(5061201-B) Introduction to Physiology and Anatomy
Teaching scheme: 3 lectures/week Credits: 3
Exam scheme: Paper- 100 marks
1. a) Cell and Tissues: Physical Structure of the Cell, Functional System of the cell-Transport of Ions
and Molecules through the cell membrane, Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials, Inhibition of
Excitability; Recording Membrane potentials and Action potentials.
b) Skeletal and Muscular System:Structure and Formation of bone, Types of bones, joints,
Classification of movements, Classification of muscles- Muscle contraction mechanism, EMG.
c) Body Fluids:Blood and its composition and function, Various Cells and their structures,
Numbers Cell counting, Haemoglobin and its estimation, Anaemia, Blood counts and ESR.
2. Respiratory System: Structure of Respiratory tract, Lungs, Diaphragm, Mechanics of Pulmonary
Ventilation, Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities, Physical Principle of Gas Exchange, Pulmonary
function testing, Artificial Respiration.
3. Cardiovascular System: Structure of Heart, Heart valves, Arteries, Veins, Coronary Circulation, Heart
as a pump, Physiology of Cardiac muscle, Cardiac Cycle, Rhythmic excitation of heart, Control of
excitation and conduction in the heart, Introduction of ECG and cardiac activity, Physics of Blood
pressure, flow and resistance, Vascular distensibility and functions of Arterial and Venous Systems, Heart
rate and normal Heart sounds.
4. Nervous System:Outline of Cranial and Spinal nerves, Structure of Spinal Cord and different Brain
parts, Vertibral column and Cranial cavity, Excitation of skeletal muscle- Neuro muscular transmission,
Excitation-Contraction Coupling, Contraction of Smooth muscle, General design of Nervous System-
CNS- its function, Synapes, Receptors, Types of Sensation. EEG.
5. Excretory System:Structure of Kidney, Formation of Urine, Concentration and Dilution of Urine,
Renal Function Tests, Artificial Kidneys, Dialysis.
6. Special Senses:Vision: Eye as a camera, Mechanism of accomodation, Visual accuity,
Ophthalmoscope, Colour vision, Perimetry.
Hearing: Tympanic membrane and the Ossicular system, the cochlea, Hearing mechanics and
abnormality, Deafness, Audiometry.
7. Endocrine System:
Physiological actions of the hormones secreted by: Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Islets of Langerhans,
Adrenal, Testes and Ovaries, Bio feedback mechanism of hormone regulation. Homeostasis- Regulation
of Internal Environment.
Text/ Reference Books:
1. Anne Waugh, Allison, ‘Grant Ross and Wilson: Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness’,
9th edition, ( Churchill Livingstone) (2001)
2. Ann B. McNaught and Robin Callander, ‘Illustrated Physiology’, (Williams and Wilkins
Company, Baltimore) (1963)
3. Chaurasia B.D., ‘Human Anatomy: Regional and Applied’ , 4th edition, (CBS Publishers And
4. Guyton Arthur C., ‘Physiology of Human Body’, (Saunders College Publishing, Inc,
Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.) (1979)
5. Chneck , ‘Engineering Principles of Physiological Functions’.
6. Agar AMR, Lee MJ, ‘Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy’, edition 9, (Baltimore, MD, Williams &
7. A.K.Datta , ‘Principles of General Anatomy’, 5th edition.
8. Van Wynsherge.D, Noback, C.R and Caroia R., ‘Human Anatomy and Physiology’, (1995).
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