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ias syllabus

Posted Date: 12-Apr-2009  Last Updated:   Category: Syllabus    
Author: Member Level: Bronze    Points: 3

This is the syllabus for IAS exam one of the premire exams of india
1. Agriculture
2.Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
5.Civil Engineering
6.Commerce and Accountancy
8.Electrical Engineering
13. Mathematics
14.Mechanical Engineering
15.Medical Science
18.Political Science and International Relations
20.Public Administration
Indian Civil Service Exam (Preliminary) Syllabus -" Agriculture"
Agriculture, its importance in national economy. Factors determining agroecological zones and geographic distribution of crop plants.

Importance of crop plants, cultural practices for cereal, pulses, oilseed, fibre, sugar, tuber and fodder crops and scientific basis for these crop rotations, multiple and relay cropping, intercropping and mixed cropping.

Soil as medium of plant growth and its composition, mineral and organic constituents of the soil and their role in crop production; chemical, physical and microbiological properties of soils. Essential plant nutrients (macro and micro)–their functions, occurrence, cycling in soils Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertilizer use. Organic manures and bio-fertilizers, inorganic fertilizers, integrated nutrient management.

Principles of plant physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, transactions, and metabolism of nutrients.

Diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies and their amelioration photosynthesis and respiration, growth and development, auxins and hormones in plant growth.

Cell and cell organelles. Cell division. Reproductive cycle, Principles of genetics, gene-interaction, sex determination, linkage and recombination, mutation, extra chromosomal inheritance, polyploidy. Origin and domestication of crop plants. Genetic resources-conservation and utilization. Floral biology in relation to selfing and crossing.

Genetic basis of plant breeding pureline selection, mass selection, male sterility and incompatibility and their use in plant breeding. Pedigree selection, back-cross method of selection. Heterosis and its exploitation. Development of hybrids, composites and synthetic, Important varieties, hybrids, composites and synthetic of major crops. Seeds and seed-production techniques.

Important fruit and vegetable crops of India, method of propagation–Sexual and asexual. Package and practices and their scientific basis. Crop rotation, intercropping, companion crops, role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition, post-harvest handling and processing of fruits and vegetables. Landscaping and ornamental horticulture, commercial floriculture. Medicinal and aromatic plants. Serious pests and diseases affecting major crops.

Principles of control of crop pests and diseases, integrated management. Proper use and maintenance of plant protection equipment.

Principles of economics as applied to agriculture. Farm planning and optimum resource–use efficiency and maximising income and employment. Farm systems and their spatial distribution, their significant roles in regional economic development.


Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science


1. General: Role of Livestock in Indian Economy and human health. Mixed farming. Agroclimatic zones and livestock distribution. Socioeconomic aspects of livestock enterprise with special reference to women.

2. Genetics and Breeding: Principle of genetics, chemical nature of DNA and RNA and their models and functions. Recombinant DNA technology, transgenic animals, multiple ovulation and embryo-transfer. Cytogenetics, immunogenetics and biochemical polymorphic and their application in animal improvement. Gene actions. Systems and strategies for improvement of livestock for milk, meat, wool production and drought and poultry for eggs and meat. Breeding of animals for disease resistance. Breeds of livestock, poultry and rabbits.

3. Nutrition: Role of nutrition in animal health and production. Classification of feeds, Proximate composition of feeds, feeding standards, computation of rations. Ruminant nutrition. Concepts of total digestible nutrients and starch equivalent systems. Significance of energy determinations. Conservation of feeds and fodder and utilization of agro by-products. Feed supplements and additives. Nutrition deficiencies and their management.

4. Management: Systems of housing and management of livestock, poultry and rabbits. Farm record. Economics of livestock, poultry and rabbit farming. Clean milk production. Veterinary hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation. Sources of water and standards of potable water. Purification of water. Air changes and thermal comfort. Drainage systems and effluent disposal. Biogas.

5. Animal Production:

Artificial insemination, fertility and sterility. Reproductive physiology, semen charcteris-tics and preservation. Sterility its causes and remedies.
Meat eggs and wool production. Methods of slaughter of meat animals, meat inspection, judgement, carcass characteristics, adulteration and its detection processing and preservation.; Meat products, quality control and nutritive value, By-products. Physiology of egg production, nutritive value, grading of eggs preservation and marketing.

Types of wool, grading and marketing.

6. Veterinary Science :

Major contagious diseases affecting cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep and goats, pigs, poultry, rabbits and pet animals-Etiology, symptoms, pathogenicity, diagnosis, treatment and control of major bacterial, viral, rickettsial and parasitic infections.
Description, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the following :—
Production diseases of milch animals, pig and poultry.
Deficiency diseases of domestic livestock and birds.
Poisonings due to infected/contaminated foods and feeds, chemicals and drugs.

7. Principles of immunization and vaccination : Different types of immunity, antigens and antibodies. Methods of immunization. Breakdown of immunity, Vaccines and their use in animals.

Zoonoses, Foodborne infections and intoxications, occupation hazards


Poisons used for killing animals euthanesia.
Drugs used for increasing production/performance efficiency, and their adverse effects.
Drugs used to tranquilize wild animals as well as animals in captivity.
Quarantine measures in India and abroad. Act, Rules and Regulations.

9. Dairy Science : Physicochemical and nutritional properties of milk.

Quality assessment of milk and milk products, Common tests and legal standards. Cleaning and sanitation of dairy equipment. Milk collections, chilling, transportation processing, packaging, storage and distribution. Manufacture of market milk, cream butter, cheese, ice-cream, condensed and dried milk, by products and Indian Milk products.

Unit operations in dairy plant.

Role of micro organisam in quality of milk and products physiology of milk secretion.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Botany


1. Cell Biology : Structure and function of cell wall (extracellular matrix or ECM), cell membrane and cell organelles. Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex (NPC), chromosome and nucleosome. Mitosis, meiosis, molecular control involving checkpoints in cell division cycle. Differentiation, cellular senescence.

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology : Laws of inheritance. Concept of gene and allelomorph. Linkage, crossing over and gene mapping. Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes and gene mutations. Sex determination and differentiation. Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Genetic code. Regulation of gene expression.

Genetic engineering and crop improvement. Protoplast, cell, tissue and organ cultures. Somatic hybridization. Biofertilizers and biopesticides. Biotechnology in agri-horticulture, medicine and industry.

3. Tissue Systems : Origin, development, structure and function of primary and secondary tissues.

4. Plant Diversity and Systematics : Structure and function of plant forms from evolutionary aspects (viruses to Angiosperms including fossils). Principles of nomenclature, classification and identification of plants. Modern approaches in plant taxonomy.

Recent classification of living organism into three groups (bacteria, archaea and eukarya).

5. Plant Physiology: Water relations. Mineral nutrition. Photosynthesis. Respiration. Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes. Dynamics of growth, growth movements, growth substances, photomorphogenesis. Secondary metabolites. Isotopes in biological studies. Physiology of flowering.

6. Methods of Reproduction and Seed Biology : Vegetative, asexual and sexual methods of reproduction. Pollination and fertilization. Sexual incompatibility. Development, structure, dormancy and germination of seed.

7. Plant Pathology : Diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane, potato, mustard, groundnut and cotton crops. Factors affecting infection (host factors, pathogen factors, biotic factors like rhizosphere and phyllosphere organisms). Chemical, biological and genetic methods of disease control (including transgenic plants).

8. Plant and Environment : Biotic and abiotic components. Ecological adaptation. Types of vegetational zones and forests of India. Deforestation, afforestation, social forestry and plant introduction. Soil erosion, wasteland, reclamation. Environmental pollution and its control (including phytoremediation). Bioindicators. Global warming.

9. Biodiversity, Plant Genetic Resources: Methods of conservation of plant genetic resources and its importance. Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). Endangered, threatened and endemic taxa. Role of cell/tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of genetic diversity.

Plants as sources of food, fodder, forage, fibres, oils, drugs, wood and timber, paper, rubber, beverages, spices, essential oils and resins, gums, dyes, insecticides, pesticides and ornamentation. Biomass as a source of energy.

10. Origin of Life and Evolution: Basic concepts of origin of earth and origin of life. Theories of organic evolution, molecular basis of evolution.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Chemistry



(Inorganic Chemistry):

1.1 Atomic structure : Schrodinger wave equation, significance of γ and γ2 quantum numbers and their significance, radial and angular probability, shapes of orbitals, relative energies of atomic orbitals as a function of atomic number. Electronic configurations of elements; Aufbau principle, Hund's multiplicity rule, Pauli exclusion principle.

1.2 Chemical periodicity : Periodic classification of elements, salient characteristics of s,p,d and f block elements. Periodic trends of atomic radii, ionic radii, ionisation potential, electron affinity and electronegativity in the periodic table.

1.3 Chemical bonding : Types of bonding, overlap of atomic orbitals, sigma and pi bonds, hydrogen and metallic bonds. Shapes of molecules, bond order, bond length, V.S.E.P.R. theory and bond angles. The concept of hybridization and shapes of molecules and ions.

1.4 Oxidation states and oxidation number : Oxidation and reduction, oxidation numbers, common redox reactions, ionic equations. Balancing of equations for oxidation and reduction reactions.

1.5 Acids and bases : Bronsted and Lewis theories of acids and bases. Hard and soft acids and bases. HSAB principle, relative strengths of acids and bases and the effect of substituents and solvents on their strength.

1.6 Chemistry of elements :

Hydrogen: Its unique position in the periodic table, isotopes, ortho and para hydrogen, industrial production, heavy water.
Chemistry of s and p block elements : electronic configuration, general characteristics properties, inert pair effect, allotropy and catenation. Special emphasis on solutions of alkali and alkaline earth metals in liquid ammonia. Preparation, properties and structures of boric acid, borates, boron nitrides, borohydride (diborane), carboranes, oxides and oxyacids of nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur and chlorine; interhalogen compounds, polyhalide ions, pseudohalogens, fluorocarbons and basic properties of halogens. Chemical reactivity of noble gases, preparation, structure and bonding of noble gas compounds.
Chemistry of d block elements: Transition metals including lanthanides, general characteristic properties, oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, colour. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds (oxides, halides and sulphides); lanthanide contraction.

