B.Sc. Physics(Main) Theory (PT M) Syllabus
Paper(i) PTMI Solidstate Physics & Thermodynamics
Unit ISolid state physics
Solid State Physics
1. Xray diffraction: Xray diffractionBragg’s law Bragg’s Xray spectrometerPowder crystal method.(Book 1,Ch. 5)
2 Electrical properties of metals: Classical free electron theory drawbacks of classical theoryrelaxation time collision time and mean free path electrons scattering and source of resistance in metals electron scattering mechanisms and variation or resistivity with temperaturedistinction between metals, insulators and semiconductors on the basis of Band theoryEffect of magnetic fieldsHall effectHall coefficient. (Book 1,Ch. 6,10 )
3.Superconductivity: (No mathematical derivations required) Historical introductionA Survey of superconductivity An account of the mechanism of superconductorseffects of magnetic fieldAC resistivitycritical currentsflux exclusion: The Meissner effectThermal propertiesthe energy gapIsotop effectMechanical effectsthe penetration depthType I and tytpe II superconductors a Survey of B.C.S. theoryB.C.S. theoryQuantum tunneling Josephson’s tunnelingNew superconductorspotential applications of superconductivitypower applications of superconductors (Book 1, Ch 8)
4. magnetic properties: Magnetic permeabilityMagnetization electric current in atomBohr magnetonelectron spin and magnetic momentdiamagnetismtheory of diamagnetism Paramagnetism. (Book 1, Ch.9)
Unit II  Thermodynamics
5.Temperature Thermal equilibriumzeroth law of thermodynamics(Book 2Ch1)
6. Heat Thermodynamic coordinatesConcept of heatQuasistatic processWork and HeatAdiabatic workInternal energy functionMathematical form of First law of thermodynamics Differential form of first lawHeat capacity of waterEquation for a hydrostatic system ( Book 2 , Ch. 4 )
7. Ideal gases Equation of state of a gasInternal energy of a gasIdeal gasQuasistatic adiabatic processEquation of state of an ideal gas(Kinetic theory of ideal gas) ( Book2 ,Ch 5)
8. Second law of Thermodynamics Conversion of work in to heat and vice versa  Kelvinplanck and Clausius statements of Second law of Thermodynamics and their equivalence  Carnot’s cycle Carnot’s theorem and coreollary thermodyanamic scale of temperature  absolute zero and efficiency gasoline engine(Otto) Diesel enginereversibility and irreversibilitycondition for reversibility. ( Book2, Ch6 ) 9.Entropy Reversible part of the second lawEntropy principle of carateodory  entropy of an ideal gas  TS diagram of entropy and reversabilityentropy and irreversibilityirreversible part of second lawheat and entropy of irreversible processesentropy and nonequilibrium statesprinciple of increase of entropyapplications of entropy principleentropy and disorderenthalpyHelmholtz and Gibb’s functionsmaxwell’s relationsT DS equationsinternal energy equationheat capacity equation (Book 2, Ch 8) 11. Low temperatures Joule Kelvin effect  liquefaction of gases  third law of thermodyanamics (Book3 , Ch.8 ) Books for study 1.Solid state PhysicsS.O.Pillai ( 5th edn.) (New age) 2 Heat and Thermodyanamics  Mark W.Zemansky and Richard H. Dittman ( 6th edn)Mc Graw hill 3. Basic ThermodynamicsEvelyn Guha (Narosa) Books for reference 4. Modern Physics R.Murugeshan & Kiruthiga sivaprasad (13th edn.)(S.Chand & Co.) 5.Problems and solutions in solid state physicsS.O.Pillai (New age) 6.Theory and experiment onThermal Physics P.K.Chakrabarti(New central Book agency) 910 Paper (ii)  PT(M)2 Electrodynamics Unit I  Electrodynamics I 1. Vector Analysis Differential calculus  Integral calculusCurvilinear coordinatesCylindrical coordinatesDirac delta functiondivergence of r/r2One dimensional Dirac delta function, three dimensional Dirac delta function(Ch 1, Book 1 ; Ch 2, Book 2; Ch1, Book3) 2. Electrostatics Coulomb’s lawElectric field continuous charge distributionDivergence and curl of electric fieldsfield linesElectric flux and Gauss,s law  Divergence of E  applications of Gauss law curl of E  electric potential  Potential concept  Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation  potential of a localized charge distribution  electrostatic boundary condition  work and energy in electrostatics  work done to move a charge  energy of a point charge and continuous charge distribution electrostatic energy  conductors  basic properties  induced charges  surface charge and force on a conductor  capacitors (Ch.2, Book1) 3. Special Techniques Laplace’s equations in one, two and three dimensions, boundary conditions and uniqueness theorem, conductors and second uniqueness theorem  method of images  the classic image problem, induced surface charge, force and energy problem  seperation of variables in cartesian coordinates and spherical polar coordinates  multipole expansion  approximate potentials at large distances, origin of coordinates in multipole expansions, electric field of a dipole. (Ch.3, Book 1) 4. Electric fields in matter Polarization  dielectrics, induced dipoles, alignment of polar molecules, polarization  the field of a polarized object  bound charges,physical interpretation of bound charges, the field inside a dielectric  electric displacement  Gauss law in the presence of dielectrics, boundary conditions  Linear dielectrics  succeptibility, permitivity, dielectric constant  boundary value problems with linear dielectrics, energy in dielectric systems, forces on dielectrics (Ch.4, Book1) Unit II  Electrodynamics II 5. Magnetostatics The Lorentz force law  magnetic fields, magnetic forces, currents  The BiotSavart law  steady currents, the magnetic field of a steady current The divergence and curl of B  straight line currents, the divergence and curl of B  applications of