508112 C: Analysis of Spot & Process Inks
Teaching Scheme: Examination Scheme:
Lectures: 3 Hrs. / Week Credits: 3
Theory: 100 Marks
1. Introduction – Purpose, Classification, Oil Inks, Heat-set Inks, Moisture Set Inks, Solvent Inks, Water
Inks, Curable Inks, Specialized Inks.
2. Flexography Inks – Ink colorants, Pigment and Dye based inks, Selection criteria of pigments, Ink
Vehicle & its properties, Types of Resins & its selection criteria, Physical properties of Resins,
Plasticizers, Additives, Ink Rheology & Surface Energy, Polyamide Inks, Alcohol Reducible Inks,
Nitrocellulose Inks, Laminating & Coating Inks, Inks for paper, plastics and foil.
3. Rotogravure Inks – Colorants, Vehicles, Solvents, Ink Additives, Publication Gravure Inks,
Packaging & Product Inks, Water base Inks, Ink Rheology & Surface Energy, Properties of Inks such
as Flow, Resin Solubility, Evaporation Rate, pH control, Engravings, Press Considerations,
Thixotropy, Dispersion, Vinyl Inks, Polyamide Inks, Nitrocellulose Inks, Polyurethane Inks,
Speciality Inks, Selection criteria of Resins.
4. Offset Inks – Ink Ingredients such as Pigments, Resins, Vehicles, Plasticizers, Additives, Ink
Dispersion, Ink Rheology & Ink variables, Different types of offset inks and differences between inks
for publication, packaging and product printing.
5. Ink Tests and Measurement – Tests for color, shade & strength, Ink proofing or testing, viscosity,
dilution ratio, solids content, ink compatibility, ink adhesion test, COF, Rub resistance, Gloss,
dispersion. Testing methods for printing smoothness, ink receptivity, picking and runnability.
6. Print Analysis – Analyzing Spot & Process Colors for print sharpness, density, tonal ranges, dot
fidelity, contrast, trap. Analysis of Colorimetric values, Mottle and Visual analysis. Identifying Ink
variation & deviation. Print recognition and printing problems from the point of view of substrate
formation, ink characteristics, and the printing process parameters.
1. Bob Durrant, Development in Web Offset, Pira International, 1993
2. H. Kipphan, Handbook of Print Media, ISBN: 3-540-67326-1 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg,
3. Gravure Process and Technology, Gravure Education Foundation and Gravure Association of
4. Harry B. Smith, Modern Gravure Technology, Pira International, 1994.
5. Flexography-Principles and Practices, Volume 1-6, FFTA, 5th Edition, 1999.
6. Tony White, High Quality Flexography, Pira International, 1998.
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