1.7 Extraction of metals : Principles of extraction of metals as illustrated by sodium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, nickel, copper, silver and gold.

1.8 Nuclear Chemistry : Nuclear reactions; mass defect and binding energy, nuclear fission and fusion. Nuclear reactors; radioisotopes and their applications.

1.9 Coordination compounds : Nomenclature, isomerism and theories of coordination compounds and their role in nature and medicine.

1.10 Pollution and its control : Air pollution, types of air pollutants; control of air and water pollution; radioactive pollution.


(Organic Chemistry)

2.1 Bonding and shapes of organic molecules : Electronegativity, electron displacements-inductive, mesomeric and hyperconjugative effects; bond polarity and bond polarizability, dipole moments of organic molecules; hydrogen bond; effects of solvent and structure on dissociation constants of acids and bases; bond formation, fission of covalent bonds : homolysis and heterolysis; reaction intermediates-carbocations, carbanions, free radicals and carbenes; generation, geometry and stability; nucleophiles and electrophiles.

2.2 Chemistry of aliphatic compounds: Nomenclature; alkenes-synthesis, reactions (free radical halogenation) -- reactivity and selectivity, sulphonation-detergents; cycloalkanes-Baeyer's strain theory; alkenes and alkynes-synthesis, electrohilic addition reactions, Markownikov's rule, peroxide effects, 1- 3-dipolar addtion; nucleophilic addition to electron-deficient alkenes; polymerisation; relative acidity; synthesis and reactions of alkyl halides, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, alkanoic acids, esters, amides, nitriles, amines, acid anhydrides, a, ß-unsaturated ketones, ethers and nitro compounds.

2.3 Stereochemistry of carbon compounds : Elements of symmetry, chiral and achiral compounds. Fischer projection formulae; optical isomerism of lactic and tartaric acids, enantiomerism and diastereoisomerism; configuration (relative and absolute); conformations of alkanes upto four carbons, cyclohexane and dimethylcyclo-hexanes-their potential energy. D, L-and R, S-notations of compounds containing chiral centres; projection formulae-Fischer, Newman and sawhorse-of compounds containing two adjacent chiral centres; meso and dl-isomers, erythro and threo isomers; racemization and resolution; examples of homotopic, enantiotopic and diasteretopic atoms and groups in organic compounds, geometrical isomers; E and Z notations. Stereochemistry of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions.

2.4 Organometallic compounds : Preparation and synthetic uses of Grignard reagents, alkyl lithium compounds.

2.5 Active methylene compounds : Diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl cyanoacetate-applications in organic synthesis; tautomerism (keto-enol).

2.6 Chemistry of aromatic compounds : Aromaticity; Huckel's rule; electrophilic aromatic substitution-nitration, sulphonation, halogenation (nuclear and side chain), Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, substituents effect; chemistry and reactivity of aromatic halides, phenols, nitro-, diazo, diazonium and sulphonic acid derivatives, benzyne reactions.

2.7 Chemistry of biomolecules :

Carobhydrates : Classification, reactions, structure of glucose, D, L-configuration, osazone formation; fructose and sucrose; step-up step-down of aldoses and ketoses, and ther interconversions
Amino acdis : Essential amino acids; zwitterions, isoelectric point, polypeptides; proteins; methods of synthesis of ?-amino acids. (iii) Elementary idea of oils, fats, soaps and detergents.

2.8 Basic principles and applications of UV, visible, IR and NMR spectroscopy of simple organic molecules.


(Physical Chemistry)

3.1 Gaseous state : Deviation of real gases from the equation of state for an ideal gas, van der Waals and Virial equation of state, critical phenomena, principle of corresponding states, equation for reduced state. Liquification of gases, distribution of molecular speed, collisions between molecules in a gas; mean free path, speicific heat of gases

3.2 Thermodynamics :

First law and its applications: Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy, zeroth law of thermodynamics, various types of work done on a system in reversible and irreversible processes. Calorimetry and thermochemistry, enthalpy and enthalpy changes in various physical and chemical processes, Joule-Thomson effect, inversion temperautre. Heat capacities and temperature dependence of enthalpy and energy changes.
Second law and its applications : Spontaneity of a process, entropy and entropy changes in various processes, free energy functions, criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities.

3.3 Phase rule and its applications : Equilibrium bewteen liquid, solid and vapours of a pure substance, Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its applications. Number of components, phases and degrees of freedom; phase rule and its applications; simple systems with one (water and sulphur) and two components (lead-silver, salt hydrates). Distribution law, its modifications, limitations and applications.

3.4 Solutions : Solubility and its temperature dependence, partially miscible liquids, upper and lower critical solution temperatres, vapour pressures of liquids over their mixtures, Raoult's and Henry's laws, fractional and steam distillations.

3.5 Colligative Properties : Dilute solutions and colligative properties, determination of molecular weights using colligative properties.

3.6 Electrochemistry : Ions in solutions, ionic equilibria, dissociation constants of acids and bases, hydrolysis, pH and buffers, theory of indicators and acid-base titrations. Conductivity of ionic solutions, its variation with concentration, Ostwald's dilution law, Kohlrausch law and its application. Transport number and its determination. Faraday's laws of electrolysis, galvanic cells and measurements of their e.m.f., cell reactions, standard cell, standard reduction potential, Nernst equation, relation between thermodynamic quantities and cell e.m.f., fuel cells, potentiometric titrations.

3.7 Chemical kinetics : Rate of chemical reaction and its dependence on concentrations of the reactants, rate constant and order of reaction and their experimental determination; differential and integral rate equations for first and second order reaction, half-life periods; temperature dependence of rate constant and Arrhenius parameters; elementary ideas regarding collision and transition state theory.

3.8 Photochemistry : Absorption of light, laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, the excited state and its decay by radiative, nonradiative and chemical pathways; simple photochemical reactions.

3.9 Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and their characteristics, mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis; enzyme catalysed reactions (Michaelis-Menten mechanism).

3.10 Colloids : The colloidal state, preparation and purification of colloids and their characteristics properties; lyophilic and lyophobic colloids and coagulation; protection of colloids; gels, emulsions, surfactants and micelles.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Civil Engineering



1. Engineering Mechanics : Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, nonconcurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and Varignon's theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.

First and Second Moments of area, Mass moment of Inertia.

Static Friction Inclined plane and bearings.

Kinematics and Kinetics : Kinematics in cartesian and polar co-ordinates, motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle : Momentum and Energy principles, D `Alembert's Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion.

2. Strength of Materials : Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf spring, Strain Energy in direct stress, bending and shear.

Deflection of beams : Macaulay's method, Mohr's moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, closecoiled helical springs, Elastic stability of columns : Euler's, Rankine's and Secant formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimensions, Mohr's Circle. Theories of Elastic Failure, Thin and Thick cylinders : Stresses due to internal and external pressures-Lame's equation.

3. Structural Analysis : Analysis of pin jointed plane trusses, deflection in trusses. Three hinged and two hinged arches, rib shortening, temperature effects, influence lines in arches. Analysis of propped cantilevers, fixed beams, continuous beams and rigid frames. Slope deflection, moment distribution,, Kani's method and Matrix method : Force and Displacement methods. Rolling loads and influece lines for determinate beams and pin jointed trusses.


Geotechnical Engineering: Types of soil, field identification and classification, phase relationships, consistency limits, particle size distribution, classification of soil, structure and clay mineralogy.

Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darcy's Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits.

Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi's theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test. Compaction of soil, optimum moisture content, Proctor Density.

Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, types of sampler, field tests.

Shear strength of soils, Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, shear tests Earth pressure at rest, active and passive pressures, Rankine's theory, Coulomb's wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall.

Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure, Immediate and consolidation settlement.

Load carrying capacity of pile groups.

Stability of slope-Conventional method of slices, stability numbers.

Transporation Engineering : Highway alignment, choice of layout and capacity of highways, location survey, geometric design of highways-various elements, curves, grade separation and segregation of traffic, intersection design, highway materials and testing subgrade and pavement components, types of pavements, road drainage, elements of airport engineering.

Railway engineering-elements of permanent track-rails, sleepers, ballast and rail fastenings, tractive resistance, elements of geometric design-gradients and grade compensation on curves, cant transition curves and vertical curves, stresses in railway tracks, points and crossings, signalling and interlocking, maintenance of railway track. Culverts and small bridges.


Fluid Mechanics: fluid properties, fluid statics, forces on plane and curved surfaces, stability of floating and submerged bodies.

Kinematics: Velocity, streamlines, continuity equation, accelerations irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, separation.

>Dynamics: Euler's equation along streamline, control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equation from control volume equation, applications to pipe flow, moving vanes, moment of momentum, Dimensional analysis.

Boundary layer on a flat plate, drag and lift on bodies. Laminar and Turbulent Flows. Laminar and turbulent flow through pipes, friction factor variation, pipe networks, water hammer, and surge tanks.

Open Channel Flow: Energy and momentum correction factors, uniform and non-uniform flows, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, Friction factors and roughness coefficients, flow in transitions, free overfall, weirs, hydraulic jump, surges, gradually varied flow equations, surface profiles, moving hydraulic jump.


Environmental Engineering

Water Supply: Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, water borne diseases, standards for potable water.

Intake of water: pumping and gravity schemes, water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.

Water storage and distribution: storage and balancing reservoir types, location and capacity. Distribution systems: layout, hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations.

Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage-separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, juctions, siphon. Plumbing in Public buildings.

Sewage characterisation: BOD, COD, solids, dissloved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.

Sewage treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.

Construction Management : Elements and principles of Activity on Arrow (AOA) and Activity on Node (AON) networks and work breakdown structure. Interfaces. Ladder networks. Activity time. Time computations and floats. ATC and PTC trade-off. Work study and sampling. Scheduling principles-material schedules. ABC and EOQ analysis of inventory. Budgeting with barcharts. Working capital. PERT, probability of completion.