Ampere’s law  comparison of Magnetostatics and Electrostatics  Magnetic vector potential  The vector potential magnetostatic boundary conditions, multipole expansion of vector potential (Ch.5, Book1) 6. Magnetic fields in matter Magnetisation  diamagnets, paramagnets, ferromagnets  Torque and forces on Magnetic dipolesEffect of a magnetic field on Atomic orbitsMagnetization The field of a magnetized objectbound currentsPhysical interpretation of bound currentsThe magnetic field inside matterThe auxiliary field H Ampere’s law in Magnetized materialsA Deceptive parallelLinear and nonlinear mediaMagnetic Susceptibility and Permeabilityferromagnetism (Ch 6, Book 1) 7. Electrodynamics Electromotive force Ohm’s law electromotive forcemotional emf Electromagnetic inductionFaraday’s lawThe induced electric fieldinductanceEnergy in Magnetic fieldsMaxwell’s equationsElectrodynamics before MaxwellHow maxwell fixed Ampere’s lawMaxwell’s equations Magnetic chargeMaxwell’s equations in matterBoundary conditions (Ch. 7, Book 1) 11 8. Conservation laws Charge and energyThe continuity equationPoynting’s theoremMomentumNewton’s third law in ElectrodynamicsConservation of momentumAngular momentum (Book1, Ch 7) 9. Electromagnetic waves Waves in one dimensionThe wave equationSinusoidal wavesBoundary conditions: Reflection and Transmission PolarizationElectromagnetic waves in vacuumThe wave equation for E and B Monochromatic plane waves Energy and momentum of Electromagnetic wavesElectromagnetic waves in matterPropagation in linear media Reflection and Transmission at normal incidence (Ch 9 , Book I) Book for study 1. Introductiuon to ElectrodynamicsDavid J. Griffiths (PHI) (3rd edn.) Books for reference 2. Electromagnetic field theory fundamentals Guru& Hiziroglu (Vikas) 3. Elements of Electromagnetics(3rd edn.) Mathew N.O. Sadiku (Oxford) 12 Paper(iii)  PT(M)  III  Physical Optics and Photonics Unit I  Physical Optics 1. Matrix Method in Paraxial Optics : Introduction—the matrix method—effect of translation—effect of refraction— imaging by a spherical refracting surface—coaxial optical systems—unit planes—nodal planes—a system of two thin lenses. ( Book1, Ch 4) 2. Interference by Division of Amplitude Interference in thin films — the cosine law — nonreflecting films — high reflectivity by thin film deposition – interference by wedge shaped film—Newton’s rings—the Michelson interferometer. (Book 1, Ch13) 3. Fraunhoffer Diffraction : Single slit, double slit, N slit diffraction patterns—positions of maxima and minima—width of the principal maxima—the diffraction grating—resolving power of grating—resolving power of a prism ( Book 1, Ch16) 4. Fresnel Diffraction : Fresnel half period zones—zone plate—diffraction at a straight edge—Fresnel diffraction by a circular aperture. (Book 1, Ch 17) 5. Fermats’ Principle and its Applications: Introduction—laws of reflection and refraction—refraction of rays at the interface between an isotropic medium and an anisotropic medium—optic axis normal to the surface—ray paths in an inhomogeneous medium—the ray equation and its solutions. ( Book 1, Ch 2) 6. Polarization and double refraction Introductionproduction of polarized light  polarization by reflection  polarization by double refraction  polarization by scattering  Malus law  Superposition of two disturbances Mathematical analysis  Double refraction  Normal incidence  oblique incidence  interference of polarized light  QWP  HWP  Analysis of Polarised light  Optical activity (Book 1,Ch 19) Unit  II  Photonics 7. Lasers: Introduction—the Einsteins coefficients—population inversion—threshold condition— optical resonator—line broadening mechanisms (natural, collision, Doppler qualitative ideas) (Book 1,Ch23) Laser systems—Ruby laser—Nd based lasers—(NdYAG, NdGlass) – HeNe laser  Argon ion laser—CO2 laser—excimer lasers—semiconductor lasers. (Book2) Application of lasers—Laser induced fusion—application in material processing ( laser welding, hole drilling, laser cutting ) – lidar—lasers in medicine. ( Book 3) 4. Fraunhoffer Diffraction :13 9. Holography: Introduction—recording and reconstruction process—applications— holographic interferrometry holographic memories. ( Book 4) 10. Fibre Optics : Introduction—step index fibre – numerical aperture—pulse dispersion in step index fibres – graded index fibres—material dispersion—single mode fibres—fibre optic sensors—multimode and single mode fibre sensors ( Book 1,Ch 24) Fibre materials and manufacture—glass fibres—plastic fibres—losses in fibres—bending losses— intrinsic fibre losses—scattering losses and absorption losses. ( Book 4) 11(. Optical Communication Systems:(Qualitative study only) Modulation schemes—analog modulation—digital modulation—free space communication—fibre optical communication systems—operating wavelength—local area networks—integrated optics— slab and strip waveguides—devices—emitters (sources) and detectors. (Qualitative idea only) ( Book 4) Books 1. OpticsAjoy GhatakTMH Publishing Co. 2 Optical Electronics Ajoy Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan  Cambridge Uty Press 3. Lasers Theory and Applications  K. Thyagarajan and A.K. GhatakMac Millan India Ltd 4. Optoelectronics an Introduction  J. Wilson and J.F.W. Halkes  PrenticeHall of India Book for reference 5.High Power Lasers and their applications Dr.M.Premasundaran (Law and commercial Publishers, New Delhi)14 Unit I  Classical Mechanics 1.Particle Dynamics Newtons laws of motiondynamical conceptMechanics of a system of particle (Book 1, Ch.4) 2.Conservation laws and properties of space and time Linear uniformity of space and conservation of linear momentumRotational invariance space and law of