Urban, Rural and Tribal Social Systems
Learner Objectives :
1. Understand Urban, Rural and Tribal social systems and their problems
2. Understand the change processes in Urban, Rural and Tribal Communities
3. Understand issues and their implications on Urban, Rural and Tribal Communities
4. Understand the challenges for interventions by community workers
Understanding Urban, Rural and Tribal Communities
1. Distinct Characteristics of Urban, Rural and Tribal communities.
2. Changing Patterns of Social Institutions in Urban, Rural and Tribal communities
– family, marriage, kinship, religion, caste.
3. Economic systems and changing patterns
i) Occupational Patterns
iii) Resources: access, control and use.
4. Factors Leading to Change and their Impacts on Urban, Rural and Tribal Communities
- Urbanization, Migration, Dispersion of industries, Changing relations with land, Forest,
Water resources, Development of transport and communication, Influence of liberalization,
privatization and globalization.
5. Changing Face of Urban communities: Infrastructural development, Growing
heterogeneity, Merging of fringe villages, the ‘global city’ and socio-cultural and economic
Issues, Implications and Challenges
All issues to be discussed within the framework of their implications and challenges for
intervention in the context of urban, rural and tribal communities
i) Economic issues: Poverty, Unemployment and Inequity in resource access.
ii) Environmental issues: Ecological imbalance, Degeneration of resources,
pollution, waste disposal and sanitation
iii) Socio-Cultural issues: Inequality (class, caste and gender), Cultural invasion and
changes in life styles and culture, Impact of global culture on local communities,
Caste polarization, Communalism and regionalism
iv) Infrastructure and amenities: Water, Energy (power and fuel), Housing, Road,
Transport & Communication, Health care services, Education
v) Displacement: Forest eviction, Development Projects (Highways, Dams, Special
Economic Zones, Firing Range, Large scale industries, Malls and Commercial
7. Challenges before the Community Worker in addressing problems/issues of Rural, Urban
and Tribal communities.
Recommended Readings :
1. A. R. Desai (1961) Rural Sociology in India, Bombay : Popular Prakashan
2. A.R. Desai and S. Devidas Pillai(Editors) (second edition) (1990) Slums and
Urbanisation, Bombay : Popular Prakashan
3. Alfred de Souza(Ed.) (1983)The Indian City: Poverty, Ecology and Urban Development,
New Delhi : Manohar Publications
4. Ashok Narang (2006) Indian Rural Problems, New Delhi : Murari Lal & Sons
5. C.G.Pickvance, (Ed.) (1976) Urban Sociology: Critical Essays, UK : Methuen
6. Chris Hasluck (1987) Urban unemployment : Local Labour Markets and Employment
Initiatives, New York : Longman
7. Dilip Shah (2005) Rural Sociology, India : ABD Publisher
8. Edgar W. Butter (1976) Urban Sociology- A Systematic Approach, New York : Harper &
9. James M. Bashers (1962) Urban Social Structure, New York : The Free Press of Glencoe
10. Loornis and Beegle (1957) Rural Sociology (The Strategies of change), Englewook
Cliffs, New Jursey : Prentice Hall, Inc
11. N. Jayapalan (2002) Urban Sociology, New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers & Distributors
12. R.N. Morris (1968) Urban Sociology, London : George Allen and Unwin Ltd.
13. Rajendra K.Sharma(2004) Rural Sociology, New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers and
14. Ramnath Sharma (1979) Indian Rural Sociology, New Delhi : Munshiram Manoharlal
Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
15. S L Doshi (2002) Rural Sociology Jaipur : Rawat Publications
16. S. Singh (1980) Rural Sociology Prakashan Kendra Lucknow
17. S.C. Dubey (1977) Tribal Heritage of India: Vikas Publication Housing Pvt. Ltd., New
18. S.L. Doshi (1997) Emerging Tribal Image : Rawat Publication, Jaipur
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