Concepts of emf., p.d. and current, resistance, effect of temperature on resistance.resistance temperature coefficient, insulation resistance. S.I. units of work, power and energy. Conversion of energy from one form to another in electrical, mechanical and thermal systems. batteries and cells, their types, primary cells and secondary cells, Lead Acid, Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, current capacity and cell ratings. charging ,importance of initial charging and discharging of batteries. series and parallel battery connections, maintenance procedure.
Unit 2. D.C.Circuits:
Classification of electrical networks, Ohm's law, Kirchhoff’s law and their applications for network solutions. Simplifications of networks using series and parallel combinations and star-delta conversions, Superposition theorem, Thevenin’s theorem and maximum power transfer theorem.
Magnetic effect of an electric current, cross and dot conventions, right hand thumb rule and cork screw rule, nature of magnetic field of long straight conductor, solenoid and toroid. concept of m.m.f., flux, flux density, reluctance, permeability and field strength,their units and relationships. simple series and parallel magnetic circuits, comparison of electrical and magnetic circuit, force on current carrying conductors placed in magnetic
field, Fleming’s left hand rule.Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction, statically and dynamically induced e.m.f.,self and mutual inductance, coefficient of couplings. energy stored in magnetic field.
Unit 4. Electrostatics and AC fundamentals:
Electrostatics field, electric flux density, electric field strength, absolute permittivity,relative permittivity, capacitance and capacitor, composite dielectric capacitors,capacitors in series and parallel, energy stored in capacitors, charging and discharging of capacitors and time constant.
Sinusoidal voltages and currents, their mathematical and graphical representation,Concept of instantaneous, peak(maximum), average and r.m.s. values, frequency , cycle,period, peak factor and form factor, phase difference ,lagging, leading and in phase quantities and phasor representation.rectangular and polar representation of phasors.
Unit 5. Single phase A.C. Circuits:
Study of A.C. circuits consisting of pure resistance, pure inductance, pure capacitance and corresponding voltage-current phasor diagrams and waveforms. Development of concept of reactance, study of series R-L, R-C, R-L-C circuit and resonance, study of parallel R-L, R-C and R-L-C circuit, concept of impedance , admittance, conductance and susceptance in case of above combinations and relevant voltage-current phasor diagrams, concept of active, reactive and apparent power and power factor.
Unit 6. Polyphase A.C.Circuits and Single phase Transformers:
Polyphase A.C.Circuits: Concept of three-phase supply and phase sequence. voltages, currents and power relations in three phase balanced star-connected loads and delta-connected loads along with phasor diagrams.Single phase transformers: Construction, principle of working, e.m.f. equation, voltageand current ratios. losses, definition of regulation and efficiency, determination of these by direct loading method. descriptive treatment of autotransformers and dimmerstats.
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