conservation of angular momentumhomogeneity of flow of time and conservation of energy. (Book1, Ch 5) 3.Inverse square law force Forces in the universegravitational field and potentialElectric field and potentialGravitational field due to i)thin spherical shell ii)solid sphereEarth’s gravitational field, escape and orbiting velocitiesexistance of atmosphere around a planetgravitational self energyelerctrostatic self energymotion under force obeying inverse square lawEquivalent one body problemmotion under central forcesSome physical insights in to the nature of motion under central forcestrajectory of a particle and turning pointsKepler’s lawssatellite motion. (Book1, Ch 6) 4. Elastic and Inelastic collision Conservation lawsLaboratory and centre of mass systemskinetic energies in the lab and cm systemsCross section of elastic scatteringRutherford scattering (Book 1, Ch7) 5. Dynamics of rigid bodies Elementary treatment of rigid bodiesAngular momentum of a rigid body and inertia tensorAngular momenta and rotational kinetic energy. (Book 1, Ch. 8) 6.Oscillatory motion Simple Harmonic motionEnergy of a simple harmonic motiondamped harmonic oscillatorenergy of a damped oscillatorthe quality factorexamples of damping in physical systemforced harmonic oscillatorresonancequality factor of a driven oscillatorelectrical resonancesuperposition principle. (Book1,Ch 9) Unit II  Quantum Mechanics 7. Inadequacy of classical mechanics and the Empirical foundation of quantum theory Inadequacy of classical mechanics  Atomic structure and atomic spectraThe FranckHertz experiment Spacial(space) quantisation: Stern and Gerlach experimentThe wave nature of particles : matter wavesParticle nature of waves Compton effectDavisson and Germer experimentG..P.Thomsons experimentApplications of electron diffractionvelocities of DeBroglie wavesUncertainty principleUncertainty and measurementsElementary proof of uncertainty principleApplications of uncertainty principle ( Book 2, Ch 1) 8. Wave packets Onedimensional wave packets  principle of superposition  wave packet  wave packets and material particles ( Book2, Ch2) 9. Schrodinger wave equation Need for a wave equation  wave equation  Schrodinger’s equation ; time dependent form expectation values  Schrodinger’s equation : steady state form  particle in a box  finite potential well  tunnel effect  harmonic oscillator  Appendix to chapter 5 ( Book 3, Ch 5)15 Books for study 1. Mechanics  Hans and Puri( 2nd edn)  TMH 2. Quantum mechanics  Theory and problems  S.L. Kakani and H.M. Chandalia (4th edn 2004) Sultan Chand and sons 3. Concepts of Modern physics (5th edn)  Arthur Beiser  TMH16 Paper (v)  PT(M)5  Modern Physics Unit I Nuclear, Molecular Physics & Elementary particles 1.Introduction The vector atom modelQuantum Number assoiated with the vector atom modelcoupling schemes Optical spectraZeeman effectQuantum mechanical explanation of the normal Zeeman effectAnamolous Zeeman effectPaschenBack effectStark effect (Book 2, Ch 6) 2. Nucleus Binding energyMeson theory of nuclear forcesThe liquid drop modelThe shell modelThe collective model (Book2,Ch 27) 3. Spectroscopy Regions of spectrumThe width and intensity of spectral transitions (Book 1 , Ch1) Microwave spectroscopy: The rotation of moleculesRotational spectraSpectrum of rigid diatomic moleculesThe intensities of spectral linesThe effect of isotopic substitutionThe spectrum of nonrigid rotatorThe microwave oven (Book1, Ch 2) Infrared spectroscopy:The vibrating diatomic moleculeThe energy of a diatomic moleculeThe simple Harmonic oscillatorThe Anharmonic oscillatorThe diatomic vibrating rotatorthe vibrationrotation spectrum of carbon monoxide (Book 1 , Ch..3) 4. Raman effect DiscoveryExperimental study of Raman effectQuantum theory of Raman effectApplicationsLaser Raman spectroscopy (Book 2 ,19.1119.15) Complementary character of Raman and infrared spectra (Book 2 ,24.16) 5. Elementary particles Interactions of charged particlesLeptonsHadronsElementary particle quantum NumbersQuarksFundamental interactionsHistory of the universeThe future (Book 3 ,Ch 13) Unit IIRelativity, Astrophysics,Statistical physics Nanotechnology 6. Theory of Relativity Frame of referenceNewtonian relativityGalilean Transformation equationsEther hypothesisMichelsonMorley experimentspecial theory of relativityLorentz transformation equationsLength contractionTime dilationRelativity of simultaneityaddition of velocitiesvariation of mass with velocityMassenergy equivalenceMinkowski’s four dimensionalspacetime continuumThe general theory of relativity Particle with a zero rest mass (Book2, Ch 1&2) Transformation of momentum and energyTrasformation equations for forceGeometrical representation of Simultaneity, contraction and dilationNoninertial frames and fictitious forces (Book 2, Ch 3) 7. Astrophysics IntroductionClassification of starsThe Harward classification systemHR diagramLuminosity of a starStellar evolutionWhite dwarfsElectrons in a white dwarf starChandrasekhar limitNeutron starsBlack holessupernova explosionPhoton diffusion timeGravitational Potential energy of a starInternal temperature of a starInternal pressure of a star (Book 2,Ch 78)17 8.Statistical Mechanics IntroductionPhase spaceMaxwellBoltzmann Distribution lawMolecular energies in an ideal gasBoseEinstein distribution lawFermiDirac Distribution lawComparison of the three distribution lawsBlackBody radiationRayleighJeans formulaPlanck Radiation formulaStefanBoltzmanlaw from Planck’s formulaApplication of FermiDirac distribution to White dwarfs and Neutron stars Macroscopic and Microscopic distributionsEnsemblesProbabilityThermodynamic probabilityBoltzmann’s theorem on Entropy and