, Cayley Hamilton
theorem. Methods of finding inverse of a non singular matrix.
Groups : Definition and examples of groups, examples of abelian and
non-abelian groups : the group Zn of integers under addition modulo n
and the group U (n) of units under multiplication modulo n. Cyclic groups,
examples of groups from number systems, complex roots of unity, circle
group, the general linear group GLn (n,R), groups of symmetries of
(i) an isosceles triangle, (ii) an equilateral triangle, (iii) a rectangle, and
(iv) a square, groups of transformations in a plane, the permutation group
sym(n), group of quaternions, crystallographic groups.
Subgroups, cyclic subgroups, examples of subgroups including the centre
of a group Cosets, index of a subgroup, Lagrange’s theorem, order of an
element, Statement and Interpretation of Euler and Fermat’s theorem,
order of HK where H and K are subgroups. Normal subgroups : The
definition, examples, and characterizations.
Rings : Definition and examples of rings, examples of commutative and
non-commutative rings : rings from number systems, Zn, the ring of
integers modulo n, ring of real quaternions, rings of matrices, polynomial
rings, and rings of continuous functions. Subrings and ideals, integral
domains and fields, Examples of fields : Zp, Q, R and C. Field of rational
Suggested Readings
1. Paul Duchateau, David W. Zechmenn, Partial Differential Equations,
Tata McGraw Hill, 2005.
2. J. Durbin, Modern Algebra and introduction, Wiley Student Edition,
3. E. Fischer, Intermediate Real Analysis, Springer Verlag, 1983.
4. Joseph A Gallian : Contemporary Abstract Algebra, fourth edition,
Narosa, 1999.
5. B. Kolman, D.R. Hill, Introductory Linear Algebra with Applications,
Pearson Education, 2003.
6. Seymour Lipsdchutz, Linear Algebra, Schaum Series, Tata McGraw
Hill, 1989.
7. S. L. Ross, Differential Equations, John Wiley and Sons, Third
Edition, 1984.
8. I. Sneddon, Elements of Partial Differential Equations, McGraw Hill
International Editions, 1967.
(70 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
Optics (20 L)
Fresnel diffraction. Half period zones and zone plate. Diffraction due to a
straight edge and single slit. Fraunhofer diffraction. Intensity due to single
slit. Plane transmission grating and its resolving power.
Laser: Working principle, thermal equilibrium of radiation, principle of
detailed balance, Population inversion, construction and working of He-
Ne laser.
Optical Fiber: total internal reflection, critical angle, numerical aperture,
acceptance angle, types of optical fibers (definition only).
Electronics and Communication (20 L)
UJT characteristics and relaxation oscillator. Construction and working
of FET, comparison between CE, CB and CC configurations of BJT. Static
and dynamic load line, biasing of transistor circuit (fixed and self). Class
A, B and C amplifiers (definition).
Communication: Propagation of radio waves, troposphere and ionosphere
propagation. Need for modulation, basis concepts of amplitude, frequency
and phase modulation and demodulation. Gestationary satellites, antenna
look angles, orbital classifications, spacing and frequency allocation,
radiation patterns. Satellite system link model-uplink, transponder,
downlink, transmit power. Bit energy, effective isotropic radiated power.
Idea of GPS services.
Quantum Mechanics (15 L)
Schrodinger equation. Operators, average value. Time independent
Schrodinger equation, requirements of a wave function, probabilistic
interpretation. Solution of Schrodinger equation in one dimension, particle
in box, step potential: barrier penetration and tunneling.
Nuclear Energy (9 L)
Binding energy, nuclear fission and fusion. Fission reactor. Fusion energy
in Sun. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Lawson criteria, elementary ideas
on magnetic confinement (Tokmak) and intertially confined laser driven
Physics of Materials (6 L)
Amorphous, crystalline and polycrystalline solids, Band theory of solids,
energy band diagram in conductors, insulators and semiconductors, n and
p type semiconductors, Hall effect, Quantum Hall effect. Superconductivity,
Meissner effect, critical field Type I and II superconductors,
London equation, penetration depth.
Suggested Readings
F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White.: Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw Hill).
J. Millmnn and C.C. Halkias: Integrated Electronics (Tata McGraw Hill).
D. Roddy and J. Coolen: Electronic Communication (Prentice Hall).
S.T. Thornton and A. Rex : Modern Physics for Scientist and Engineers
3rd Edition (Brooks-Cole).
Total Marks : 50
1. Determination and magnifying and resolving power of a telescope.
2. Determination of ? of light by Newton’s rings.
3. Determine the Cauchy’s constant and dispersive power of Prism.
4. Determination of ? of sodium light by difiraction grating.
5. Determination of ? of sodium light by Fresnel’s biprism.
6. Determination of diameter of a wire by diffraction.
7. Design of CE amplifier of desired gain.
8. Study of Phase shift oscillator.
9. Study of UJT characteristics and relaxation oscillator.
10. Amplitude modulation using CE amplifier.
11. Study of PLL IC (capture andlock range).
12. Study of 4-bit sift register.
Note: At least eight experiments should be performed by each student.