Elements of Engineering Economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benefit-cost, incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives including levels of investments. Project profitability.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Commerce & Accountancy



Accounting and Auditing:


Nature, Scope and Objectives of Accounting-Accounting as an Information System-Users of Accounting Information.

Generally Accepted Principles of Accounting-The Accounting Equation-Accrual Concept-Other concepts and conventions, Distinction between capital and revenue expenditure. Accounting Standards and their application-Accounting standards relating to fixed assets, depreciation, inventory, recognition of revenue.

Final Accounts of Sole Proprietors, Partnership Firms and Limited Companies-Statutory Provisions -Reserves, Provisions and Funds.

Final Accounts of non profit organisation.

Accounting problems related to admission and retirement of a partner and dissolution of a firm.

Accounting for Shares and Debentures- Accounting Treatment of Convertible Debentures.

Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Statements Ratio analysis and interpretation. Ratios relation to short term liquidity, long term solvency and profitability-Importance of the rate of return on investment (ROI) in evaluating the overall performance of a business entity-Cash-flow Statement and Statement of Source and Application of Funds-Societal obligations of Accounting.


Nature, objectives and basic principles of auditing.
Techniques of Auditing-physical verification, examination of documents and vouching, direct confirmation, analytical review.
Planning an audit, audit programmes, working papers, audit process.
Evaluation of internal controls.
Test checking and sampling.
Broad outlines of company audit.
Audit of non-corporate enterprises.
Internal and management audit.


Business Organisation

Distinctive features of different forms of business organisation.

Sole Proprietor

Partnerships-characteristics, Registration, Partnership deed, Rights and duties, Retirement, Dissolution.

Joint Stock Company-Concept, characteristics, types.

Cooperative and State ownership forms of organizations.

Types of securities and methods of their issue.

Economic functions of the capital market, stock exchanges, Mutual Funds. Control and regulation of capital market.

Business combinations; control of Monopolies. Problems of modernisation of industrial enterprises. Social Responsibility of business.

Foreign Trade-Procedure and financing of import and export trade. Incentives for export promotion. Financing of foreign trade.

Insurance-Principles and practice of Life, Fire, Marine and General Insurance.


Managemet functions-Planning-strategies, Organising-levels of authority Staffing, Line function and staff function, Leadership, Communication, Motivation, Directing-Principles, Strategies.

Coordination-Concept, types, methods.

Control-principles, performance standards, corrective action. Salary and wage administration-Job evaluation.

Organisation Structure-Centralization and decentralization-Delegation of authority-span of control-Management by Objectives and Management by Exception.

Management of change; Crisis Management.

Office Management-scope and principles; systems and routines; handling of records- modern aids to Office management; office equipment and machines; Automation and Personal computers.

Impact of Organisation and Methods (O & M)

Company Law

Joint stock companies-incorporation; documents and formalities-Doctrine of indoor management and constructive notice.

Duties and powers of the board of directors of a company.

Accounts and Audit of Companies.

Company Secretary-role and functions-qualifications for appointment.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Economics



General Economics

1) Micro-economics : (a) Production : Agents of Production; Costs and Supply; Isoquants (b) Consumption and Demand; Elasticity concept (c) Market Structure and concepts of equilibrium; (d) Determination of prices; (e) Components and Theories of Distribution (f) Elementary concepts of Welfare economics : Pareto-optimality-Private and social products-consumers surplus.

2) Macro-economics : (a) National Income concepts; (b) Determinants of National Income Employment (c) Determinants of consumption, savings and Investment (d) Rate of Interest and its determination (e) Interest and profit.

3) Money, Banking and Public Finance : (a) Concepts of Money and measures of money supply; velocity of money (b) Banks and credit creation; Banks and portfolio management. (c) Central Bank and control over money supply (d) Determination of the price level. (e) Inflation, its causes and remedies. (f) Public, Finance-Budgets-Taxes and non-tax revenues-Types of Budget deficits.

4) International Economics :

Theories of International Trade-comparative costs-Heckscher-Ohlin-Gains from Trade-Terms of Trade.
Free Trade and Protection.
Balance of Payments accounts and Adjustment.
Exchange rate under free exchange markets.
Evolution of the International Monetary System and World Trading order-Gold Standard-the Brettonwoods system.

IMF and the World Bank and their associates.

Floating rates-GATT and WTO

(5) Growth and Development : (a) Meaning and measurement of growth; Growth, distribution and Welfare; (b) Characteristics of underdevelopment; (c) Stages of Development; (d) Sources of growth-capital, Human capital, population, productivity, Trade and aid, non-economic factors; growth Strategies, (e) Planning in a mixed economy-Indicative planning-Planning and growth.

(6) Economic Statistics : Types of averages-measures of dispersion-correlation-Index numbers; types, uses and limitations.


Indian Economics

1. Main features; Geographic size-Endowment of natural resources, Population; size, composition quality and growth trend-Occupational distribution-Effects of British Rule with reference to Drain theory and Laissez Faire policy.

2. Major problems, their dimensions, nature and broad causes; Mass poverty-Unemployment and its types-Economics effects of population pressure-Inequality and types thereof-Low productivity and low per capita income, Rural-urban disparities-Foreign Trade and payments imbalances. Balance of Payments and External Debt- Inflation, and parallel economy and its effects-Fiscal deficit.

3. Growth in income and employment since Independence-Rate, Pattern, Sectoral trends-Distributional Changes-Regional disparities.

4. Economic Planning in India : Major controversies on planning in India-Alternative strategies-goals and achievements, shortfalls of different plans-planning and the Market.

5. Broad Fiscal, monetary, industrial trade and agricultural policies-objectives, rationale, constraints and effects.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Electrical Engineering


Electrical Circuits-Theory and Applications

Circuit components, network graphs, KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions.

Signals & Systems

Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals & system's ; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals.

Control Systems

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. LTI systems : time domain and transform domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquist's criterion. Bode-plots, Design of lead-lag compensators; Proportional, PI, PID controllers.

E.M. Theory

Electro-static and magneto-static fields; Maxwell's equations; e.m. waves and wave equations; wave propagation and antennas; transmission lines; micro-wave resonators, cavities and wave guides.

Electrical Engineering Materials

Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials : conductivity; free-electrons and band-theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductor, p-n junction; solar cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials : polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials: behaviour and application.

Analog Electronics

Diode circuits: rectifiers filters, clipping and clamping, zener diode and voltage regulation. Bipolar and field effect transistors (BJT, JFET and MOSFET) : Characteristics, biasing and small signal equivalent circuits. Basic amplifier circuits; differential amplifier circuits. Amplifiers : analysis, frequency response. Principles of feedback; OPAMP circuits; filters; oscillators.

Digital Electronics

Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean function; logic gates, digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoder's. Sequential circuits : latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits; ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories.

Communication Systems

Fourier analysis of signals : amplitude, phase and power spectrum, auto-correlation and cross-correlation and their Fourier transforms. Analog modulation systems : amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis; superheterodyne receivers. Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM, delta modulation. Digital modulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Multiplexing : time-division, frequency-division. Additive Gaussian noise : characterization using correlation, probability density function, power spectral density, Signal-to-noise ratio calculations for AM and FM. Elements of digital communication systems : source coding, channel coding; digital modulation & demodulation. Elements of Information theory, channel capacity. Elements of satellite and mobile communication; principles of television engineering; radar engineering and radio aids to navigation.

Computers and Microprocessors

Computer organization : number representation and arithmetic, functional organization, machine instructions, addressing modes, ALU, hardwired and microprogrammed control, memory organization. Elements of microprocessors : 8-bit microprocessors -architecture, instruction set, assembly level programming, memory, I/O interfacing, microcontrollers and applications.

Measurement and Instrumentation

Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guages, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurement of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquisition systems.

Energy Conversion

Single-phase transformer : equivalent circuit, phasor-diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three-phase transformer; auto transformer. Principles of energy conversion-d.c. generators and motors: Performers characteristics, starting and speed control armature reaction and commutation; three-phase induction motor; performance characteristics, starting and speed control. Single-phase induction motor. Synchronous generators: performance characteristics, regulation, parallel operation. Synchronous motors: starting characteristics, applications; synchronous condensor. FHP motors, permanent magnet and stepper motors, brushless d.c. motors, single-phase motors.

Power Systems

Electric power generation : thermal, hydro, nuclear. Transmission line parameters: steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables. Distribution systems : insulators, bundle conductors, corona and radio interference effects; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction. Economic operation. Principles of over current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays, circuit breakers, concept of system stability. HVDC transmission.

Power Electronics and Electric Drives

Semiconductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET, static characteristics, principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase controlled rectifiers; bridge converters-fully controlled and half controlled; principles of thyristor chopper and inverter. Basic concept of speed control of DC and AC motor drives.

Elements of IC Fabrication Technology

Overview of IC Technolog. Unit steps used in IC fabrication : wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion, ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of poly-silicon, silicon, silicon-pnitride and silicon dioxide; metallisation and passivation.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - General Studies


General Science:

* Current events of national and international importance
* History of India and Indian National Movement
* Indian and World Geography
* Indian Polity and Economy
* General Mental Ability

Questions on General Science will cover general appreciation and understanding of science including matters of everyday observation and experience, as may be expected of a well educated person who has not made a special study of any particular scientific discipline.

In current events, knowledge of significant national and international events will be tested. In History of India, emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social, economic and political aspects.

Questions on the Indian National Movement will relate to the nature and character of the nineteenth century resurgence, growth of nationalism and attainment of Independence. In Geography, emphasis will be on Geography of India.

Questions on the Geography of India will relate to physical, social and economic Geography of the country, including the main features of Indian agricultural and natural resources.

