509126 [Elective IV] ( b ) : Elastomer Technology
Teaching Scheme Examination Scheme
Lectures : 3 Hrs/week Paper : 100 marks
Elastomers are an important area of Material Science where polymeric materials
are exclusively used. These materials find wide spread applications in automotive,
aviation, marine, electrical industries. In this course the details pertaining to raw
materials, formulations, processing, testing, applications have been presented. A
sound understanding of these polymeric materials would equip the students for
careers in rubber industry.
Revision of basic concepts
Rubber Elasticity: Physics of raw and vulcanized rubber. Kinetic and
thermodynamics theory of rubber elasticity. Stress strain relationships for
vulcanized rubber. Molecular basis for material to act as a rubber.
Stages in raw rubber and latex rubber technology such as mastication, mixing and
compounding and vulcanization.
Study of various additives like peptizers, antioxidants, accelerators, activators,
fillers, carbon black reinforcement, chords and fabrics, blowing agents, colorants,
Processing aids like tackifiers, plasticizers, softeners, extender oils, their function,
level of addition and stage of addition.
Characterization of compounds, rheological behaviour of compounds, properties
influenced by compounding ingredients.
Processing of rubbers by extrusion, calendaring and injection moulding.
Manufacturing techniques for products such as tyres, belts, hoses, foot wears,
cellular products and cables. Manufacture of latex based products such as dipped
goods, foams and threads.
Testing of rubber products.
Study of major elastomeric materials like natural rubber SBR, NBR, IIR, CR, BR,
with respect to synthesis, compounding considerations, cure characteristics.
Study of thermoplastic elastomers with respect to compounding, properties and
Vulcanization of rubbers: Vulcanization by Sulphur and by other methods.
Chemical reactions, factors affecting rate of vulcanization.
Determination of cure rate of rubbers. Testing and analysis of raw rubber,
compounds and vulcanizates. Testing finished rubber products, test methods and
1. Science and Technology of Rubbers, J.E.Mark, B.Ermas, F.R.Eirich,”Academic
2. Rubber Processing Technology, Materials and Principles, J.Lwhite, Hanser
3. W.Hofmann “Rubber Technology Handbook, Hanser Publishers 1989
4. Rubber Technology and Manufacture C.M.Blow, C.Hepburn, Butterworth
5. Thermoplastics Elastomers, N.R.Legge, G.Holden, H.E.Schroedar Hanser
6. Rubber Technology Handbook, C. Hoffman, Hanser Pub. 1989.
7. Synthetic Rubbers: Chemistry and Technology, D.C. Blackley,Applied Science
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