Rain Water Harvesting and its Methods
This article describes about Rain Water Harvesting and its Methods.
Storing rain water for future use is called rain water harvesting. Rain water is harvested in two ways-one is to store rain water on the earth's surface and the other’s the recharging of ground water resources beneath the land surface.
rain water harvesting is an ancient tradition of India. People of all parts of India from north to south and from east to west, have been harvesting rain water according to their loc an needs and means through different methods. The average rainfall of Rajasthan is even below 20cm. there is no perennial river. The people living here, thus keep storing rain water for their use through out the year. The basis of life in the cities like Barmier and Jaisalmer is rain water harvesting. The requirement of water of other parts of Rajasthan receiving less rain fall is fulfilled through rain water harvesting, because ground water of these areas is salty and pungent. It is neither drinkable nor even suitable for irrigation. Water flows rapidly in mountainous areas. Even in these areas, people harvest rain water for drinking and irrigation.
After independence, the government started planning of supplying drinking water. Water is being brought through pipes from far off areas. Water was made available only after turning the tap and thus, people became dependent on government for water. The old traditions of rain water harvesting were abandoned. When water could not be supplied to villages and towns or cities because of the shortage of ground water reserves and continuous increase of population and pollution of river water, then people thought of the old tradition of rain water harvesting. Now, people affected by the sacristy of water take to rain water harvesting and even the government it encouraging rain water harvesting in many areas.
Different methods of rain water harvesting are being used for drinking water and irrigation in different parts of our country. These methods are given below:
Storing of rain water on roofs of the houses rain water falling on the roofs of the houses can be stored in nearby wells, tanks and step wells or can be stored in houses through pipes. The rain water of roofs can also be stored in the water percolation tanks for recharging ground water.
Small bonding around the fields, flow of rain water falling on the fields in checked by building small bounding around the fields. The water thus stored n the field percolates underneath and increases soil moisture.
Step farming soil moisture of step fields made along mountain slopes is being increased by checking rain water of these fields.
Making of drains; rain water is also being stored in the drains dug around the fields.
Check dams on seasonal rivers and drains; rain water is also stored behind the check dams constructed over the seasonal rivers and drains with the help of soil, stones and wood. These dams regulate the water supply and also help in controlling soil erosion to some extent.
Water percolation tanks; rain water is stored in tanks constructed in lands unsuitable for agriculture. These tanks serve the purpose of recharging of ground water reserves as water stored on these.
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