Questions on Indian Polity and Economy will test knowledge of the country’s political system and Constitution of India, Panchayati Raj, Social Systems and economic developments in India. On general mental ability, the candidates will be tested on reasoning and analytical abilities.
Questions on General Science will cover general appreciation and understanding of science including matters of everyday observation and experience, as may be expected of a well educated person who has not made a special study of any particular scientific discipline. In current events, knowledge of significant national and international events will be tested. In History of India, emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social, economic and political aspects. Questions on the Indian National Movement will relate to the nature and character of the nineteenth century resurgence, growth of nationalism and attainment of Independence. In Geography, emphasis will be on Geography of India. Questions on the Geography of India will relate to physical, social and economic Geography of the country, including the main features of Indian agricultural and natural resources. Questions on Indian Polity and Economy will test knowledge of the country's political system and Constitution of India, Panchayati Raj, Social Systems and economic developments in India. On general mental ability, the candidates will be tested on reasoning and analytical abilities.
Indian Civil Service Exam (Preliminary) Syllabus - Geography



Physical Georgraphy

i) Geomorphology


Origin of the earth; Geological Time Scale; Interior of the earth; Types and characteristics of rocks; Folding and Faulting; Volcanoes; Earthquakes; Weathering; Landforms caused by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions.

ii) Climatology


Structure and composition of atmosphere; Temperature; Pressure belts and Wind systems; Clouds and rainfall types; Cyclones and anti-cyclones; Major climatic types.

iii) Oceanography


Ocean relief; Temperature; Salinity; Ocean deposits; Ocean currents, El Nino and La Nino; Waves and tides.

iv) Biogeography


Origin and types of soils; Major biomes of the world; Ecosystem and food chain; Environmental degradation and conservation.


Human Geography

i) Man and Environment Relationship


Growth and development of Human Geography; Concepts of Determinism and Possibilism.

ii) Population


Races of mankind and tribes; growth and distribution of world population; migration; population problems of developed and developing countries.

iii) Economic Activities


Food gathering and hunting; pastoral herding; fishing and forestry; Types of agriculture-shifting, subsistence, commercial and plantation; Mining, Power; Manufacturing -locational factors of textile, iron and steel, sugar and fertilizer industries; Tertiary activities-trade, transport, communication and services.

iv) Settlements


Origin, types and patterns of rural settlements; Processes of urbanisation; morphology and functional classification of towns; million-cities and mega-cities.


Geography of the World

Major Natural Regions : Characteristics, economic base and human adaptation.
Regional Geography of Developed Countries : Canada, U.S.A., Western Europe, Russia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
Regional Geography of Developing Countries : S.E. Asia, S.W. Asia, China, Southern Africa and Brazil.
Regional Geography of South Asia.


Geography of India

i) Physical Setting


Landforms, drainage, climate, soils and natural vegetation.

ii) Economic Base


Minerals & energy resources, aquatic resources, forest resources; irrigation, agriculture and industries; trade and commerce.

iii) Population


Growth, distribution and density; demographic characteristics.

iv) Environmental problems, developmental issues and regional planning.


Geographical Thought

Ancient Period : Contributions of Indians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs.
Pre-Modern Period : Contribution of Verenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter.
Modern Period : Dichotomy of determinism and possibilism; contributions of Ratzel, Semple, Huntington and La Blache.
Recent Period : Quantitive Revolution; Radicalism, Behaviouralism and Humanism.


Techniques of Geographical Analysis

1. Maps : Scale and types, uses.
2. Diagrams : Types and uses
3. Projections : Types, characteristics and uses.
Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) : Aerial photographs and imagery, GIS.

(a) General Geology : Solar System. The Earth : its origin, age and internal constitution. Volcanoes-types, distribution geological effects and products. Earthquakes-intensity, magnitude, distribution, causes and effects. Elementary ideas about isostasy, geosynclines, mountain building, continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.

(b) Geomorphology : Basic concepts. External and internal processes. Rock weathering. Cycle of erosion. Fluvial landforms and drainage patterns. Landforms of aeolian, marine, glacial and 'Karst' landscapes. Elements of Remote Sensing.

(c) Structural and field Geology : Primary and secondary structures. Dip and strike of beds. Unconformities. Study of folds, joints, faults, foliation and lineations. Overthrusts and nappe structures. Stages of rock deformation. Construction of block diagrams. Stereographic and equal-area nets. Solutions of simple problems by stereographic net.

Topographic maps and their interpretation. Use of clinometer compass in the field Measurements of bed, foliation, folds joints, faults and lineations in the field. Principles of geological mapping. Effects of topography on outcrops. Drawing of sections.


(a) Crystallography : Elements of crystal structure. Laws of crystallography, Symmetry elements of normal classes of seven crystal systems.

Properties and interaction of light and crystalline matter. Petrological microscope and accessories. Construction and use of Nicole prism. Pleochroism, double refraction, extinction angle, birefringence and twinning in crystals, Isotropic, uniaxial and biaxial minerals.

(b) Mineralogy : Physical, chemical and optical properties of the following common rock forming minerals: quartz, feldspar, mica, pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, garnet, chlorite, carbonates, aluminosilicates. Structure of silicates and crystal chemistry of minerals. Gemstones.

(c) Economic Geology : Ore, ore mineral and gangue. Classification of ore deposits. Important processes of their formation. Occurrence, origin and distribution in India of the ores of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, lead, zinc, iron, manganese and radioactive elements. Deposits of minerals use as abrasives, refractories and in ceramics, deposits of coal and petroleum. Elements of prospecting for mineral deposits.

Part -III

(a) Igneous Petrology : Origin of magma and formation of igneous rocks. Bowen's reaction principle. Crystallisation of binary systems. Classification of igneous rocks. Textures and structures of igneous rocks. Composition, origin and mode of occurrence of granite, syenite, diorite, mafic and ultramafic groups, anorthosites and alkaline rocks.

(b) Sedimentary Petrology : Sedimentary process and products. Classification of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary structures. Residual deposits - their mode of formation, chacteristics and types, Clastic deposits- their classification, mineral composition and texture. Elementary ideas about the origin and characteristics of quartz arenites, arkoses and graywackes. Siliceous and calcareous deposits of chemical and organic origin.

(c) Metamorphic Petrology : Types and factors of metamorphism. Zones, grades and facies of metamorphism. Regional and contact metamorphism. Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of argillaceous, arenaceous, calcareous and basic rocks. Metasomatism.


(a) Paleontology : Habits and habitats of animals. Fossils and fossilization. Modes of preservation. Application of fossils, Study of morphology and geological history of Foraminiferida, Brachipoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Echinoidea and Anthozoa.

Mammals of Siwalik Group. A brief study of Gondwana flora.

(b) Stratigraphy and Geology of India : Fundamental laws of stratigraphy. Stratigraphic classification lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic. Geological time scale.

Physiographic divisions and outline of stratigraphy of India. Brief study of Dharwar, Vindhyan and Gondwana Supergroups and Siwalik Group with reference to their major subdivisions, lithology, fossils, areal distribution and economic importance.


12."Indian History"
1. Prehistoric cultures in India

2. Indus Civilization. Origins. The Mature Phase: extent, society, economy and culture. Contacts with other cultures.Problems of decline.

3. Geographical distribution and characteristics of pastoral and farming communities outside the Indus region, from the neolithic to early iron phases.

4. Vedic society. The Vedic texts; changefrom Rigvedic to later Vedic phases. Religion; Upanishadic thought. Political and social organisation; evolutuion of monarchy and varna system.

5. State formation and urbanization, from the mahajanapadas to the Nandas. Jainism and Buddhism. Factors for the spread of Buddhism.

6. The Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta; Megasthenes. Asoka and his inscriptions; his dhamma, administration, culture and art. The Arthasastra.

7. Post-Mauryan India, BC 200- AD 300. Society: Evolution of jatis. The Satavahanas and state formation in Peninsula. Sangam texts and society. Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushanas; Kanishka. Contacts with the outside world. Religion : Saivism, Bhagavatism, Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism; Jainism; Culture and art.

8. The Guptas and their successors (to c. 750 AD). Changes in political organisation of empire. Economy and society. Literature and science. Arts.


9. Early Medieval India. Major dynasties; the Chola Empire. Agrarian and political structures. The Rajaputras. Extent of social mobility. Postition of women. The Arabs in Sind and the Ghaznavides.

10. Cultural trends, 750-1200, Religious conditions : importance of temples and monastic institutions; Sankaracharya; Islam; Sufism. Literature and Science. Alberuni’s "India". Art and architecture.

11-12. Thirteenth and fourteenth Centuries: Ghorian invasions causes and consequences. Delhi Sultanate under the "Slave" Rulers. Alauddin Khalji : Conquests; administrative, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad Tughlug's innovations. Firuz Tughluq and the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Growth of commerce and urbanization. Mystic movements in Hinduism and Islam. Literature. Architecture, Technological changes.

13. The fifteenth and early 16th Century : major Provinicial dynasties; Vijaya-nagara Empire. The Lodis, First phase of the Mughal Empire: Babur, Humayun. The Sur empire and administration. The Portuguese.

Montheistic movements: Kabir; Guru Nanak and Sikhism; Bhakti. Growth of regional literatures. Art and Culture.

14-15. The Mughal Empire , 1556-1707. Akbar: conquests, administrative measures, jagir and mansab systems; policy of sulh-i-kul. Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb : expansion in the Deccan; religious policies. Shivaji.

Culture: Persian and regional literatures. Religious thought: Abul Fazl; Maharashtra dharma. Painting. Architecture.

Economy: conditions of peasants and artisans, growth in trade; commerce with Europe. Social stratification and status of women.

16. Decline of Mughal Empire, 1707-61. Causes behind decline. Maratha power under the Peshwas. Regional states. The Afghans. Major elements of composite culture. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. Rise of Urdu language.


17. British expansion : The Carnatic Wars, Conquest of Bengal. Mysore and its resitance to British expansion: The three Anglo-Maratha Wars. Early structure of British raj: Regulating and Pitt's India Acts.

18. Economic Impact of the British Raj : Drain of Wealth (Tribute); land revenue settlements (zamindari, ryotwari, mahalwari); Deindustrialisation; Railways and commercialisation of agriculture; Growth of landless labour.

