University of Mysore - M.Sc. in Food Science & Nutrition First semester syllabus
PAPER 1.1: FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS
Effect of processing on components, properties and nutritional value of foods
Sensory evaluation of foods: Importance and application for product formulation, Basic tastes, threshold tests for basic tastes, Requirements for sensory analysis, sensory panel, type, selection and training, subjective and objective sensory evaluation, different types of tests.
Instrumental tests for sensory attributes - colour, texture and odour.
Physico-chemical properties of foods- Organic food components, colloids, osmotic pressure, food dispersions (sols, gels, emulsion, foam), Hydrogen ion concentration etc.
Functional properties of proteins: modified proteins, application in product formulation.
Role of water in foods: free water and bound water, functional properties, water activity and intermediate moisture foods.
Starch, hydrocolloids and gums: occurrence, functions in food systems, properties, gelatinization, retro gradation and modified starches.
Fermentation technology: different fermented products.
Browning in foods: Enzymatic and non enzymatic- mechanism, method of prevention, relationship to health.
Sugar and jaggery: Principles of sugar crystallization, stages of cookery and role in Indian traditional sweet preparations, manufacturing of candies and sweets.
Fats and oils: Properties, manufacture, uses in food systems (as cooking media and shortening). Rancidity- types, mechanism and prevention. Uses of fat replacers in processed foods.
Enzymes in food processing
Brief manufacturing process: coffee, tea, cocoa, alcoholic beverages (fruit wines). Ready to serve beverages.
PAPER 1.2: NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY - I
3+1 hrs / Week
Cell structure and Function- Components, cell membrane composition, fluid mosaic model, Membrane lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, membrane receptors.
Physiological basis of Nutritional Biochemistry: Digestive system: Structure of digestive tract, enzymes in digestion, regulators of GI activity, mechanical and biochemical aspects of digestion, absorption and transport of major nutrients. Liver: Role of liver in processing and distribution of nutrients absorbed from SI, inter relationship of major metabolism in liver, excretory functions and storage. Blood: Composition- plasma, blood cells, hemoglobin, blood clotting process. Adipose tissue: Structure, composition, deposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue, formation of fat stores from non lipid and dietary lipids, role of brown adipose tissues in thermo genesis. Body fluids and electrolyte balance: Kidney and lungs: Structure, function, role in water, electrolyte and acid base balance. Sensory organs and their functions. Immunity: Immune response, antibody, cell mediated and humoral immunity complement system.
Enzymes: Classification, nomenclature, general properties- stereo and reaction specificity, kinetics and mechanisms of enzyme action, regulation of enzyme activity. Coenzymes and cofactors, their structure and functions. Enzyme inhibition, isoenzymes, immobilized enzymes, estimation of enzyme activity, clinical significance of enzymes and enzyme based assays.
Proteins and amino acids: a. Amino acids- Classification and structure, properties, reactions and identification techniques. Formation of peptide linkages, amide plane and biologic activity. b. Proteins- Structure and organization, physico-chemical properties, classification and functional diversity of proteins, techniques of protein purification. Estimation of protein - Kjeldhal method.
Carbohydrates: Classification, structural features, stereoisomerism and optical activity, chemical properties. Monosaccharide and related compounds, disaccharides, polysaccharides. Inter conversion of hexoses, sugar derivatives of biomedical importance, hetero-glycans. Methods to estimate sugars and starch.
Lipids: Classification, chemical structure, and properties of fatty acids, Triglycerides, phospholipids and derivatives, cholesterol and derivatives. Dietary fats, biological functions of lipids, glycolipids. Methods to determine crude fat and fatty acids.
Nucleic acids: Components, structure and level of organization, Physico chemical properties, biological importance.
PAPER 1.3: HUMAN NUTRITION - I
3+1hrs / Week
Basis for computing nutrient requirements: latest concepts in dietary recommendations, RDA- ICMR and WHO: their uses and limitations.
Body fluids and water balance: Body water compartments. Regulation of water balance, disorders of water balance.
Body composition: Methods of study, compositional changes during life cycle, nutritional disorders and their effect body composition.
