(Effective from the Academic Year 2003-2004)


Semester V - Paper VII - Plant Anatomy and Applied Embryology

Lecture: 4 Hrs

Unit 1 :

Tissues - Definition, Types - Simple permanent - Parenchyma, collenchyma, scierenchyma. Fibres and Sciereids - Structure and functions; Complex permanent tissues - Xylem and Phloem, development, arrangeme:t. Meristems - Classifications. Vegetative shoot apex - Theories of Shoot apex organisation, Root apex - Theories of Structural development and differentiation.

Unit 2 :

Tissue systems - Dermal tissue system - Fundamental or ground tissue system, Vascular tissue system, Types of vascular bundles - Nodal Anatomy. The stem - Primary and Secondary structure. Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous-stems - Secondary growth in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous stems. Anomalous secondary growth in Nyctanthes, Boerhaavia and Dracaena.

Unit 3 :

The Root - Primary and Secondary anatomy of dicotyiedonous roots. Anatomy of monocot roots, Anatomy of storage roots. Secondary growth in dicot roots, Leaf- Anatomy of dicot and monocot leaf. Leaf abscission.

Unit 4 :

Microsporangium, Microsporogenesis - Development of male gametophyte. Megasporangium (ovule) Different types, Megasporogenesis. Development of female gametophyte - Monosporic - Polygonum and Oenothera, Bisporic - Allium, Tetrasporic - Penaea and Peperomia.

Unit 5 :

Gametic fusion. Tripple fusion. Development of dicot embryo-Capsella, Development of monocot embryo - Luzula. Endosperm -Definition, different types - free nuclear, celluar, helobial, endosperm haustoria. Apomixis - Definition and types. Polyembiyomy - Different types, tissue culture, embryo culture, Parthenogenesis - induction and Parthenocarpy.



Study of simple and complex tissues by maceration. Study of internal structure of young and old dicot stems. Internal structure of aerial root and monocot stem. Structure of monocot and dicot anomalous stems in Boerhaavia, Nyctanthes and Dracaena. T.S of dicot and monocot leaves; Stomatal types.


T.S of anther at various stages of development
Stages in microsporogenesis in pollenia-pollen architecture to be studied from the pollen of different plants.
Types of ovules, megasporogenesis, Polygonum, Allium and Peperomia type of embryo sac development.
Male gametophyte and female gametophyte-development to be studied from permanent slides.
Stages in development of embryo in Monocotyledons(Najas ovary or any other plant)and Dicotyledons (Capsella).
Types of Endosperm
Culture of Anther/Ovule/Endospenn/Embryo(any one to be demonstrated)


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