19. Cultural encounter and social changes: Introduction of western education and modern ideas. Indian Renaissance, social and religious reform movements; growth of Indian middle class; The press and its impact: rise of modern literature in Indian languages. Social reforms measures before 1857.

20. Resistance to British rule : Early uprisings; The 1857 Revolt- causes, nature, course and consequences.

21. Indian Freedom struggle-the first phase: Growth of national consciousness; Formation of Associations; Establishment of the Indian National Congress and its Moderate phase;- Economic Nationalism; Swadeshi Movement; The growth of "Extremism" and the 1907 split in Congress; The Act of 1909 - the policy of Divide and Rule; Congress-League Pact of 1916.

22. Gandhi and his thought; Gandhian techniques of mass mobilisation- Khilafat and Non Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement; Other strands in the National Movement-Revolutionaries, the Left, Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army.

23. Separatist Trends in Indian nationalist politics- the Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha; The post -1945 developments; Partition and Independence.

24. India independent to 1964. A parliamentary, secular, democratic (republic the 1950 Constitution). Jawaharlal Nehru's vision of a developed, socialist society. Planning and state-controlled industrialization. Agrarian reforms. Foreign policy of Non-alignment. Border conflict with China and Chinese aggression.


I Jurisprudence
1. Nature and concept of law.

2. Schools of Jurisprudence : Analytical, Historical, Philosophical, Sociological & Natural.

3. Administration of Justice : Theories of punishment.

4. Sources of Law : Custom, Precedent and Legislation.

5. A few basic Legal concepts:

(i) Rights and Duties.

(ii) Legal Personality.

(iii) Ownership and Possession.

II Constitutional Law of India

1. Salient features of the Indian Constitution.

2. Preamble.

3. Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties.

4. Constitutional position and powers of President and Governors.

5. Supreme Court and High Courts: Jurisdiction, powers, appointment and transfer of Judges.

6. Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions: Powers and functions.

7. Distribution of Legislative and Administrative Powers between the Union and the States.

8. Emergency Provisions.

9. Amendment of the Consstitution.

III International Law :

1. Nature and definition of International Law.

2. Sources: Treaty, Custom, General Principles of Law recognised by civilised nations and subsidiary means of determination of law.

3. State Recognition and State Succession.

4. The United Nations, its objective, purpose and principal organs; Constitution, role and jurisdiction of International Court of Justice.

5. Protection of Human Rights:

(i) Provisions in the UN Charter. .

(ii) Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.

(iii) International Convenant of Civil and Political Rights, 1966.

(iv) International Convenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966.

IV Torts :

1. Nature and Defination of Tort.

2. Liability based on fault and strict liability.

3. Vicarious Liability including State Liability.

4. Joint Tort feasors.

5. Negligence.

6. Defamation.

7. Conspiracy

8. Nuisance.

9. False imprisonment.

10. Malicious Prosecution.

V Criminal Law :

1. General Principles of criminal liability: Mens rea and actus reus.

2. Preparation and criminal attempts

3. General Exceptions.

4. Joint and constructive liability.

5. Abetment

6. Criminal Conspiracy.

7. Sedition.

8. Murder and culpable homicide.

9. Theft, extortion, robbery and dacoity.

10. Misappropriation and Criminal Breach of Trust.

VI Law of Contract :

1. Definition of contract.

2. Basic elements of contract: Offer, acceptance, consideration, contracutal capacity.

3. Factors vitiating consent.

4. Void, Voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.

5. Wagering agreements.

6. Contingent contracts.

7. Performance of contracts.

8. Dissolution of contractual obligations: frustration contracts.

9. Quasi-contracts.

10. Remedies for breach of contract.
Indian Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Mathematics


1. Algebra :


Elements of Set Theory; Algebra of Real and Complex numbers including Demovire's theorem; Polynomials and Polynomial equations, relation between Coefficients and Roots, symmetric functions of roots; Elements of Group Theory; Sub-Group, Cyclic groups, Permutation, Groups and their elementary properties.

Rings, Integral Domains and Fields and their elementary properties.

2. Vector Spaces and Matrices :


Vector Space, Linear Dependence and Independence. Sub-spaces. Basis and Dimensions, Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces. Linear Transformation of a Finite Dimensional Vector Space, Matrix Representation. Singular and Nonsingular Transformations. Rank and Nullity.


Matrices : Addition, Multiplication, Determinants of a Matrix, Properties of Determinants of order, Inverse of a Matrix, Cramer's rule.

3. Geometry and Vectors :


Analytic Geometry of straight lines and conics in Cartesian and Polar coordinates; Three Dimensional geometry for planes, straight lines, sphere, cone and cylinder. Addition, Subtraction and Products of Vectors and Simple applications to Geometry.

4. Calculus :


Functions, Sequences, Series, Limits, Continuity, Derivatives.

Application of Derivatives : Rates of change, Tangents, Normals, Maxima, Minima, Rolle's Theorem, Mean Value Theorems of Lagrange and Cauchy, Asymptotes, Curvature. Methods of finding indefinite integrals, Definite Integrals, Fundamental Theorem of integrals Calculus. Application of definite integrals to area, Length of a plane curve, Volume and Surfaces of revolution.

5. Ordinary Differential Equations :


Order and Degree of a Differential Equation, First order differential Equations, Singular solution, Geometrical interpretation, Second order equations with constant coefficients.

6. Mechanics :


Concepts of particles-Lamina; Rigid Body; Displacements; force; Mass; weight; Motion; Velocity; Speed; Acceleration; Parallelogram of forces; Parallelogram of velocity, acceleration; resultant; equilibrium of coplanar forces; Moments; Couples; Friction; Centre of mass, Gravity; Laws of motion; Motion of a particle in a straight line; simple Harmonic Motion; Motion under conservative forces; Motion under gravity; Projectile; Escape velocity; Motion of artificial satellites.

7. Elements of Computer Programming :


Binary system, Octal and Hexadecimal systems. Conversion to and from Decimal systems. Codes, Bits, Bytes and Words. Memory of a computer, Arithmetic and Logical operations on numbers. Precisions. AND, OR, XOR, NOT and Shit/Rotate operators, Algorithms and Flow Charts.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Mechanical Engineering


Statics :


Simple applications of equilibrium equations.

Dynamics :


Simple applications of equations of motion, work, energy and power.

Theory of Machines :


Simple examples of kinematic chains and their inversions.

Different types of gears, bearings, governors, flywheels and their functions.

Static and dynamic balancing of rigid rotors.

Simple vibration analysis of bars and shafts.

Linear automatic control systems.

Mechanics of Solids :


Stress, strain and Hookes Law. Shear and bending moments in beams. Simple bending and torsion of beams, springs and thin walled cylinders. Elementary concepts of elastic stability, mechanical properties and material testing.

Manufacturing Science :


Mechanics of metal cutting, tool life, economics of machining, cutting tool materials. Basic types of machine tool and their processes. Automatic machine tools, transfer lines. Metal forming processes and machines-shearing, drawing, spinning, rolling, forging, extrusion. Types of casting and welding methods. Powder metallurgy and processing of plastics.

Manufacturing Management :


Methods and time study, motion economy and work space design, operation and flow process charts. Cost estimation, break-even analysis. Location and layout of plants, material handling. Capital budgeting, job shop and mass production, scheduling, dispatching, Routing, Inventory.

Thermodynamics :


Basic concepts, definitions and laws, heat, work and temperature, Zeroth law, temperature scales, behaviour of pure substances, equations of state, first law and its corollaries, second law and its corollaries. Analysis of air standard power cycles, Carnot, Otto, diesel, Brayton cycles. Vapour power cycles, Rankine reheat and regenerative cycles, Refrigeration cycles-Bell Coleman, Vapour absorption and Vapour compression cycle analysis, open and closed cycle gas turbine with intercooling, reheating.

Energy Conversion :


Flow of steam through nozzles, critical pressure ratio, shock formation and its effect. Steam Generators, mountings and accessories. Impulse and reaction turbines, elements and layout of thermal power plants.

Hydraulic turbines and pumps, specific speed, layout of hydraulic power plants.

Introduction to nuclear reactors and power plants, handling of nuclear waste.

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning :


Refrigeration equipment and operation and maintenance, refrigerants, principles of air conditioning, psychrometric chart, comfort zones, humidification and dehumidification.

Fluid Mechanics :


Hydrostatics, continuity equation, Bernoulli's theorem, flow through pipes, discharge measurement, laminar and turbulent flow, boundary layer concept.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Medical Science


Human Anatomy


General principles and basic structural concept of gross anatomy of hipjoint, heart, stomach, lungs, spleen, kidneys, uterus , ovary and adrenal glands.

Histological features of parotid gland, bronchi, testis, skin, bone and thyroid gland.

Gross anatomy of thalamus, internal capsule, cerebrum, including their blood supply; functional localisation in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, spinal cord, eye, ear, throat, cranial nerves.

Embryology of vertebral column, respiratory system and their congenital anomalies.

Human physiology and biochemistry :


Neurophysiology: Sensory receptors, reticular formation, cerebellum and basal ganglia.

Reproduction: Regulation of functions of male and female gonads.

Cardiovascular system: Mechanical and electrical properties of heart including ECG : regulation of cardio-vascular functions.

GI System: bilirubin metabolism, liver function tests,

Haematology: haemogolobin synthesis, abnormal hemoglobins.

Respiration: regulation of respiration, digestion and absorption of fats, metabolism of carbohydrates.

Renal Physiology: tubular function, regulation of pH.

Nucleic acids: RNA, DNA, genetic code and protein synthesis.

Pathology and Microbiology :


Principles of inflammation, principles of carcinogenesis and tumour spread, coronary heart disease, infective diseases of liver and gall bladder, pathogenesis of tuberculosis.

Immune system, immunological and serological tests for collagen vascular disease. Histological diagnosis by fluroscent microscopy.

Etiology and laboratory diagnosis of diseases caused by Salmonella. Vibrio. Meningococcus and hepatitis virus.

Life cycle and laboratory diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica, malarial parasite, ascaros/

Medicine :


Protein energy malnutrition.

