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Osmania University - M.Sc Botany- 2 -(T)(P) Paper-I (Theory): Biology and Diversity of Lower Plants

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Paper-I (Theory): Biology and Diversity of Lower Plants – II

1.a.Xanthophyta: Botrydium b) Phaeophyta: Laminaria, Padina
c.Rhodophyta: Porphyra, Callithamnion, Gracillaria, Corallina


2.a)Bacillariophyta: Cyclotella, Synedra, Cymbella, Gomphonema
3.Algal blooms and toxic algae
4.Algal Biofertilizers
5.Algae as food and feed
6.Fossil algae (A brief account only)


7.Fungi in Industry: Production of alcohol, organic acids and antibiotics

8.Fungi in Agriculture and Forestry: a) Fungi as plant parasite (Wilts, leafspot, root rots, smuts and rusts) b) Fungi as bio-fertilizers: Mycorrhizae: Ecto and Endomycorrhizae

9.Fungi as human and animal parasites (medical mycology)

10.a) Fungi as food: Mushrooms: Types of mushrooms, biology and growth of mushrooms, nutritional and medicinal value of edible mushrooms.


11.Bacteria: a) General account, ultrastructure, nutrition (autotrophy, heterotrophy and symbiosis) reproduction in bacteria and Economic importance

12.Viruses: Characteristics and ultra structure of virions, isolation and purification of virion b)Chemical properties of plant viruses (TMV, bacteriophages) c) Transmission of viruses d) Economic importance of the viruses

13.Mycoplasma: a) General account and systematic position of the mycoplasma b) Economic importance of the mycoplasma


1.Identification of the genera mentioned in Rhodophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae of algae, Collection and identification of algae occurring in and around University Colleges/campuses..

2.Observation of algal blooms, Biofertilizers and Bio-indicators.

3.Identification of fungal cultures, slides and specimens of Stemonitis, Arcyria, Mucor, Pilobolus, Emericella, Eurotium, Chaetomium, Morchella, Cyathus, Phallus, Polyporus, Amanita, Ganoderma, Colletotrichum, Phoma, Drechslera, Curvularia, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Furarium.

4.Study of Mycorrhizal colonization in roots of Parthenium and Tagetus.

5.Staining of Gram + ve and Gram - ve Bacteria


1.Change. S.T. & P.G. Miles, Edible mushrooms and their cultivation
2.Mosses, B.V.A. Mycorrhizae
3.Powel, C&D. J. Bagyaraj, V.A. Mycorhizae
4.Smith, J.E. The Filamentous Fungi Berry, R,. Industrial mycology (Vol. I)
5.Bio-synthesis and metabolism ( Vol II)
6.Dubey, S.C. Biotechnology.


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