(75 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
Section - A — Sericulture Crop Improvement
1. Sericulture Crop (2 L)
Introduction and its classification, Mulberry and Silkworm cocoon
crop — significance of its improvement and management in
sericulture development.
2. Mulberry Crop Improvement (18 L)
Cytogenetics and genetic variability of mulberry, Mulberry germplasm
maintenance and its significance, Mulberry breeding — Objectives
and different methods — Plant Introduction and acclimatization,
selection — Mass, pure line, clonal selection, Polyploidy, Mutation
breeding, Breeding for disease and drought resistance. Tissue
Culture — Introduction, Organization of plant tissue culture
laboratory, Micro propagation, Different cultures — meristem, callus,
anther, pollen, endosperm. Cryopreservation, Evaluation of mulberry
genotypes and release of different varieties.
3. Silkworm Cocoon Crop Improvement (17 L)
Silkworm as a ideal laboratory tool for genetical studies,
Cytogenetics of silkworm, Genetics of cocoon colour, inheritance of
voultinism and moultinism, mosaicism in silkworm and their selection,
Silkworm Breeding — aims and objectives, silkworm breeding in
India, Silkworm races — their origin and distribution, parameters
relevant to silk production, Types of crosses, auto sexing breeds,
heterosis and its exploitation in silkworms, Silkworm germplasm and
its management.
Section - B — Sericulture Crop Management
1. Mulberry disease and pest management (16 L)
Concept of plant diseases, classification, survey of mulberry
diseases, importance of mulberry protection, Influence of abiotic and
biotic factors on incidence of mulberry diseases. Fungal, viral,
mycoplasmal and root knot nematode disease of mulberry -
occurrence, causative agents, symptoms, epidemiology, prevention
and control methods and mineral deficiency diseases of mulberry.
Fungicides - their formulations and preparation. Mulberry Pests:
Major, minor and resurging pests of mulberry- Occurrence,
classification and their characteristic features, damage, life cycle,
symptoms, prevention and control methods.
2. Silkworm Disease and pest management (15 L)
Introduction and classification of silkworm diseases, Silkworm
diseases — Microsporadian, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal — Causative
agents, its classification and characteristic features, damage, source
and mode of infection, symptoms, disinfection process, prevention
and control methods. Silkworm Pests: Major, minor and resurging
pests of silkworms — Classification, life cycle, damage, alternate
hosts, prevention and control methods.
3. Seri-biotechnology (4 L)
New R&D area in sericulture, Use of biotechnological methods in
sericulture crop improvement and management, prospects of
biotechnology in sericulture development.
4. Integrated Pest and Disease Management (3 L)
Integrated pest and disease management and its effect on sericulture
success, Sericultural practices in China and Japan for effective pest
and disease management and their relevance in Indian conditions.
Suggested Readings
1. Aruga, H.: Principles of Sericulture, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt.
Ltd., 1994.
2. Devaiah, M.C. Narayanswamy, K.C. and Maribashetty, V.G.:
Advances in Mulberry Sericulture, 1st Edition, C.V.G. Publications,
Bangalore, 1999.
3. Devaiah, M.C., Narayanswamy, K.C. and Govindan, R.: Principles
of Silkworm Pathology, 1st Edition, Seri Scientific Publishers,
Bangalore, 1998.
4. ESCAP, United Nations, Rome: ESCAP Manual on Principles and
Techniques of Silkworm Breeding, United Nations, New York, 1993.
5. ESCAP, United Nations, Rome: ESCAP Manual on Diseases
and Pests of Mulberry and Silkworm, Thailand.
6. FAO United Nations, Rome: FAO Manuals on Sericulture
(Volume-I - Mulberry Cultivation, Volume - II - Silkworm Rearing),
FAO, United Nations, Rome.
7. Sarkar, Dilip De: Silkworm Biology, Breeding and Genetics, 1st
Edition, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, 1998.
8. Tazima, Y.: Silkworm — An Important Laboratory Tool, Kodansha
Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
9. Tazima, Y.: The Genetics of Silkworm, Logos Press & Academic
Press, Tokyo, Japan.
10. Sathe, T.V. and Thite, S.H.: Sericulture and Pest Management, 1st
Edition, Daya Publishing House, New Delhi, 2001.
11. Ullal and Narasimanha: Handbook of Practical Sericulture, 4th
Edition, CSB Publications, 1994.