Medical management of : Coma, cerebro-vascular accidents, status asthamaticus, cardio pulmonary arrest, status epilepticus, acute renal failure.

Clinical featues, etiology and treatment of : Coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, pneumonia, cirrhosis of liver, amoebic liver absess, peptic ulcer, pycolone-phiritis, leprosy, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, poliomyelitis, meningitis, schizophrenia.

Surgery :


Principles of surgical management of severely injured and process of fracture healing. Malignant tumours of stomach and their surgical management. Signs, symptoms, investigation and management of fractures of femur, principles of pre-operative and post-operative care.

Clinical manifestations, investigations and management of : Hydrocephalus, Buerger's disease, appendicitis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, spinabifida, brochogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, carcinoma colon.

Clinical manifestations, investigations and surgical management of : Intestinal obstruction, acute urinary retention, spinal injury, haemorrhagic shock, pneumothorax, pericardial tamponade, haemetemesis.

Preventive and Social Medicine


Principles of epidemiology, health care delivery.

Concept and general principles of prevention of disease and promotion of health. National health programmes, effects of environmental pollution on health, concept of balanced diet, family planning methods.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Philosophy



Problems of Philosophy


Substance and Attributes : Aristole, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley's criticism, Nyaya-Viasesika, Buddhist criticism of Pudgala.

God, Soul and the World : Thomas Acquinas, St. Augustine, Spinoza, Descartes, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Sankara, Ramanuja.

Universals : Realism and Nominalism (Plato, Aristotle, Berkeley's criticism of abstract ideas, Nyay-Vaisesika, Buddhism).

Bases of Knowledge : Pramanavada in Carvaka, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Buddhism, Advaita Vedanta.

Truth and Error : Correspondence Theory, Coherence theory, Pragmatic Theory; Khyativada (Anyathakhyati, Akhyati, Anivacaniyakhyati).


Matter and Mind : Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Berkerley.




Truth and Validity

Classification of sentences : Traditional and Modern.

Syllogism : Figures and Moods; Rules of Syllogism (General and special) validation by Venn Diagrames; Formal Fallacies.

Sentential Calculus : Symbolisation; Truth-Functions and their interdefinability; Truth Tables; Formal Proof.




Statement of fact and statement of value.

Right and Good; Teleology and Deontology.

Psychological Hedonism.

Utilitarianism (Bentham; J.S. Mill).

Kantian Ethics.

Problem of the freedom of will.

Moral Judgements : Descriptivism, Prescriptivism, Emotivism.

Niskamakarma : Sthitaprajna.

Jaina Ethics

Four Noble Truths and Eight fold path in Buddhism.

Gandhian Ethics : Satya, Ahimsa, Ends and Means.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Physics


1. Mechanics and Waves


Dimensional analysis. Newton's laws of motion and applications, variable mass systems, projectiles. Rotational dynamics-kinetic energy, angular momentum, theorems of moment of intertia and calculations in simple cases. Conservative forces, frictional forces. Gravitaional potential and intensity due to spherical objects. Central forces, Kepler's problem, escape velocity and artificial satellites (including GPS). Streamline motion, viscosity, Poiseuille's equation. Applications of Bernoulli's equation and Stokes' law.

Special relativity and Lorentz transformation-length contraction, time dilation, mass-energy relation.

Simple harmonic motion, Lissajous figures. Damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. Beats, Phase and group velocities. Stationary waves, vibration of strings and air columns, longitudinal waves in solids. Doppler effect. Ultrasonics and applications.

2. Geometrical and Physical Optics.


Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat's principle. Matrix method in paraxial optics- thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations. Simple optical instruments-magnifier, eyepieces, telescopes and microscopes.

Huygens' principle-reflection and refraction of waves. Interference of light-Young's experiment, Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer. Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power. Fresnel diffraction-half-period zones and zone plate. Production and detection of linearly, circularly and elliptically polarised light. Double refraction, quarter-waves plates and half-wave plates. Polarizing sheets. Optical activity and applications. Rayleigh scattering and applications.

Elements of fibre optics-attenuation; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion. Lasers, characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence. Focussing of laser beams and applciations.

3. Heat and Thermodynamics


Thermal equilibrium and temperature. The zeroth law of thermodynamics. Heat and the first law of thermodynamics. Efficiency of Carnot engines. Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. Kinetic theory and the equation of state of an ideal gas. Mean free path, distribution of molecular speeds and energies. Trasport phenomena. Andrew's experiements-van der Waals equation and applications. Joule-Kelvin effect and applications. Brownian motion. Thermodynamic potentials-Maxwell relations. Phase transitions. Kirchhoff's laws. Black-body radiation-Stefan-Boltzmann law, spectral radiancy, Wien displacement law, application to the cosmic microwave background radiation, Planck radiation law.

4. Electricity and Magnetism


Electric charge, Coulomb's law, electric field, Gauss' law. Electric potential, van de Graff accelerator. Capacitors, dielectrics and polarization. Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's first and second rules, resistors in series and parallel, applications to two-loop circuits. Magnietic field-Gauss'law for magnetism, atomic and nuclear magnetism, magnetic susceptibility, classification of magnetic materials. Cirulating charges, cyclotron, synchrotron. Hall effect. Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law of induction., Lenz's law. Inductance. Alternating current circuits-RC, LR, single-loop LRC circuits, impedance, resonance, power in AC circuits. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations (MKS units), electromagnetic waves, energy transport and Poynting vector.

5. Atomic and Nuclear Physics


Photoelectric effect, Einstein's photon theory. Bohr's theory of hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment, quantisation of angular momentum, electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle and applications. Zeeman effect. X-ray spectrum, Bragg's law, Bohr's theory of the Mosley plot. Compton effect, Compton wavelength. Wave nature of matter, de Broglie wavelength, wave-particle duality. Heisenberg's uncertainty relationships. Schroedinger's equation-eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of (i) particle in a box, (ii) simple harmonic oscillator and (iii) hydrogen atom. Potential step and barrier penetration. Natural and artificial radioactivity. Binding energy of nuclei, nuclear fission and fusion. Classification of elementary particles and their interactions.

6. Electronics


Diodes in half-waves and full-wave rectification, qualitative ideas of semiconductors, p type and n type semiconductors, junction diode, Zener diode, transistors, binary numbers, Logic gates and truth tables, Elements of microprocessors and computers.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Political Science




Political Science: Nature & scope of the discipline, relationship with allied disciplines like History, Economics, Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology.

>Meaning of Politics: Approaches to the study of Politics.

Key Concepts: State, Soceity, Sovereignty, Power, Citizenship, Nation, Global order and Imperialism.

Political Ideas: Rights, Liberty, Equality, Justice, Rule of Law. Civil Soceity Swaraj, Revolution, Democratic Participation.

Democracy: Meaning and Theories of Democracy, Electoral system, Forms of Representation & Participation, Political accountability.

Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Marxism, Socialism, Fascism, Gandhism.


Party System and Political Process: Therories of Party System, National and regional parties, Political Parties in the Third World. Patterns of coalition politics, interest and pressure groups.

Forms of Government: Parliamentary and Presidential. Federal & unitary Modes of decentralisation.

Bureaucracy Concep: Theories, Weber and critiques of Bureaucracy.

Theories of Developmen: Meaning and various approaches. Concept and Theories of underdevelopment Debates in the Third World.

Social Movements: Meaning, Theories & Forms, Role of Environmental Feminist Peasant & workers movements, Role of Non Government organisation.

Nationalism and Internationalism:

Major theories of International relations: Realist Marxist, Systems & Decision making & Game theory.

State & the Global order: Neo-Liberalism, globalisation, structural adjustment, regional economic integration, Nature and Impact of globalisation.


Indian Government and politics


Approaches to the study of Governments: Comparative historical, legal institutional, political economy and political sociology, approaches.

Classification of Political systems: Democratic and Authoritarian, characteristics of Political systems in the third world.

Typologies of constitutions; Basic features of these constitutions & governments : including U.K., USA. France, Germany, China, and South Africa.

Constitutional development: in India during British Rule-A historical perspective.

Constituent Assembly: philosophical and socio-economic dimensions. Salient features of the Indian Constitution.

Nature of Indian federalism: Centre-state relations, legislative, administrative, financial and political; politics of regional move and National Integration.

Fundamental Rights: Constitutional provisions and political dynamics. Judicial Interpretations and socio political realities; Fundamental Duties.

The Union Executive: President, Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, Constitutional provisions & framework and political trends.

Parliament: Powers and functions of the Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha; Parliamentary Committees; Functioning of the Parliamentary system in India.

The Judiciary The Supreme Court , Judicial Review Judicial Activism, Public Intrest Litigation; Judicial Reforms.

The State Executive: Governor, Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers; Constitutional Provisions and Political trends.

Indian Party System: Evolution and Contemporay trends; coalition government at the Centre and States, pressure groups in Indian politics.

The interaction of Government & Scientific & Technology business : Previous and now their inter relationship and changing roles in Society, Elites, Role of Pressure groups class and voluntary associations in society.

Local Government & Politics : Panchayti Raj and Municipal Government, structure power & functions. Political realities, significance of 73rd and 74th Amendements, role of women in Panchayats.

Bureaucracy and Development : Post-colonial India; its changing role in the context of liberatis after, bureauratic Accountability.

Challenges to Indian Democracy :

Communalism Regionalism violence, criminalisation and corruption.

Regional disparities, environmental degradation, illiteracy, Mass Poverty, Population, growth, caste oppressions and socio economic inequalities among backward classes.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Psychology


1. Introduction to psychology :


Concept and definition of psychology. Nature and Scope. Branches of psychology. Application of psychology to soceity and social problems.

2. Methods in Psychology :


Characteristics of psychological studies, Observation. Survey method, Clinical and case study method. Experimental method. Application of the method.

3. Quantitive Analysis :


Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Correlation. Levels of measurement. Reliability and validity. Application in test construction.

4. Physiological Psychology :


Structure of neuron, nerve impulses, synapse and neurotransmitters. Central and peripheral nervous system-structure and neural control of behaviour. Hemispheric specialisation. Endocrine system and hormonal control of behaviour. Application of hemispheric knowledge to diagnostic purposes.