probablityFundamental postulates of statistical mechanicsStatistiocal equilibriumQuantum statisticsElectron gasDegenerate and Nondegenerate ensembles. (Book2, Ch.75,76) 9. Nanoscience IntroductionNanostructured materialsclassificationfeaturesquantum size effectapplications (Book4,Ch ) Books for study 1.Fundamentals of Molecular spectroscopyC.N.Banwell&E.M.McCash (4th edn0 (TMH) 2.Modern PhysicsR. Murugeshan& Kiruthiga Sivaprasad(13th edn.) (S.Chand&Co.) 3.Concepts of Modern PhysicsArthur Beiser (5th edn) (TMH) 4.NanostructuresTheory and modellingCDe lerue &M. Lannoo (Springer Publishers) Books for reference 5.Modern physicsKenneth Crane (TMH) 6.Physics Education (Journel) 2002 AprilJune Vol. 19. (for Nanotechnology) 7.NanotechnologyRichard Booker, Earl Boysen (Wiley)18 Paper (vi)  PTM6  Electronics and Computer Science UnitIElectronics 1. Network Theorems Voltage and current divider rulesSource conversionConstant voltage and current sourcesSuperposition theoremThevenin’s and Nortan’s theoremsEquivalent circuitsMaximumpower transfer theoremstar` /Delta, Delta/star transformationsTwo port analysis of an electrical networkMillers theorem. (Book 2, Ch 2 , Book 6 Ch.8 ) 2. Bipolar junction transistors CE, CB, CC configurationsLimits of operation (Book1, Ch3) Operating pointBiasing circuitsFixed bias ckt.Emitter biasVoltage divider biasDC bias with voltage feedbackDesign operationsTransistor switching networksTrouble shooting techniquesBias stabilisation (Book 1, Ch4) 3.BJT ac analysis Amplification in the ac domainBJT transistor modellingImportant parameters Zi,Zo,Av,AiThe re transistor modelThe hybrid equivalent modelVoltage devider bias CE emitter bias configurationCB configurationEffect of RL and Rf ( Book 1, Ch. 5) 4.FET IntroductionConstruction and characteristics of JFETTransfer characteristicsDepletion type MOSFETEnhancement type MOSFETVMOSCMOSMESFETSSummary table (Book1,Ch.6) 5.BJTFrequency response LogarithmDecibelsGeneral frequency considerationsLow frequency analysisBodeplotsLow frequency responseBJT Amplifier. (Book1, Ch.9) 6. Operational Amplifier IntroductionDifferential amplifier circuitOpAmp basicsPractical OpAmp circuitsOpAmp specificationsDC offset parametersfrequency parametersDifferential and common mode operation (Book1, Ch.10) 7.Power Amplifiers IntroductionClassification of Class A,B,AB,C,D amplifiersClass A amplifierClass B amplifierPush pull amplifiers  Amplifier distorsionClass C amplifier (Book 1, Ch.12) 8. Feedback and oscillator circuits Feedback conceptsFeedback connection typesOscillator operation (Book 1 ,Ch 14) 9. Power supplies (Voltage regulators) Introduction General filter considerationsCapacitor filter RC filterTransistor voltage regulation (Book 1, Ch15)19 Unit II Digital electronics and Computer Science 10.Digital Electronics Number systems : BinaryHexadecimal Arithmetic Operations:Binaryaddition,subtraction,multiplication,divisionUnsigned binary numbersInteger representation1’s, 2’s complements2’s complement arithmeticHexadecimal addition,subtraction,multiplication, division BCD addition, Subtraction. Boolean Algebra and Logic gates: TTL OR gatesTTL AND gatesTTL NOT circuitsBasic laws of boolean algebraDeMorgan’s TheoremsUniversal Logic gates Combinational logic: Sum of Products and Product of sumsKarnaugh map(complete). Arithmetic circuits: The arithmetic unit Half adder Full adder Logic families: Characteristics of digital ICsCurrentsourcing and currentsinking logicResistorTransistor logicDiode transistor logicTransistorTransistor Logic. (Book 3, 16 ) 11. Linear digital ICs Digital to Analog convertorsAnalog to digital conversionTimer IC unit operationVCOPLL (Book 1, Ch13) 12. C ++ Programming Section (1) Object oriented programming  Advantages  Characteristics  Objects  classes datatypes  inheritance creating new data types  polymorphism  overloading  cin and count functions Section (2) Operator and expressions  control statements  if else statement  looping  for while do while  switch, break and continue statements  go to statement  nested control statements Section (3) array  structures and unions  enumerated data type  functions  storage classes  over loaded functions (Book 4, Ch ) Books for study 1.Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (9th edn. ) Robert L. Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky ( PHI) 2. A Text book of Electrical Technology B.L.Theraja& A.A. Theraja(Nirja C&D Co.) 3.Digital FundamentalsB. Basavaraj (Vikas publishing house) 4.Object oriented programming with C++  E. Balaguruswami Books for reference 5. Basic ElectronicsSolidstateB.L.Theraja ( S.Chand) 6. Integrated electronics Jacob Millman& Christos C. Halkias ( TMH )20 B.Sc. Physics (Main) PRACTICALS Practicals should be of graduate level. The student has to familiarize each and every experiment given below. For the external evaluation , the questions may be asked from any part of the syllabus of practicals of each paper.The final formula is to be derived. All experiments given in the list are to be done in the lab.and to be recorded in each paper and the record is to be valued and certified by the lecturer in charge.There is no need of preparing a fair record. The proportionate marks are to be deducted from the internal assessment part for lesser number of experiments.The standard of the experiments is to be evaluated by the external examiner for giving the higher grade. Necessary theory is to be given by the teacher in the practical class before conducting the experiment.The circuit design works and soldering should be done in electronic experiments, wherever necessary.