(75 Lectures)
Total Marks: 100
Section - A – Silkworm Seed Technology
1. Silkworm Seed Technology (1 L)
Introduction, Significance of silkworm eggs for sericulture industry.
2. Silkworm Seed Organization (8 L)
Introduction, Significance, Different types of silkworm seed
organization systems — 4 Tier and 3 Tier system, Constituents of
silkworm seed organization system — Basic Seed farm, Seed
Multiplication farm, Seed Areas— Identification, concept of selected
seed areas/villages, Seed cocoon markets and its importance, Seed
Legislation Act — rules and regulation.
3. Disinfection in seed production units (3 L)
Disinfection and its importance, different types of disinfectants,
calculation of surface area for disinfection process,
implementation of disinfection process.
4. Seed Production Centers (12 L)
Grainages — Introduction, function production planning, grainage
equipments and their uses, Grainage activities — Procurement
and transportation of seed cocoons, Processing and preservation
of seed cocoons, Role of environment in cocoon preservation,
Cocoon sorting, Sex separation. Synchronization of moth
emergence. Coupling and decoupling of moths, Oviposition, Method
of egg preparation — sheet and loose eggs, Mother moth
examination, Surface sterilization, Environmental conditions for
grainage activities, grainage management and its economics.
5. Handling of Silkworm Egg (14 L)
Bivoltine and multivoltine silkworm eggs and their characteristic
features, diapausing character of bivoltine eggs and its biology. Acid
treatment — its importance and selection of appropriate method.
Types of acid treatment — Hot acid and cold acid treatment —
advantages and disadvantages, cold storage and preservation of
silkworm eggs, postponement of hatching of silkworm egg.
Hibernation schedules — introduction, types and uses.
Section - B - Silk Technology
1. Textile Fibers (5 L)
Classification and broad characteristics of different fibers. Properties
of silk — physical and chemical, different factors affecting the quality
of raw silk.
2. Cocoon Quality (3 L)
Cocoon as a raw material — its significance, physical and chemical
characteristics, procurement, sorting and transportation.
3. Pre Reeling Operations (5 L)
Cocoon stifling, Cocoon boiling/cooking; Cocoon brushing - Different
types and their merits and demerits.
4. Reeling Operations (10 L)
Introduction, different reeling terms, Reeling process — Different
reeling machines and their working, reel permeation, rereeling,
lacing, skeining, raw silk packing, raw silk testing and grading,
silk reeling water management. Silk reeling management — process
control and its effect on quality, Bivoltine silk reeling technology for
quality, silk, byproducts of silk reeling process, Silk reeling waste
and its utilization, Spun silk industries.
5. Post Reeling Operations (10 L)
Objectives of various operations: Silk Throwing, Wet processing —
degumming, bleaching, dyeing, Silk Weaving — Warp and weft
preparation, An overview of weaving process. Weaving appliances
— Handlooms, power looms and recent advanced looms; Silk
Printing — Printing styles — Direct, discharge and resist type,
printing tools and devices and quality control in printing and post
printing operations, Finishing of silk— Mechanical and Chemical.
6. Fabric Quality (4 L)
Perspective of fabric quality, fabric defects — warp and weft way
defects, importance of crimp, steps required for production of quality
Suggested Readings
1. Narasimhanaha, M. N.: Manual on Silkworm Egg Production, Central
Silk Board, Bangalore, 1998.
2. Biram Saheb, N. M. Sengupta, K., Reddy, G. Vernanada: A Treatise
on the Acid treatment of Silkworm Eggs, CSR&TI, Central Silk Board,
3. FAO United Nations, Rome: FAO Manuals on Sericulture
(Volume III — Silk Reeling) FAO, United Nations, Rome.
4. CSTRI, CSB, Bangalore, Manual on Bivoltine Silk Reeling
Technology, 2002.
5. Mahadevappa, D.: Mulberry Raw Silk Reeling Technology, Oxford
& IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 2000.
6. Rui, Huang Guo: Silk Reeling, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.,
7. Gulranjani, P.: Chemical Processing of Silk, Department of Textile
Technology, IIT, New Delhi, 1993.
8. Gulranjani, P.: Silk Bleaching, Dyeing and Printing, Department
of Textile Technology, IIT, New Delhi.
(Based on Paper SC 301 & SC 302)
Total Marks: 100
1. Study of stains, fixatives, pre treatment solutions and cytological
2. Commercial characteristics of some evolved varieties of mulberry,
study of disease resistant and draught tolerant genotypes of
3. Study of Meiosis in mulberry buds.
4. Pathology — Identification, isolation and symptoms of fungal,
bacterial, viral, nematode and other minor diseases of mulberry;
Isolation and identification of fungal spores, nematode egg masses,
larvae and adults. Collection and preservation of diseased plant
samples. Fungicide formulations and their application.
