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Major crops of India
India has diversity in physiography, climate and soils, therefore, a variety of crops are cultivated.
Rice is the main grain crop of India. India ranks second in the world in production of rice. About 34% of the total cultivated area if the nation is under rice cultivation. Out of the total production of food grains, production of rice is 42%.
Rice is cultivated in areas having annual average rainfall of 125 cm and average temperature of 23 degree Celsius.
Major rice cultivating areas are north east India, eastern and western coastal regions and river basin of Ganga. West Bengal, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh are the major rice producing states. Besides, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa, Haryana, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Assam and Maharashtra also produce rice.
Wheat is the second major crop in India. It is cultivated in the Rabi season.There was a significant increase in the production of wheat after the Green Revolution. Improved seeds, proper application of fertilizers and irrigation, these three factors are utilized.
Wheat is cultivated in areas with mean annual rainfall of 75 cm and fertile soil. The highest quantity of wheat in the country is in Uttar Pradesh. 35 % of wheat is produced only in Uttar Pradesh. This is produced by Punjab and Haryana where production of wheat is on a large scale.
Jowar is also an important food crop of India. This crop is grown where the climate is hot and dry with 45 cm.
Out of the total area under jowar cultivation inIndia , 50% is cultivated in Maharashtra.
Whereas out of the total production of Jowar in the nation, 52% is from Maharashtra. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu also produce jowar.
Pulses are grown in dry climate region in India. These crops provide nitrogen to the soil. Pulses are a source of protiens in the diet of the people.
Madhya Pradesh is the leading pulses producing state in India. It produces 24% of the total pulses in the country. It is followed by the states of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
India is a major producer of jute in the world. West Bengal,Bihar and Orissa are major producer of jute. Uttar Pradesh and Assam also cultivate jute to a small extent.
Indian coffee is good for its taste and falvour, therefore it has a great demand in the world market. For reason, India exprots coffee.
Coffee plantations re in south Indian states of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Coffee is produced on a large scale on the mountain ranges of Nilgiri.
It is a tree crop in plantation framing. Rubber is produced from latex that secrets through the trunks of the trees. Hot, humid climate with well drained soil is suitable for rubber cultivation.
Rubber is planted in the states Of Kerala, karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Kerala state has highest production of rubber.
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