(5061205-A) Bio-imaging Modality
Teaching scheme: 3 lectures/week Credits: 3
Exam scheme: Paper- 100 marks
1. Physical Principals of Imaging:
Fundamentals of Physics and Radiation; Concepts of Radiation science; Radiographic definition and
Mathematics review; Electromagnetic Radiation: Photons, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Wave Particle
Duality; Interactions between Radiation and matters; Fundamentals of acoustic propagation; Interaction
between sonic beams and matter; concepts of ultrasonic diagnostics.
2. Imaging with X-Rays:
X-ray tube: The generation: Electron-Target Interactions, X-ray emission spectrum: Characteristic x-ray
spectrum, Bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrum, Factors affecting X-ray Emission Spectrum: Effect of mA, kVp,
added filtration; X-ray unit: generators, filters and grids; Image intensifiers; X-ray detectors: Screen film
detector, Image Intensifier; Radiographic techniques, quality and exposure.
3. X-ray Diagnostic Methods:
Fluoroscopy: Fluoroscopy and Visual Physiology, Image intensifier tube and Multifield intensification;
Angiography: Arterial access, Catheters, Contrast media; Mammography: Soft tissue radiography,
Equipments: Target composition, Filtration grids, Photo timers, Image receptors; Xero radiography; Digital
radiography; 3-D construction of images.
4. Computed Tomography:
Operational modes: First generation scanners, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth generation scanners; System
components: Gantry, Collimation; High Voltage generators; Image characteristics: Image matrix, CT
numbers; Image reconstruction; Image Quality: Spatial resolution, Contrast resolution, System noise,
Linearity, Spatial Uniformity.
5. Imaging with Ultrasonography:
Piezoelectric effect; Ultrasonic transducers: Mechanical and Electrical matching,; The characteristics of
transducer beam: Huygens principle, Beam profiles, Pulsed ultrasonic filed, Visualization and mapping of
the Ultrasonic field; Doppler effect-Doppler methods; Pulse echo systems[Amplitude mode, Brightness
mode, Motion mode &Constant depth mode]; Tissue characterization: velocity, Attenuation or absorption,
6. Developments in Ultrasound technique:
Color Doppler flow imaging: CW Doppler imaging device, Pulsed Doppler imaging system, clinical
applications; Intracavity imaging: Design of the Phased array probe, Trans oesophageal, Tannsvaginal or
Transrectal scanning; Ultrasound contrast media: Utilization of micro air bubbles, galactose microparticles
and albumin encapsulated microairbubbles; 3-D image reconstruction; 2-D echo cardiography
7. Biological effects of Radiation and Ultrasound and its protection:
Modes of Biological effects: Composition of the body and Human response to Ionizing radiation; Physical
and Biological factors affecting Radiosensitivity, Radiation Dose-response relationships; Time variance of
radiation exposure; Thermal / Nonthermal effects due to cavitation in ultrasound fields; Designing of
radiation protections and its procedures.
8. Advances in Imaging:
Introduction to Magnetic Resonance Imaging,
Introduction to MRI, Imaging Pulse sequence, Limitations of MRI,
Radionuclide Imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography.
Physics of thermography,.
1. K. Kirk Shung, Michael B. Smith, Benjamin Tsui, ‘Principles of Medical Imaging’ (Academic Press)
2. Stewart C. Bushong, ‘Radiologic science for Technologists’, (Mosby: A Harcourt Health Sciences
3. Jeffery Papp, ‘Quality Management: In the Imaging Sciences’, (Mosby: A Harcourt Health Sciences
4. Christensens , ‘Physics of Diagnostic Radiology’, 4Rev Ed edition (Lea & Febiger,U.S.), (Jun 1990)
5. David J. Dowsett, Patrick A. Kemmy, R. Eugene Jhnston, ‘The Physics of Diagnostic imaging’ , Second
Edition, (A Hodder Arnold Publication)
6. W.J. Meredith & J. B. Massey, ‘Fundamental physics of radiology’ (Varghese Publisher)
7. Jole Pierce Jones, ‘Acoustic Imaging’, (Plenum Publishing)
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