5. Pests — Identification and collection of major pests and their
developmental stages, Study of all minor pests, biological agents
used to control pests; Pesticide preparation and their application.
6. Morphological variations of egg, larval, cocoon, pupal and moth
characters of different races of silkworm.
7. Analysis of quantitative traits : % heterosis, chi-square and t-test.
Study of sex linked traits, differentiation of silkworm breeds,
Evaluation of pure races and hybrids.
8. Heterosis: Single, three way and double cross calculations;
inbreeding and inbreeding depression calculations.
9. Pathology: Causative agents, classification, occurrence, mode
of transmission, symptoms, prevention and control of silkworm
diseases — Pebrine, Grasserie, Flacherie, Muscardine and
10. Pests : Classification, damage, developmental stages, prevention
and integrated control of major and minor pest of silkworm — Uzifly
and Dermestid Beetle, Uzifly infestation and its assessment,
collection and preservation of insect pests.
11. Use of biotechnological tools for disease detection —
Bioassays, Dipstick immunoassays, Agarose gel Double Diffusion
tests for BmIFV and BmDNV.
12. Visit to Microbiological and Biotechnological laboratory.
13. Model grainage plan, Grainage equipments and their uses.
14. Seed Cocoon processing and handling — Deflossing, Cocoon
sorting, Cocoon preservation, Pupal midgut examination.
15. Moth emergence, Selection of moths, Pairing, de pairing and
preservation of male moths, Oviposition, preparation of eggs — sheet
and loose eggs, Surface sterilization of eggs.
16. Mother Moth Examination — Individual, Mass moth examination.
17. Acid Treatment of Bivoltine eggs — Hot and Cold acid treatment.
18. Visit to Grainage and Cold Storage facility.
19. Identification of different textile fibres e.g. silk, cotton, wool and other
synthetic fibres by physical methods — microscopic and flame test,
Chemical and other confirmation tests.
20. Categorization of different type of cocoons — good and defective
cocoons, calculation of their percentage in a lot.
21. Determination of commercial characters of a cocoon — Average
cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio or shell percentage, Average
filament length, denier.
22. Reeling water analysis — pH, Conductivity, chloride content, total
hardness, m-alkalinity.
23. Reeling on Epprouvate — Single cocoon reeling, determination of
average filament length and average denier size.
24. A visit to state/CSB silkworm seed production centers for study of
silkworm seed production facilities.
25. A visit to CSTRI, Bangalore for Study of pre-reeling, reeling and post
reeling operations.
26. Summer School training Programme (to be organized by Central Silk
Board) during the beginning of the session (Part-III) covering all
aspects of sericulture.
One elective subject may be chosen out of the following:
Sr.No. Subject
1. Green Chemistry
2. Polymer Science
3. Biotechnology
4. Forensic Science
5. Earth System Science
6. Intellectual Property Rights
7. Computational and Discrete Mathematics*
8. Mathematical Methods in Life Sciences
* Only for students of B.Sc. Physical Sciences/ Applied Physical
(Total Lectures: 50)
Total Marks : 50
With the environmental concern and shrinking resources acquiring
enormous proportions, it has become imperative to devise safer alternative
materials and technology that would ensure the human sustenance. This
course intends to take the students through the newer, environment
friendly products and procedures and incite them to take a more holistic
view of different chemical processes.
Unit I Introduction to Green Chemistry
What is Green Chemistry? Need for Green Chemistry. Goals of
Green Chemistry. Limitations/Obstacles in the pursuit of the goals
of Green Chemistry.
Unit II Principles of Green Chemistry and Designing a Chemical
Twelve principles of Green Chemistry with their explanations and
examples; Designing a Green Synthesis using these principles;
Prevention of Waste/Byproducts; maximum incorporation of the
materials used in the process into the final products (Atom
Economy); prevention/minimization of hazardous/toxic products;
designing safer chemicals — different basic approaches to do so;
selection of appropriate auxiliary substances (solvents, separation
agents), green solvents, solventless processes, immobilized
solvents and ionic liquids; energy requirements for reactions —
use of microwaves, ultrasonic energy; selection of starting
materials - use of renewable rather than depleting starting
materials; avoidance of unnecessary derivatization — carefull use
of blocking/protecting groups; use of catalytic reagents (wherever
possible) in preference to stoichiometric reagents; designing of
biodegradable products; prevention of chemical accidents;
strengthening/development of analytical techniques to prevent and
minimize the generation of hazardous substances in chemical
Unit III Examples of Green Syntheses /Reactions
1 Green Syntheses of the following compounds : adipic acid,
catechol, BHT, methyl methacrylate, urethane, aromatic amines
(4-aminodiphenylamine), benzyl bromide, acetaldehyde,
disodium iminodiacetate (alternative to Strecker synthesis),
citral, ibuprofern, paracetamol, furfural.