(All experiments and three activities should be done in each paper) PPMI :PaperI Properties of Matter, Heat & Optics 1.Moment of InertaTorsion pendulumMoment of Inertia of the disc 2.Moment of InertiaFly Wheel 3.Rigidity modulus Static Torsion 4.Young’s modulus Uniform bendingUsing optic lever 5.Young’s modulus Non uniform bendingUsing pin and microscope 6.Young’s modulus CantileverAngle between the tangents. 7.Young’s modulus Koenig’s method 8.Surface tension Capillary rise method (radius by using vernier microscope) 9.Viscosity Poiseuille’s method (radius by mercury pallet method) 10.Compound PendulumAcceleration due to gravity,Radius of gyration 11.Spectrometer id curve 12.Spectrometer Dispersive power of a prism 13.Spectrometer i1i2 curve 14.Spectrometer Couchy’s constants assuming wavelength 15.Spectrometer Diffraction gratingNormal incidence 16.Spectrometer Diffracion gratingMinimum deviation 17.Liquid lens Refractive index of liquid and glass (Two methods Hg given & not given) 18.Newton’s rings Wavelength of Sodium light 19.Melde’s string arrangementFrequency, R.D. of solid and liquid 20.LASER Diffraction at a single slitslitwidth 21.Small angled prismRefractive index of a material (by normal incidence & by normal emergence) 22.Air wedge  Diameter of a thin wire 23.Newtons law of coolingSpecific heat of liquid. 24. Lee’s disc Thermal conductivity of a bad conductor Activities (any three) 1.Resolving power of a grating using spectrometer 2Verify Newton’s formula x1x2= f 2 for lenses separated by a given distance 3.EdserButler fringesthickness of air film 4.Vibrations of a clamped free barmode constants ( Y given) 5.Optical benchBiprismWavelength of sodium light 6 Surface tensionJaegers method 7.Optical constants of a lens with the aid of paraxial optics 8.Refractive index of different liquids using any relevant method. 9.Verification of cosine square law (Malus law) for plane polarised light with the help of a photovol taic cell(Book 7) 10.Determination of refractive indices of calcite or quartz crystal for the ordinary and extra ordinary rays using spectrometer and sodium light (Book 7).21 B.Sc. Physics MainPractical PP(M) IIPaperIIElectricity and Magnetism 1.Potentiometer : Measurement of resistance and resistivity 2 Potentiometer : Reduction factor of T.G. 3. Potentiometer : Calibration of low range voltmeter (Null method) 4.Potentiometer : Calibration of high range voltmeter 5.Potentiometer : Calibration of ammeter 6.Carey Foster’s bridge : Resistance and resistivity 7.Carey Foster’s bridge : Temperature coefficient of resistance 8.Conversion of Galvanometer to Ammeter checking using potentiometer 9.Conversion of Galvanometer to Voltmeter checking using potentiometer 10.Deflection Magnetometer : Moment & polestrength of magnetTan A and Tan B 11. Deflection Magnetometer: Tan C position Moment of magnet 12. Searl’s vibration magnetometer: moment & ratio of moments 13.Determination of M & B0 using Deflection magnetometer and box type vibration magnetometer 14.Circular coil: Determination of B0 15 Mirror Galvanometerfigure of merrit 16 Ballistic galvanometerAbsolute value of capacitance 17. Circular coil :Determination of dipolemoment of magnet 18. Ballistic Galvanometer :Ballistic constant using HMS 19. Ballistic Galvanometer :Ballistic constant using solenoid inductor 20. Ballistic Galvanometer : High resistance by leakage 21. Ballistic galvanometer: Mutual inductance 22. Ballistic galvanometer : Self inductance of the given coil by Rayleigh’s method 23. Circuit theorems : i) Verification of Thevenin’s theorem ii) Verification of Norton’s theorem 24. Magnetic flux density of an electromagnet for different current by using a search coil Activities( any three ) 1.PostOffice boxResistance of the wire. 2.Study of resistance in a series LCR circuit Quality factor 3.Single phase transformerResistance,Impedance & inductance of primary Resistance,Impedance & inductance of secondary Efficiency of transformer, copper loss. ( Book 1) 4.Thermocouple: To study the variation of thermo e.m.f .with temperature using multimeter Find Neutral temp., Temp. of inversion,thermoelectric power Draw thermoelectric power temp. graph Find constants of thermocouple. 5. Construction of search coil 6. BH curve 7. B.G. earth inductorangle of dip 8. Construction of copper/zinc galvanic (Daniel) cells and study of cell voltage with the variation of load resistance. 9. Study of indutance in series and parallel 10. Study of maximum power transfer theorem22 B.Sc. Physics (Main) PRACTICAL PPM III Paper III  Electronics and Computer Science 1. Junction diodes : Clippers and clampers 2. Junctiondiodes : Voltage multiplier circuits  doubler, trippler, quadrupler etc. 3. Transistor (BJT) : Realisation of two input gates 4 ,, : Characteristics of common emitter Transistor 5. ,, : Characteristics of common base transistor 6 ,, : Astable multivibrators using transistors 7. Voltage Regulator : Construction of Zener voltage regulator after plotting the reverse characteristic curve (constructing full wave rectifier using two diodes) . 8. ,, : Construction of IC Voltage regulator usng the bridge circuit and IC 7805 (The ripple factor of the Bridge rectifier circuit is to be found with and without filters) 9. ,, : Construction of single transistor regulator 10. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope :1) Familiarisation 2) Voltage sweep operation 3) Synchronization and triggering 4) Measurement using calibrated CRO scales 11. JFET : Characteristics of FET 12. ,, : FET Biasing Fixed bias Self biasVoltage divider biasing 13. Feedback 1)Voltage series feedback using transistor 2)Current series feedback using transistor 14. Amplifier : CE Amplifier Frequency response 15 ,, : Two stage RC coupled Amplifier  gain 16. Oscillators : Phase shift oscillator using transistor 17. ,, : Transistor Hartley oscillator using transistor 18.. Operational Amplifier : Inverting, Noninverting, Voltage follower (unity follower) 19 ,, : Integrator, Differentiator 20. Multivibrators : Astable & Monostable multivibrators using Timer IC 555 21. C++ Programe : Set of quadratic equation (real and Imaginary) 22. ,, : To calculate Standard deviation 23. ,, : Transpose of a matrix 24. ,, : Matrix Multiplication Activities ( Any three) 1.Realisation of gates using ICs 2.Verification of DeMorgan’s theorems 3Study of trouble shooting Transistor (BJT) 4.Cathode ray oscilloscope Lissagos figures 5. study of pre Amplifier for a dynamic microphone 6. Votage buffer using OpAmp. 7.Construction of an audio Mixer circuit 8 Study of collector DC feedback configuratiuon of BJT 9. Study of Emitter follower 10.Parallel and series diode configurations. (Book 2 )23 Reference Books for practicals and activities 1) Electronic Lab Manual  K.N. Nawas (Rajath Publishers ) 2) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (8th edn.)Robrt L.Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky(PHI) 3) Electronic Laboratory Primer a design approachS. Poornachandra& B. Sasikala (Wheeler publishing, N. Delhi) 4) Electyronic circuits B. Somanathan Nair ( Wheeler ) 5) Object oriented programme with C++  Balaguruswami 6) Lab Manual  C.J. Babu (Calicut University) 7) Practical physicsGuptha & Kumar (Pragathi) 8) LELab experiments ( Kamaljeet) Note : For Paper III  Electronics and Computer Science, questions can be set as 3 hr. questions and 11/2 hr. questions. One 3 hr question or two 11/2 hr. questions can be asked for the external practical examination. Sd/Sri. M.P. Narayanan Chairman, BOS Physics U.G.1 Appendix to U.O. No. Acad/C2/302/2007 dated 22/08/2007 Kannur University B.Sc. Physics curriculam (To be followed from 2007 admission onwards) B.Sc. Physics programme is an ambitious programme, intended for selected and motivated students who are really interested in pursuing careers in physics or taking up Physicsrelated jobs. The B.Sc. Physics course of Kannur University spread over three academic years .Each year shall have a minimum of 196 working days with 5 hours of instruction per day. A five day week will be followed. The student registering for this course will study Physics as a major component, two ancillary or supporting subjects (mathematics is compulsory). Tutorial work should be done in addition to the regular work, in both theory and laboratory works. Theory tutorials should supplement classroom teaching and should contain problem solving , assignments, seminars, library and computer software usage, internet searching etc. Laboratory tutorials should supplement laboratory practicals and should contain variations or extensions of experiments and activities, history of experiments, computer simulations etc. In every paper, theory and corresponding practicals or activities should go together as far as possible.(For example, the four components of Electronics and computer science course (Paper VI ) are i) theory, ii) theory tutorials, iii) laboratory and iv) laboratory tutorials). These four should be merged together in this particular course, and there should be a common thread running through these components defined by the title of the paper.2 General regulations for B.Sc. Physics (Main &Subsidiary) under the faculty of science Eligibility for admission Candidates for the Bachelor of Science degree examination shall be required to have passed the higher secondary ( +2, VHSC, CBSE etc.) examination stipulated by Kannur University as equivalent thereto. . Criteria for indexing of marks for admission The criteria for pattern I (general regulations) of B.Sc. are to be followed. For Physics main subject Mathematics is the compulsory subsidiary subject.There shall be an optional subsidiary subject also. Scheme of examinations Physics (Main) Theory There shall be six theory papers for part III main subjectPhysics. The total marks is 600 for main. Out of the 600marks, 480 marks shall be awarded through external evaluation and 120 marks through internal assessment. Besides this there is a theory paper on ‘Environmental Studies’ for 100 marks. For this an internal examination will be conducted for 100 marks.The syllubus for this is common for all subjects.The marks obtained in Environmental studies will not be counted for evaluating the overall performance of the student. Teaching of environmental studies shall be the responsibility of the department concerned. Physics Subsidiary : Subsidiary Physics has two theory papers .Examination for the I paper with 3 hr. duration and carrying a maximum of 60 marks ( 50 external + 10 internal) shall be conducted at the end of the first year and paper II with 3 hr. duration and carrying a maximum of 60 marks( 50 external+10 internal) shall be conducted at the end of the second year. The practical exam. for the subsidiary shall be conducted at the end of the second year. There shall be one practical paper for the subsidiary subject with 3 hr. duration and carrying a max. of 80 marks out of which 20 marks shall be given through internal assessment. Attendance Minimum attendance required is 75% of the total number of classes. Marks for attendance for the theory papers( internal) may be distributed as 90% and above attendance : 2 marks; 75% to 89 % : 1 mark For Main practicals, Record work: 5 marks ; Activities :5 marks Assignments For each paper there are two units.Each student is required to do an assignment for each unit of each paper The assignment may include different types of problems(both theoretical and