Syllabus of General Human Physiology and Biochemistry

Minimum Lectures - 50 hours for Physiology
25 hours for Biochemistry
Practicals - 40 hours for Physiology
30 hours for Biochemistry
Total - 145 hours spread over for a period of one academic year.

1) Introduction to General Physiology :
The cell : Components of Cells and their functions, fundamentals of muscle, nerve physiology, action potential, physiology of muscle contraction, nerve impulse conduction.
2) Blood and Lymph
Composition and Function of Blood
Plasma Protein
R.B.C. - Morphology , formation and functions
W.B.C. - Types , Formation and Function
Blood Coagulation , Blood Groups , Blood Volume and methods of measurement and variations.
Platelets , Anaemia , E.S.R.
Lymph - Formation , Composition , Function.
Immunity - Basic Concepts
Haemoglobin : Basic Chemistry and fate of Haemoglobin.
3) Cardio Vascular System :
General organization of Cardio Vascular system and Haemodynamics
Conduction of Cardiac impulse
Cardiac Cycle
Heart sounds , Pulse
Normal Electro-cardiogram
Regulation - Nervous , Chemical & Hormonal Blood Pressure Regulation
Patho-physiology of shocks , Coronary circulation
Cardiac output
Structure and Physiology of Cardiac Muscle.
4) Respiratory System
General Organization of Respiratory System, Mechanics of Respiration.
Ventilation , Diffusion , Carriage of Respiratory gases
Nervous and Chemical Regulations
Asphyxia , Hypoxia , Cyanosis , Anoxia - Types and Physiological changes.
Artificial Respiration.
5) Digestive Systems
Movements of Digestive Tract including mastication and Deglutition.
Mechanism and control of digestive secretion , digestion and absorption.
Liver and Gall-bladder functions
Salivary glands and Salivary Secretion in detail.
6) Excretion
Structure and Functions of Kidney.
Formation of Urine - Filtration , Re-absorption and excretion.
Volume , Normal and abnormal constituents.
Physiology of micturation .
7) Skin
Structure and Functions
8) Temperature Regulation
Regulation of Normal body temperature
9) Endocrines
General Organization and regulation of secretions and function of -----
a) Anterior and Posterior pituitary
b) Thyroid
c) Adrenal cortex and medulla
d) Parathyroid , Calcium and Phosphate homeostasis
e) Insulin and Glucagon- Islets of Langerhans
10) Reproductive Systems
a) Male reproductive system - Spermatogenesis , Testosterone
b) Female Reproductive System - Menstruation ,
Preganancy (Hormonal Changes and Preganey Tests )
Family Planning, Physiological basis of Family Planning methods ovary - hormones action
11) Physiological Aspects about Nervous system
General Organization of Nervous system
General Concepts of :-
Receptors , sensation and Synapse
Reflexes and their clinical use : ascending and descending tracts.
Functions of spinal chord , Cerebellum , Basal Ganglia
Hypothalamus : Cerebral Cortrx , Thalamus , Cerebro-spinal Fluid
General concepts of higher functions
Autonomic Nervous System
12) Special Senses
Fundamental knowledge of vision , hearing , taste & smell ( Morphology, Pathway, Refractory, errors, Retina, Functions of middle ear and internal ear )
Practicals course of 40 hours in Physiology extending over two academic terms and consisting of practical work done by students and of demonstrations as follows:
1) Enumeration of Red Blood Cells.
2) Enumeration of White Blood Cells & Differential Count
3) Determination of haemoglobin
4) Determination of Blood groups
5) Determination of bleeding time and clotting time.
1) Determination of packed call volume and E.S.R.
2) Demonstration of deep and superficial reflexes
3) E.C.G
4) Lung volumes
5) Artificial respiration.
1) Clinical examination of Arterial Pulse.
2) Clinical examination of B.P.
3) Clinical Examination of C.V.S.
4) Clinical Examination of Respiratory System.
A course of 25 hours lectures in Bio-Chemistry comprising the following :
1) Elementary Chemistry of Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
2) Enzymes and biological oxidations, elementary considerations.
3) Simple foods and their nutritional value.
4) Vitamins - fat and water soluble vitamins.
5) Digestions - Salivary, gastric and intestinal.
6) Tissue Chemistry - Blood and bone.
7) Nutrition. :
General Metabolism, metabolism of proteins, fat and carbohydrates, vitamins sources, requirement and actions, Basic Principles of diatetics, Enzymes, PH regulation, Calcium , Fluride metabolism and mineralisation.
8) Urine :- Physical characteristics
9) Hormones - Biochemistry of Hormones.
A practical and demonstration course of (35) hours on the following
1) Test for mono, di and polysaccharides and preparation of Osazones.
2) Simple tests for fats and proteins.
1 Protein and Carbohydrate reactions.
2 Chemistry of bread, wheat flour and milk.
3 Chemistry of bile.
4 Spectra of Oxy Hb and carboxy Hb reduced Hb ( Demonstration)
5 Urine Report.
6 Salivary digestion of starch.
7 Test for Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Hydrochloric acid, lactic acid.


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