2 Microwave assisted reactions in water : Hofmann Elimination,
Hydrolysis (of benzyl chloride, benzamide, n-phenyl
benzamide, rnethylbenizoate to benzole acid)), Oxidation (
(of toluene, alcohols). Microwave assisted reactions in organic
solvents : Esterification, Fries rearrangement. Orthoester
Claisen Rearrangement. Diels Alder Reaction. Decarboxylation.
Microwave assisted solid state reactions : Deacetylation,
Deprotection. Saponification of esters, Alkylation of reactive
methylene compounds reductions, synthesis of nitriles from
aldehydes; anhydrides from dicarboxylic acid; pyrimidine and
pyridine derivatives; 1, 2-dihydrotriazine derivatives;
3. Ultrasound assisted reactions : Esterification, saponification,
substitution reactions, Alkylations, oxidation, reduction, coupling
reaction, Cannizaro reaction, Strecker synthesis, Reformatsky
4. Selective methylation of active methylene group using
dimethylcarbonate : Solid-state polymerization of amorphous
polymers using diphenylcarbornate; Use of “Clayan”, a nonmetallic
oxidative reagent for various reactions; Free Radical
Bromination; Role of Telliurium in Organic Syntheses.
Biocatalysis in Organic Syntheses.
Unit IV Future Trends in Green Chemistry
Oxidation reagents and catalysts; Biomimetic,
multifunctional reagents; Combinatorial green chemistry;
Proliferation of solventless reactions; oncovalent derivatization.
Green chemistry in sustainable development.
Suggested Readings
1. Ahiuwalia V.K.. & Kidwai M.R. New Trends in Green Chemistry,
Anamalaya Publishers, 2005.
2. Anastes, P.T. and Warmer, J.K., Oxford Green Chemistry, Theory
and Practical University Press, UX., 1998.
3. Matlack A.S., Introduction to Green Chemistry, Marcel Deckkar, N.Y.
4. Cann M.C. and Connely M.E., Real-word cases in Green Chemistry,
American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2000.
5. Ryan M.A. and Tinnesand. M., Introduction to Green Chemistry,
American Chemical Society, Washington DC., 2002.
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks: 50
The primary objective of Polymer Science course is to prepare skillful
Polymer Scientists to meet the growing requirements in Polymer based
industry. Government and other R &D organization and teaching
Unit I Introduction and histoiy of polymeric materials. Different
Schemes of Classification of Polymers. Polymer nomenclature.
Molecular forces and chemical Bonding in polymers. The texture
of Polymers.
Unit II Functionality and its importance, Criteria for synthetic polymer
formation, Classification of polymerization processes,
Relationships between functionality, extent of reaction and
degree of polymerization. By-functional systems, Poly-functional
Unit III Kinetics of Polymerizaiion : Mechanism and kinetics of step
growth, radical chain growth, ionic chain (both cationic and
anionic); and coordination Polymarizations, Mechanism and
kinetics of copolymerization, polymerization techniques.
Unit IV Crystallization and Crystallinity. Determination of Crystalline
melting point and degree of Crystallinity. Morphology of
crystalline polymers, Factors affecting crystalline melting point.
Unit V Nature and structure of polymers-Structure Property
relationships. Determination of molecular weight of polymers,
(Mn, Mw, etc), by end group analysis, viscometry, light scattering
and osmotic reassure methods. Molecular weight distribution and
its significance. Polly-disparity index.
Unit VI Glass transition temperature (Tg) and determination of Tg,
Free volume theory, WLF equation, Factors affecting glass
transition temperature (Tg).
Unit VII Polymer Solution — Criteria for polymer solubility, Solubility
parameter, Thermodynamics of polymer solutions, entropy,
enthalpy, and free energy change of mixing of polymers
solutions, Flory-Huggins theory, Lower and Upper critical solution
Unit VIII Properties of Polymer (Physical, Thermal, Flow & Mechanical
Unit IX Brief introduction to preparation, structure, properties and
application of the following polymers. Polyolefins, Polystyrene
and styrene copolymers, Poly (vinyl chloride) and related
polymers, Poly (vinyl acetate) and related polymers, Acrylic
polymers, Fluoro Polymers, Polyamides and related polymers.
Phenol formaldehyde Resins (Bakelite, Novalac),
Polyurethanes, Silicone Polymers, Polydienes, Polycarbonates,
Conducting Polymers, {Polyacetylene, Polyaniline, Poly
(p-phenylene sulphide Polypyrole, Polythiophene)}.