experimental) given by the teachers. Valued assignments are to be returned to the students. Tests Each test may have a duration of minimum 1 hour.For each paper there shall be atleast three class tests and average of the best two are to be taken. Valued answer scripts shall be returned to the students for persual within 10 working days from the date of the test.The results of the tests are to be exhibited on the notice board. Seminar(for Main only) Students shall be required to present a seminar on a selected topic in the third year . The evaluation of the seminar shall be done by the concerned teacher/ teachers in charge, based on the presentation, content and participation in discussion. The subject of the seminar should be based on the modern developement in Physics. The schedule of the seminar may be exhibited on the notice board atleast one week before the presentation.Project Project should be research oriented. New frontiers in Physics may be selected as the innovative subject. Each student must have a separate project report. Project to be submitted at the end of the third year shall be valued by two internal examiners. A vivavoce exam. based on the project work shall also be conducted by the same examiners. The report of the project is to be endorsed by the external examiners at the time of external practical exam. Vivavoce(general) A Vivavoce internal examination based on the theory shall be conducted by a team of atleast two teachers of the department. 10 marks will be awarded for the same.The vivavoce may be conducted in an open forum in the presence of all students and selection of students may be at random. Record of laboratory experiments For each practical paper, the laboratory record is the observation book itself, which is used in the laboratory to record the observations. The book may contain an index and a certificate page at the begining. For the three practical papers, three observation books are necessary for the main course. The observation book may contain the final equation which may be derived from the fundamental theorems involved in the respective experiment.(For subsidiary course a fair record is to be prepared by the student). Eventhough the evaluation of practical record is made through internal assessment, a candidate shall be permitted to attend the practical exam., only if he/she submits a certified bonafied record of practical work at the time of practical examination. This is to be endorsed by the external examiners. Activities This is to motivate students to carry out experiments in Physics with their own interest inorder to realise the physics involved in the experiment. Teachers may provide them support and necessary infrastructure to conduct activities. A minimum of 3 activities in each paper is to be done by the student.( i.e., each student should do 9 activities within a span of three years). The avtivities shall be recorded in a book which should be valued internally and endorsed by external examiners at the time of practical examination. Study tour A study tour may be conducted by the department for the final year students for visiting prominent scientific institutions to witness the application of physics which in turn motivate students to pursue higher learning in Physics. Passminimum A student shall be declared to have passed the examination for the degree of Bachelor of Science if he obtainsa) Not less than 35 % of the aggregate marks in the three papers comprised in part I English b) Not less than 35 % of the aggregate marks in the three papers comprised in part II additional language. c) Not less than 35 % of the total marks for the main subject with not less than 30 % for theory and 30 % for the practical examinations in main and 30 % for the theory, 30% for the practical and 35% of the aggregate for theory and practical in subsidiary. Classes for successful candidates First class If 60% or above of the total marks is obtained Second classIf 50% or above and less than 60 % of the total marks is obtained Third class If less than 50% of the total marks is obtained in the concerned part. Results of each year A candidate who have been registered for the examination at the end of the first year and second year shall be permitted to continue the course of study in the second year class and third year class respectively, irrespective of the results of the first year and second year examination. Divisions of the Examination There shall be 2 divisions under several groups of the Part III optional subjects: 3Division A All papers including practical and record marks under the main section Division B All papers including practical and record marks under the subsidiary section Supplementary exam A candidate who fails in part I, Part II and or subsidiary subjects under Part III in the examinations at the end of the second year shall be permitted to take the examination in the failed part or parts in September following the second year examination or along with the final year examination at the end of the third year. Improvement of examination papers Regulations relating to reappearence for betterment of marks for undergraduate course under the faculty of science:Part III  Subsidiary subjects: A candidate shall be permitted to reappear for betterment of marks (retaining his/her original marks) under Part III Subsidiary subjects either paper wise or part wise during the course of study either at the end of the second year or at the supplimentary examinations following the second year examinations provided reappearence in one or more papers of a part shall be treated as reappearence in that part. Part III Main A candidate shall be permitted to reappear for betterment of