5. Development of human behaviour :


Individual Differences : Heredity and environment. Life span developent. Role of early experience and mastering of developmental tasks. Sensitive or critical periods of development in human life cycle and its application.

6. Perception :


Preceptual processes. Perceputal organsiation. Perception of form, colour, depth and time. Perceptual readiness and constancy. Role of motivation, social and cultural factors in perception. Application of knowledge of perception to skill development (e.g. for certain jobs like that of driving, airline pilots etc.)

7. Learning :


Classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Modeling and observational learning. Transfer of training. Learing and motivation. Application of the above to the improvement of academic performance in education.

8. Memory :


Physiological basis of memory. Memory and forgetting. Measurement of memory (Recall, Recognition, Relearning). Short term and long term memory. Theories of forgetting (Decay and Interference theories and Repressive forgetting). Application of Mnemonic devices etc, to improving memory.

9. Cognition and Language :


Concept of formation. Nature and development of thinking. Language and thought and acquisition of language. Problem solving. Creative thinking and its applications.

10. Intelligence and Aptitude :


Definition and concept. Theories and models of Intelligence. Measurement of intelligence and aptitude. Exceptional intelligence. Mental retardation. Concepts of multiple, emotional and artificial intelligence and their application.

11. Motivation and Emotion :


Definition and concept of instinct, needs, drives and motives. Theories of motivation and their application (drive reduction theory, Maslow's motivational hierarchy). Social motivation: Achievement, power, affiliation motives and influence of early experiences. Physiological basis of emotion. Theories of emotion (James-Lange and Cannon-Brad theories, cognitive physiological theory).

12. Personality :


Concepts and Definition of personality. Sutdy of personality (Trait, type and eclectic approaches) Development of personality (Freud, Erikson, Biological and socio-cultural determinants). Measurement of Personality (Projective tests, pencil-paper tests). Application of personality profiles in fitting a person to a job.

13. Adjustment and Stress :


Concept and definition. Factors affecting adjustment (frustration and conflict). Sources of stress and reactions to stress. Coping with stress. Application of stress management techniques.

14. Social Behaviour :


Socio-cultural factors and behaviour. Development of attitudes, stereotypes and prejudice, Measurement of Attidutes (Thurstone, Likert attitude scale and Bogardus Social Distance scale). Strategies for reducing prejudice and changing atitude. Person perception, implicit personality theory and integrating impressions. Application of person perception to impression management.

15. Application of Psychology :


Health and mental health (yoga, meditation and relaxation therapies). Education (Programmed learning,. self instructional learning and learning styles). Community (self help through group cohesiveness and leadership). Industry (Assessment centre approach in selection, recruitment and training). Environment (man-nature interaction, personal space concept, pollution reduction) Information technology (Application to commercial, educational and health areas).
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Public Administration


1. Introduction :


Meaning, scope and significance. Evolution and status of the discipline. Comparative Public Administration and Development Administration. Public and Private Administration: State versus market debate. New Pubic Administration. New Public Management perspective.

2. Basic concepts and principles :


Organisation, hierarchy, Unity of command, Span of control, Authority and Responsibility, Co-ordination, Centralization and Decentralization, Delegation, Supervision, Line and Staff.

3. Theories of Administration :


Scientific Management (Taylor and the Scientific Managment Movement), Classical Theory (Fayol, Urwick, Gulick and others) Bureaucratic Theory (Weber and his critics). Ideas of Mary Parker Follett and C.I. Barnard; Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others). Behavioral Approach, Systems approach.

4. Administrative Behaviour :


Decision making with special reference to H. Simon, communication and control, leadership theories. Theories of motivation (Maslow and Herzberg)

5. Accountability and Control :


The concepts of Accountability and control : Legislative, executive and judicial control. Citizen and Administration: Role of civil society, people's participation and Right to Information.

6. Administrative Systems :


Comparative administrative features of USA, Great Britain, France and Japan.

7. Personnel Administration :


Role of Civil Service in developing societies; position classification, Recuritment, Training, Promotion, Pay and Service conditions. Relations with the Political Executive; Administrative Ethics.

8. Financial Administration :


Budget: Concepts and forms. Formulation and execution of budget, deficit financing and public debt, Accounts and Audit.

9. Union Government and Administration in India. British legacy :


Constitutional context of Indian Administration; The President, Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers; Central Secretariat; Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Minister's Office, Planning Commission; Finance Commission; Election Commission; Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. Public enterprises: Patterns, role performance and impact of liberalization.

10. Civil Services in India :


Recruitment to All India and Central Services. Union Public Service Commission; Training of Civil Servants. Generalists and Specialists. Minister-Civil Servant relationship.

11. State and District Administration :


Governor, Chief Minister, Secretariat, Chief Secretary, Directorates, District Collector: changing role.

12. Local Government :


Panchayati Raj and Urban local Government: Main features, structures, finances and problem areas. 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendements.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Sociology


Unit I : Basic Concepts :


Society, community, association, institution. Culture-culture change, diffusion, Cultural-tag, Cultural relativism, ethnocentrism, acculturation.

Social Groups-primary, secondary and reference groups.

Social structure, social system, social action.

Status and role, role conflict, role set.

Norms and values-conformity and deviance.

Law and customs.

Socio-cultural processes :

socialisation, assimilation, integration, cooperation, competition, conflict, accommodation, Social distance, relative deprivation.

Unit II : Marriage, Family and Kinship :


Marriage : types and norms, marriage as contract, and as a sacrament.

Family : types, functions and changes.

Kinships : terms and usages, rules of residence, descent, inheritance.

Unit III : Social Stratification :


Forms and functions; Caste and Class. Jajmani system, purity and pollution, dominant caste, sanskritisation.

Unit IV : Types of Society :


Tribal, agrarian, industrial and post-industrial.

Unit V : Economy and Society :


Man, nature and social production, economic systems of simple and complex societies, non-economic determinants of economic behaviour, market (free) economy and controlled (planned) economy.

Unit VI : Industrial and Urban Society :


Rural-Urban Continuum, urban growth and urbanisation-town, city and metropolis; basic features of industrial society; impact of automation on society; industrialisation and environment.

Unit VII : Social Demography :


Population size, growth, composition, and distribution in India; components of population growth-births, deaths and migration; causes and consequences of population growth; population and social development; population policy.

Unit VIII : Political Processes :


Power, authority and legitimacy; political socialisation; political modernisation, pressure groups; caste and politics.

Unit IX : Weaker Sections-and Minorities :


Social justice-equal opportunity and special opportunity; protective discrimination; constitutional safeguards.

Unit X : Social Change :


Theories of change; factors of change; science, technology and change. Social movements-Peasant Movement, Women's Movement, Backward Caste Movement, Dalit Movement.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Statistics




Random experiment, sample space, event, algebra of events, probability on a discrete sample space, basic theorems of probability and simple examples based there on, conditional probability of an event, independent events, Bayes' theorem and its application, discrete and continuous random variables and their distributions, expectation, moments, moment generating function, joint distribution of two or more random variables, marginal and conditional distributions, independence of random variables, covariance, correlation, coefficient, distribution of function of random variables. Bernoulli, binomial, geometric, negative binomial, hypergeometric, Poisson, multinomial, uniform, beta, exponential, gamma, Cauchy, normal, longnormal and bivariate normal distributions, real-life situations where these distributions provide appropriate models, Chebyshev's inequality, weak law of large numbers and central limit theorem for independent and identically distributed random variables with finite variance and their simple applications.

Statistical Methods


Concept of a statistical population and a sample, types of data, presentation and summarization of data, measures of central tendency, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, measures of association and contingency, correlation, rank correlation, intraclass correlation, correlation ratio, simple and multiple linear regression, multiple and partial correlations (involving three variables only), curve-fitting and principle of least squares, concepts of random sample, parameter and statistic, Z, X2, t and F statistics and their properties and applications, distributions of sample range and median (for continuous distributions only), censored sampling (concept and illustrations).

Statistical Inference


Unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency, sufficiency, Completeness, minimum variance unbiased estimation, Rao-Blackwell theorem, Lehmann-Scheffe theorem, Cramer-Rao inequality and minimum variance bound estimator, moments, maximum likelihood, least squares and minimum chisquare methods of estimation, properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators, idea of a random interval, confidence intervals for the paramters of standard distributions, shortest confidence intervals, large-sample confidence intervals.

Simple and composite hypotheses, two kinds of errors, level of significance, size and power of a test, desirable properties of a good test, most powerful test, Neyman-Pearson lemma and its use in simple example, uniformly most powerful test, likelihood ratio test and its properties and applications.

Chi-square test, sign test, Wald-Wolfowitz runs test, run test for randomness, median test, Wilcoxon test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test.

Wal's sequential probability ratio test, OC and ASN functions, application to binomial and normal distributions.

Loss function, risk function, minimax and Bayes rules.

Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments


Complete enumeration vs. sampling, need for sampling, basic concepts in sampling, designing large-scale sample surveys, sampling and non-sampling errors, simple random sampling, properties of a good estimator, estimation of sample size, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling, cluster sampling, ratio and regression methods of estimaton under simple and stratified random sampling, double sampling for ratio and regression methods of estimation, two-stage sampling with equal-size first-stage units.

Analysis of variance with equal number of observations per cell in one, two and three-way classifications, analysis of covariance in one and two-way classifications, basic priniciples of experimental designs, completely randomized design, randomized block design, latin square design, missing plot technique, 2n factorial design, total and partial confounding, 32 factorial experiments, split-plot design and balanced incomplete block design.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) - Zoology


I. Cell structure and function:


Prokaryote and eukaryote.

Structure of animal cell, structure and functions of cell organelles.

Cell cycle-mitosis, meiosis.

Structure and contents of nucleus including nuclear membrane, structure of chromsome and gene, chemistry of genetic components.

Mendel's laws of inheritance, linkage and genetic recombination; cytoplasmic inheritance.