Suggested Readings
1. Seymour Polymer Chemistry, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
2. G. Odian, Principles of Polymerization , John Wiley.
3. F.W. Billmeryer, Text Book of Polymer Science. John Wiley.
4. P.Ghosh, Polymer Science & Technology, Tata McGraw-Hill
5. R.W. Lenz, Organic Chemistry of synthetic High Polymers.
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks: 50
The purpose of this course is to provide to the students of Science, a
basic understanding of the principles, tools and techniques, and
applications of the fast expanding field of Biotechnology. This would help
the students to develop interactions/linkages with the industry and venture
into Science entrepreneurship.
Unit I Biotechnology
Scope and Applications. Overview of Tools and Techniques.
Unit II Industrial Microbiology
Microbial resources for food, food additives, flavours, feed, single
cell proteins, solvents, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins,
pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, bio-fertilizers. Waste
decomposition and conversions, bio-fuels. Bioremediatiton.
Recombinant proteins
Unit III Strain improvement
Screening, selection, mutation, recombination, protoplast
fusion, DNA technology.
Unit IV Fermentation
Different types of fermentation - submerged and solid state;
batch, fed batch and continuous; product-based - enzymes,
alcohol, methane, acid, mixed acid and solvent. Types of
fermenters - stirred tank, air lift, fixed bed and fluidized. Down
stream processing - filtration, centrifugation, extraction,
chromatography, spray drying and lyophilization.
Unit V Plant Biotechnology
Plant tissue culture and somatic cell genetics and their
applications in agriculture, plant transformation - vectors and
methods, genetic engineering and transgenic plants with useful
agronomic traits and products.
Unit VI Animal Biotechnology
Cell culture and production of bio-products, gene manipulation
and transgenic technology, gene therapy, vaccines, hybridoma
technology and immunodiagnostics.
Unit VII Bio safety
Physical and Biological Containment, environmental coconcerns.
Suggested Readings
1. P.K Gupta, Biotechnology and Genomics, Rastogi Publishers,
2. B.D. Singh, Biotechnology, Kalyani Publishers, 1998 (Reprint 2001).
3. T.A. Brown, Gene cloning and DNA analysis: An Introduction,
Blackwell Science, 2001.
4. M.K. Razdan, Introduction to plant tissue culture, Oxford & IBH, New
Delhi, 2003.
5. Bernard R. Click & Jack J. Pasternak, Molecular Biotechnology, ASM
Press, Washington, D.C., 1998.
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks: 50
Forensic Science pertains to analysis and examination of Physical
evidence recovered from a crime scene to aid legal proceedings.
Examinations of fingerprint, toxic substances detection of blood and other
biological fluids, as well as examination of skeletal material, hair fiber etc
is performed to provide scientific opinion for legal.
Unit I Definition, History, Development and Scope of Forensic Science.
Divisions of Forensic Science and Laboratory Set up.
Unit II Basic Principles, theory and application of spectroscopy (U. V.,
I. R., Atomic Absorption Emission and Mass) and its forensic
Unit III Electrophoresis (Immuno and Iso-electrofocusing) theory,
principle and techniques. X-ray (Hard and Soft) techniques and
their forensic applications.
Unit IV Forensic Chemistry: Introduction, Conventional methods of
chemical analysis, presumptive tests (colour & spot); Drugs of
Abuse: Introduction and classification; Forensic Toxicology:
Introduction and Geneial methods of chemical analysis for
alcohol. Classification of poisons.
Unit V Questioned documents: Definition, handwriting characteristic,
natural variation, comparison and forgery; Forensic
photography — techniques and important of photography.
Unit VI Fingerprint Identification: History and development, biological
basis of fingerprints, pattern types, scene of crime prints,
methods of processing latent/fingerprints, ridge characteristics,
comparison of fingerprints for establishing complete identity.
Unit VII Tool marks: their identification and importance in forensic
science; Trace evidence: Definition, identification and their
importance in forensic science.
Unit VIII Identification and detection of biological fluids (Blood, Semen,
Saliva and Urine) and their Medico-logical importance.
Unit IX Personal Identification through Somatometry and Somatoscopy;
Study of hair and fibers.
Unit X Examination of skeletal remains-identification of bones,
differentiation between human and non human, determination
of age, sex and height from skeletal remains.
Unit XI Modern Developments and their concepts (Nacre analysis,
Brain fingerprinting, DNA Profiling, voice identification, Cyber
crime, Forensic Odontology and Bitemarks).
Note : Practical demonstration are compulsory as without the
demonstration the students would not be able to understand the
value of the specific topics of Forensic Science.
Practical demonstration of procedure of taking fingerprints;
identification of pattern types, developing latent fingerprints
(Powder Method), spot test for blood identification,Somatoscopic
observations, Age and sex determination from skull, estimation
of height from long bones, hair morphology, tests for fiber
Suggested Readings
1. Saferstein, R. Criminalistics. Prentice Hall, N.J., (1998).
2. Sharma, B.R. Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and
Trials, Central Law Agency, Allahabad, (2003).