marks (retaining his/her original marks) in each division Main and subsidiaries separately under part III subjects either at the end of the third year examination or within one year from the first appearence at the third year examinations (irrespective of the result of the examinations under part I or part II) provided reappearence in one or more papers of a division shall be treated as reappearence in that division. Reappearence for betterment of marks is not permitted for Internal assessment, Practical record etc. and the marks secured by the candidate in the previous appearence will be carried over. Reappearence for betterment of marks under Part I or Part II or Part III shall be further subject to the following conditions: a)Reappearence shall not be allowed more than once in each part/division of examination. b)The results of a failed candidate in a Part/Division shall not be modified through paper wise/ division wise reappearence for betterment of results. c)A candidate who reappeares has to take the examination as per the scheme and syllabus in force at the time of his/her reappearence. d)Registration of the name of the candidate for the examination shall be treated as permission for reappearence and the candidate who registered the name for reappearence shall not be permitted to reappear again even if such a candidate does not write the examination. e)A candidate who joins another courses, especially for higher studies, or who fails to produce his/her TC or who applied for his/her original degree certificates shall not be eligible for reappearence. f)A candidate who utilized the chance to reappear after completion of the course shall not be eligible for the award of prize/medal or rank certificate. g)Those candidate who fail in theory papers should appear for practical examination also, theory and practical shall be taken as one unit. h)Those candidates who got readmission to a course of study after having discontinued,will not be permitted to reappear for improvement of marksfor those papers in which the candidate had appeared/passed befere discontinuation of the course of study. 4B.Sc. Physics Main Detailed Scheme of course (2007 Admission onwards) Theory Paper No Name of the paper Unit No Title Duration of exam hrs. Internal Marks Ext. Marks Total Marks PTMI Solid State Physics & Thermodyanamics Unit I S Unit II olid state physics Thermodyanamics 3 10 60 70 PTMII Elecrodyanamics Unit I Unit II Electrodyanamics I Electrodyanamics II 3 10 60 70 PTMIII Physical Optics & Photonics Unit I Unit II Physical Optics Photonics 3 10 60 70 PTMIV Classical and Quantum Mechanics Unit I Unit II QuantumMechanics 3 10 60 70 PTMV Modern Physics Unit I Unit II Nuclear ,Molecular physics&Elementary particles Relativity, Astrophysics, Statistical Physics, Nanotechnology 3 10 60 70 PTMVI Electronics & Computer Science Unit I Unit II Electronics Digital Electronics & Computer Science 3 10 60 70 Attendance  2 marks Assignment (Theoretical problems shall be given) 4 Marks (2 marks for each unit) Two tests for each unit 4 Marks (2 marks for each unit) Total 10 Marks Pattern of Question paper (external) of each unit is as follows Type of Total No. o Section question questions A Essay 2 B a,b,c 12 (Three types) Each question in section B carries a) Direct type : 1 Mark b) Understanding type : 2Marks c) Problems : 3Marks No. of questions to be e Marks f. 6 Total Marks for the Sectio 12 48 Grant total for each unit 60 5 6 8Practical, vivavoce,Seminar and Project Paper No. Title Duration of Exam.(in Hrs.) Internal marks External marks Total marks PPMI Properties of mater Heat and Optics 3 10 40 50 PPMII Electricity & Magnetism 3 10 40 50 PPMIII Electronics & Computer Science 3 10 40 50 Vivavoce 10 10 Seminar 10 10 Project / Innovative experiment 10 10 Total 60 120 180 Grant total (Theory + Practical) 120 480 600 Practical examination at the end of the thir d year Each student has to maintain a record of laboratory observations for each practical paper. The evaluation of records of practicals, project work and activities are made through internal assessment. The candidate shall be permitted to attend the practical exam only if he/she submits a certified bonafied record ( observation book) of practical work done along with valued reports of i)project and ii) activities. Internal marks distribution No.of Experiments recorded : 5 marks( for 24 expts.) Activities : 5 marks Total : 10marks (for one1 mark, for two3 marks, for three 5 marks) External marks distribution Paper I & II a) Formula with symbols explained,diagrams,etc ............ 8marks b)Adjustments, connections,performance ........................ 8marks c)Observation and tabulation,graph etc .......................... 16marks d)Calculation (with substitution shown clearly) and result.. 8 marks Total : 40 marks Paper IIIElectronics (3 hr. or 11/2 hr. expt.) 3 hr expt. a)Circuit designing ,diagram , formula .............................. 10 marks b)Good circuit layout, correct connection,good soldering .20 scores c)Measurements of quantities,calculation, graph ,result ..... 10 scores Total : 40 Paper III Computer Science(Only 11/2 hour expt.) 11/2 hr expt. 5 marks 10 marks 5 marks 20 marks a)Writing the correct program ............................................. 10 marks b) Correct execution and result ............................................ 10 marks Total : 20 marks 67 Work distribution B.Sc. Physics B.Sc. Main Theory (hrs) Practical (hrs) B.Sc. Main Ist year 2 2 4 B.Sc. Main IInd year 3 2 5 B.Sc. Main IIIrd year 17 8 25 B.Sc. Subsidiary B.Sc. Sub. Ist year 2 2 4 B.Sc. Sub. IInd year 3 2 5
Reference: http://www.kannuruniversity.ac.in/syllabus/physicsmain.pdf