Energy metabolism: Basal and resting metabolism- influencing factors. Methods to determine energy requirements & expenditure. Thermo genesis, adaptation to altered energy intake, latest concepts in energy requirements and recommendations for different age groups.
Carbohydrates: Occurrence and physiological functions, factors influencing metabolism. Lactose intolerance. Dental caries. Artificial sweeteners. Role of dietary fiber in health and disease. Disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism. Glycemic index of foods and its uses.
Lipids: Concepts of visible and invisible fats. EFA, SFA, MUFA, PUFA- sources and physiological functions. Role of lipoproteins, cholesterol and triglycerides in health and disease.
Proteins: Concepts of essential and non-essential amino acids- their role in growth and development. Physiological functions of proteins. Requirements, nitrogen balance concept. Methods for evaluating protein quality. Protein energy malnutrition-clinical features and biochemical changes.
Regulation of food intake: role of hunger and satiety centers, effect of nutrients.
PAPER 1.4 RESEARCH METHODS AND SATATISTICS
3+ 1 hrs/ weeks
Research Methodology: Meaning, objectives and types of research, research approaches, Significance of research. Research and scientific methods. Research process and criteria of good research.
Definition and identification of a research problem: Selection of research problem, Justification, theory, hypothesis, basic assumptions. Limitations and delimitations of the problem.
Research design: Meaning and needs: Features of a good design, important concepts relating to research design, variables, experimental and control groups. Different research designs: exploratory, descriptive and diagnostic, Hypothesis testing research. Sampling design: Population and sample, Steps in sampling design, Criteria for selecting a sampling procedure, Different types of sampling techniques- probability sampling and non- probability sampling. Methods of data collection: Schedules and questionnaires; Interview, Case study, Home visits, scaling methods, Reliability and validity of measuring instruments.
Concepts and characteristics of a normal probability curve.
Analysis of data: Graphical and diagrammatic presentation, Measures of central tendencies (Mean, median and mode), Measure of dispersion (Range, Mean deviation and standard deviation) and their relative measures. Qualitative methods of data analysis.
Simple linear correlation and Regression Analysis: Analyses of categorical data - contingent tables, association of attributes - Testing of Hypothesis- Norman test and t- tests of one and two samples problems- chi-squire test for comparing variance, Conversion of X 2 into phi coefficient and coefficient by contingency.
Analysis of variances, Co variances and Multivariate techniques: Concept of ANOVA, one - way and Two - way ANOVA , analysis of Co-variance, Technique and assumptions in ANOCOVA, Multivariate analysis- Characteristics and Applications, Classification of techniques and Important Methods of Factor Analysis - R- type and Q- Type factor analysis.
Interpretation: Meaning of interpretation, Technique of interpretation, Precaution in interpretation- Interpretation of tables and figures.
Reporting: Significance of report writing, Different steps in writing report, Types of reports, Mechanics of writing reports and precautions to be taken while writing research reports.
Uses of computers in statistical analysis: the computer system and technology, important characteristics of computer applications in researches.
PRACTICAL I: 1.5 FOOD PROCESSING
Sensory Analysis: Different types of sensory tests for basic tastes and sensory attributes of products.
Starch gelatinization: factors affecting and measurement of viscosity.
Functional properties of proteins: Water and fat absorption, emulsion and foaming properties, (preparation of cakes).
Fermentation: Fermented wheat and wheat based products.
Sugar cookery: stages and use in Indian sweet preparations.
Use of oils and fats: as shortening and as frying media, effect of frying on physico-chemical properties.
PRACTICAL II : 1.6 NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
6 hrs / Week
Techniques used in biochemical analysis: Determination of PH: in acids, alkalis and buffers using PH meter and indicators. Colorimeters: use of colorimeter in UV and visual range, Flame Photometer, flourimeter (principle to be explained and demonstrated with one example for each). Separation techniques: Chromatography- paper and column. Centrifugation, Electrophoresis and Dialysis. (One example for each may be demonstrated)
Blood Analysis: Enumeration of RBC & WBC. Blood glucose, serum albumin, globulin, Phosphorus, calcium, cholesterol and urea.
Urine Analysis: Qualitative - Sugar, Albumin and microscopy.