3. Eckert, W. G. Introduction of Forensic Science, CRE Press. Bock
Raton, (1997).
4. Singh, I.P. and Bhasin M.K. A Laboratory Manual of Biological
Anthropology. K.R. Enterprises, N. Delhi, (2005).
5. Nath, S. An Introduction to Forensic Anthropology. Gian Publishing
House, N.Delhi, (1989).
6. Nath, S. Personal Identification through Fingerprints. Shree
Publisher & Distributors, New Delhi, (2006).
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks : 50
The course on Earth Systems Science offers integrated understanding
to the various major earth systems including the solid earth, the
hydrosphere and the atmosphere. The interactive processes that couple
these major systems are also emphasized.
Unit I Introduction to Earth System Science; general characteristics and
origin of the Universe, solar System and the plants; Meteorites
and Asteroids; the Earth-origin, size, shape, mass, density, orbital
parameters; Age of the Earth; Geological Time Scale.
Unit II Formation of Earth’s core, mantle, crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere
and biosphere; Heat budget of the earth, interior of the earthcompositional
and mechanical layering; earthquakes and
earthquake belts; volcanism-types, products and distribution.
Unit III Concept of sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics; origin of
oceans, continents, mountain belts, rift valleys; Mid-oceanic
ridges, trenches, transforms faults and island arcs.
Unit IV Hydrologic Cycle; underground water; Surface water; Atmospherecomposition,
mixing circulation; atmosphere-ocean coupling and
surface circulation of the ocean; deep sea and global ocean
circulation; chemical oceanography.
Unit V Weathering, erosion and transportation by wind, rivers, glaciers,
oceanic currents; sea level changes; Soils-soil types,processes
of formation, soil profile, soil constituents.
Unit VI Geological and Geomorphological sub-divisions of the India
sub-continent; Hydrogeologic provinces of India; Natural
Disasters-Indian context; major mineral and energy resources of
the Indian sub-continent.
Suggested Readings :
1. Emest W.G. (Editor), Earth Systems Procedures and Issues,
Cambridge University Press, 2000.
2. Frank Press and Raymond Siever, Earth, W.H. Freeman and
Company New York, 1986.
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks : 50
In this era of liberalization and globalization, the perception about Science
and its practices have undergone dramatic change. The importance of
protecting the scientific discoveries, with commercial potential or the
intellectual property rights is being discussed at all levels — statutory,
administrative, and judicial. With India ratifying the WTO agreement, it
has become obligatory on its part to follow a minimum acceptable standard
for protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. The purpose
of this course is to apprise the students the multifaceted dimensions of
this issue.
Unit I Introduction to Intellectual Property
Historical Perspective, Different Types of IP, Importance of
protecting IP.
Unit II Copyrights
Introduction, How to obtain, Differences from Patents.
Unit III Trade Marks
Introduction, How to obtain, Different types of marks — Collective
marks, certification marks, service marks, Trade names, etc.
Differences from Designs.
Unit IV Patents
Historical Perspective, Basic and associated right, WIPO, PCT
system, Traditional Knowledge, Patents and Healthcare —
balancing promoting innovation with public health, Software
patents and their importance for India.
Unit V Geographical Indications
Definition, rules for registration, prevention of illegal exploitation,
importance to India.
Unit VI Industrial Designs
Definition, How to obtain, features, International design
Unit VII Layout design of integrated circuits
Circuit Boards, Integrated Chips, Importance for electronic
Unit VIII Trade Secrets
Introduction and Historical Perspectives, Scope of Protection,
Risks involved and Legal aspects of Trade Secret Protection.
Unit IX Different International agreements
(a) World Trade Organization (WTO) :
(i) General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT),
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
(ii) General Agreement on Trade related Services
(iii) Madrid Protocol
(iv) Berne Convention
(v) Budapest Treaty
(b) Paris Convention
Unit X WIPO and TRIPS, IPR and Plant Breeders Rights, IPR and
Unit XI IP Infringement issue and enforcement — Role of Judiciary,
Role of law enforcement agencies — Police, Customs etc.
Economic Value of Intellectual Property — Intangible assets and
their valuation, Intellectual Property in the Indian Context—
Various laws in India Licensing and technology transfer.
Suggested Readings
1. Acharya, N.K. Textbook on intellectual property rights Asia Law
House, (2001).
2. Guru, Manjula and Rao, M.B. Understanding Trips : Managing
Knowledge in Developing Countries Sage Publications, (2003).
3. Ganguli, P. Intellectual Property Rights : Unleashing the Knowledge
Economy, Tata McGraw-Hill (2001).
4. Miller, Arthur Raphael : Davis, Micheal H.; Intellectual Property :
Patents, Trademarks and Copyright in a Nutshell; West Group
Publishers (2000).
5. Watal, Jayashree, Intellectual property rights in the WTO and
developing countries, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks : 50
The course is an introduction to Mathematics of Discrete Structure. The
advent of modern digital computer has increased the need for
understanding of discrete Mathematics. The tools and techniques in the
system are going to enable students to appreciate the power and beauty
of Mathematics in designing problems-solving strategies in everyday life.
Unit I Numerical Solution of ODE
Taylor series method, Euler method, Modified Euler method, error
in approximation.
Unit II Boolean Algebra
Formal definition of Boolean algebra and examples, Boolean
expressions, Boolean functions, identities in a Boolean algebra,
duality, sum-of-product expansion, product-of-sum expansion.
Logical Gates, combinational circuits : minimization of circuits
using Karnaugh Map (up to 4 variables only), do not care
Unit III Graph Theory
Types of graphs : Simple graph, Directed graph, Multi graph, and
Pseudo graph. Graph modeling, terminology and basics. Special
Graphs : Complete Graph, Cycles, n-dimensional cubes, Bipartite
Graph, Complete Bipartite Graph.
Subgraph and basic algebraic operations on graphs, connectivity,
path, cycles, tree to be introduced as a connected graph with no
cycles, introduction to shortest path (least number of edges)
problem, solution of shortest path problem for simple graphs using
complete enumeration. Euler and Hamiltonian graphs (for
undirected graphs only) : Koenigsburg Bridge Problem,
statements and interpretations of (i) necessary and sufficient
conditions for Euler cycles and paths (ii) suficient condition for
Hamiltonian cycles, finding Euler cycles and Hamiltonian cycles
in a given graph.
Tree traversal, spanning trees, weighted graphs, minimal
spanning tree using Kruskal’s algorithm, Prim’s algorithm,
Huffman codes.
Unit IV Introduction to Algorithms
Pseudo code for simple algorithms such as god, lcm, sorting of
numbers in ascending/descending order, sum of natural numbers,
factorial of a positive integer. Analysis of algorithms, asymptotic
upper bounds such as O-estimate (big Oh).
Suggested Readings
1. K.H. Rosen, Discrete mathematis and its applications, McGraw-Hill
International Editions, 1999.
2. R. Johnsonbaugh and M. Schaefer, Algorithm, Person Education,
3. C.F. Gerald and P.O. Wheatley, Applied Numerical Analysis,
Pearson Education Ind. 2004.
(50 Lectures)
Total Marks : 50
This Course is designed to develop in the under-graduate Life Sciences
students an awareness of and familiarity with some mathematical
techniques and methods which have been applied to Life Sciences.
Unit I Mathematical Biology
Exponential growth or decay, determination of growth or decay
rates. Inhomogeneous, ordinary differential equations of first order
arising from growth of a microbial colony, growth in a chemostat.
System of ordinary differential equations in Predator — Prey
system. Mutation and reversion in bacterial growth.
Unit II Statistical methods in Biology
Testing differences between samples. How to present a statistical
test, t-test for independent samples and matched samples, Z-test
for independent samples and matched samples. Mann-Whitney
U-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, chi-square test, testing
significance of a correlation coefficient and rank correlation
coefficient, Chi-square test of association Confidence limits.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA), F-test, Evaluation the multiple
regression equation. ANOVA table for multiple regression.
Goodness of fit of binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.
Use of standard software’s (spreadsheets) for simple statistical
Unit III Discrete Models
Modeling molecular evolution : Matrix models of base substitutions
for DNA sequences, the Jukes — Cantor model, the Kimura
models, Phylogenetic distances.
Networks in Biological Sciences : Dynamics of small world
networks, scale-free networks, complex networks, cellular
Suggested Readings
1. S.I. Rubinov, Introduction to Mathematical Biology, John Wiley and
Sons, 1975.
2. A. Edmondson and D. Druce, Advanced Biology Statistics, Oxford
University Press, 1996.
3. W. Daniel, A Foundation for Analysis in Health Sciences, John Wiley
and Sons Inc. 2004.
4. E.S. Allman and J.A. Rhodes, Mathematical Models in Biology,
Cambridge University Press, 2004.
5. N.F. Britton, Essential Mathematical Biology, Springer undergraduate
Mathematics series, Springer-Verlag. 2003.
The Restructured B.Sc. Programme in Physical
Sciences, Life Sciences, Applied Physical Sciences
and Applied Life Sciences
(Effective from July, 2005)
University of Delhi
Page No.
Guidelines 1-15
Syllabi and Readings 17-270
1st Year 17-52
2nd Year 53-161
3rd Year 163-270


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