Function of gene: replication, transcription and translation; mutations (spontaneous and artificial); Recombinant DNA: principle and application.

sex determination in Drosophila and man; sex linkage in man.

II. Systematics :


Classification of non-chordates (up to sub-classes) and chordates (up to orders) giving general features and evolutionary relationship of the following phyla:

Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematheliminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Minor Phyla (Bryozoa, Phoronida and Chaetognatha) and Hemichordata.

Structure reprodcution and life history of the following types:

Amoeba, Monocystis, Plasmodium, Paramaecium, Sycon, Hydra, Obelia, Fasciola, Taenia, Ascaris, Neanthes, Pheretima, Hirudinia, Palaemon, Buthus, Periplaneta, Lamellidens, Pila, Asterias and Balanoglossus.

Classification of chordates (up to orders), giving general features and evolutionary relationship of the following:

Protochordata; Agnatha; Gnathostomata-Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia.

Comparative functional anatomy of the following based on type animals (Scoliodon, Rana, Calotes, Columba and Oryctolagus): integrument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches, urinogenital system; brain and sense organs (eye and ear); endocrine glands and other hormone producing structures, (Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) their function.

III. Vertebrate Physiology and Biochemistry :


Chemical composition of protoplasm; nature and function of enzymes; vitamins, their sources and role; colloids and hydrogen ion concentration; biological oxidation, electron trasport and role of ATP, enegetics, glycolysis, citric acid cycle; vertebrate hormones: their type, sources and fucntions; pheromones and their role.

Neuron and nerve impulse-conduction and transmission across synapses; neurotrasmitters and their role, including acetyl cholinesterase activity.

Homeostasis; osmoregulation; active transport and ion pump.

Composition of carbohydrates, fats, lipids and proteins; steroids.

IV. Embryology :


Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage; gastrulation in frog and chick

Metamorphosis in frog and retrogressive metamorphosis in ascidian; extra-embryonic membranes in chick and mammal; placentation in mamals; Biogenetic law.

V. Evolution :


Origin of life; principles, theories and evidences of evolution; species concept.

Zoogeographical realms, insular fauna; geological eras.

Evolution of man; evolutionary status of man.

VI. Ecology, Wildlife and Ethology :


Abiotic and biotic factors; concept of ecosystem, food chain and energy flow; adaptation of aquatic, terrestrial and aerial fauna; intra-and inter-specific animal relationships; environmental pollution: Types, sources, causes, control and prevention.

Wildlife of India; endangered species of India; sanctuaries and national parks of India.

Biological rhythms.

VII. Economic Zoology :


Beneficial and harmful insects including insect vectors of human diseases.

Industrial fish, prawn and molluscs of India.

Non-poisonous and poisonous snakes of India.

Venomous animals-centipede, wasp, honey bee.

Diseases causd by aberrant chromosomes/genes in man; genetic counselling; DNA as a tool for forensic investigation.


Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Agriculture - Paper - II
Paper – I

Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production.

Agro ecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans. Climate change – International conventions and global initiatives.

Green house effect and global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems.

Organic and Precision farming. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.

Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests.

Propagation of forest plants. Forest products. Agro forestry and value addition. Conservation of forest flora and fauna.

Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds.

Soil- physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of India.

Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants.

Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations, integrated nutrient management. Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils.

Efficient phosphorus and potassium use. Problem soils and their reclamation. Soil factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.

Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management. Dry land agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rain fed areas.

Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water.

Rainwater harvesting. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of waterlogged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution. Irrigation projects in India.

Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems.

Marketing management – strategies for development, market intelligence. Price fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop Insurance.

Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers.

Training programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in dissemination of Agricultural technologies. Non Government Organization (NGO) and self- help group approach for rural development.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science - Paper - II

1. Animal Nutrition:

1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods.

Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool, and meat production.

1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships. Evaluation of protein quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production.

1.3 Major and trace minerals - Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fat-soluble and water – soluble vitamins in the body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.

1.4 Feed additives – methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics – latest concepts.

1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed technology and feed processing. Anti – nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and quality control.

Digestibility trials – direct, indirect and indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.

1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls.

Strategies for feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.

1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.

1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.

2. Animal Physiology:

2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in health and disease.

2.2 Blood constituents.-Properties and functions-blood cell formation-Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood;Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume-Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.

2.3 Circulation. - Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms. Work and efficiency of heart-effect of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock.

Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal fluid- circulation in birds.

2.4 Respiration. - Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases –neural control of respiration-chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.

2.5 Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance: physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Bio-chemical test for urinary dysfunction.

2.6 Endocrine glands. -Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion- hormonal receptors-classification and function.

2.7 Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.

2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion- Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection, Male and Female reproductive organs, their components and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.

2.9 Environmental Physiology- Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour, climatology – various parameters and their importance.

Animal ecology. Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production.

3. Animal Reproduction:

Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination- Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro.

Factors affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen.

Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat breeding.

4. Livestock Production and Management:

4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming- Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized farming, economic dairy farming.

Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal.

Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm.

Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records.

4.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production- Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry.

Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimes for young and mature stock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital and land requirements and socio- economic concept.

4.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities.

5. Genetics and Animal Breeding:

History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis: Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome aberrations; Cytoplasmic inheritance.

Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate. Transgenesis.

5.1 Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding, Effective population size; Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; Partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives.

5.2 Breeding Systems- Breeds of livestsock and Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated response; Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production; Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire index.

6. Extension:

Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback.

Problems and constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Anthropology - Paper - II

1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:

1. Social- cultural Anthropology.
2. Biological Anthropology.
3. Archaeological Anthropology.
4. Linguistic Anthropology.

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:

1. Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.

2. Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).

1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:

1. Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa - Australopithecines.
Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
3. Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
4. Rhodesian man.
5. Homo sapiens -- Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.

1.7 The biological basis of life: The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.


1. Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
2. Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
1. Paleolithic
2. Mesolithic
3. Neolithic
4. Chalcolithic
5. Copper-Bronze Age
6. Iron Age

2.1 The Nature of Culture: The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.

2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.

2.3 Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

2.4 Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.

2.5 Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.

3. Economic organization: Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

4. Political organization and Social Control: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.

5. Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

6. Anthropological theories:

1. Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
2. Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
3. Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
4. Structuralism (L’evi - Strauss and E. Leach)
5. Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora - du Bois).
6. Neo - evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
7. Cultural materialism (Harris)
8. Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
9. Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
10. Post- modernism in anthropology

7. Culture, language and communication: Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.

8. Research methods in anthropology:

1. Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
2. Distinction between technique, method and methodology
Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
4. Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

9.1 Human Genetics – Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

1. Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
2. Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
3. Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
4. Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes.

Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

10. Concept of human growth and development: stages of growth - pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.

Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.

Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations - biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2 Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Botany - Paper - II

1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology:

Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis.

Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.

2. Cryptogams:

Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes - structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.

3. Phanerogams:

Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymnosperms; Classification and distribution of gymnosperms; Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction; General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques.

Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.

Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.

Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families – Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae.

Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.

Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm - its development and function; Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony and apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.

4. Plant Resource Development:

Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants; Vavilov’s centres of origin; Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibre, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes, latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

5. Morphogenesis:

Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and dfferentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture; Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Chemistry - Paper - II

1. Atomic Structure:

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

2. Chemical Bonding:

Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments; Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy; Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in H2+, H2, He2+ to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, and CN–; Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.

3. Solid State:

Crystal systems; Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell; Bragg's law; X-ray diffraction by crystals; Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values; Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl and CaF2; Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.

4. The Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon:

Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions and critical phenomena and liquefaction of gases, Maxwell's distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion; Thermal conductivity and viscosity of ideal gases.

5. Liquid State:

Kelvin equation; Surface tension and surface energy, wetting and contact angle, interfacial tension and capillary action.

6. Thermodynamics:

Work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics.

Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various processes, entropy–reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; Thermodynamic equation of state; Maxwell relations; Temperature, volume and pressure dependence of U, H, A, G, Cp and Cv, a and ß; J-T effect and inversion temperature; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem, introductory idea of third law of thermodynamics.

7. Phase Equilibria and Solutions:

Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids–upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.

8. Electrochemistry:

Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.

Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.

Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques: Polarography, amperometry, ion selective electrodes and their uses.

9. Chemical Kinetics:

Differential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions; Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; branching chain and explosions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant; Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods; Collisions and transition state theories.

10. Photochemistry:

Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.

11. Surface Phenomena and Catalysis:

Absorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents, Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.

12. Bio-inorganic Chemistry:

Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.

13. Coordination Compounds:

Bonding theories of metal complexes; Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spectra of metal complexes.
Isomerism in coordination compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
EAN rule, Synthesis structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization; Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

14. Main Group Chemistry:

Boranes, borazines, phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene, silicates and silicones, Interhalogen compounds; Sulphur – nitrogen compounds, noble gas compounds.

15. General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Elements:

Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Civil Engineering - Paper - II

1. Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis:

1.1 Engineering Mechanics:

Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.

First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.

Static Friction.

Kinematics and Kinetics:

Kinematics in Cartesian Co-ordinates, motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration, motion under gravity.

Kinetics of particle: Momentum and Energy principles, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.

1.2 Strength of Materials:

Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength.

Deflection of beams: Macaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant formulae.

1.3 Structural Analysis:

Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution,

Rolling loads and Influences lines: Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of beam.

Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.

Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects.

Matrix methods of analysis: Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Plastic Analysis of beams and frames: Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method.

Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principle axes, calculation of bending stresses.

2. Design of Structures: Steel, Concrete and Masonry Structures:

2.1 Structural Steel Design:

Structural Steel: Factors of safety and load factors. Riveted, bolted and welded joints and connections.

Design of tension and compression member, beams of built up section, riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.

2.2 Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures:

Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete:
Working Stress and Limit State method of design–Recommendations of I.S.

Codes Design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections.

Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls.

Water tanks: Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.

Prestressed concrete: Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.

Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes

3. Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines:

3.1 Fluid Mechanics:

Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curved surfaces.

Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow: Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions.

Continuity, momentum and energy equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, sluice gates, weirs.

3.2 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude:

Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters.

3.3 Laminar Flow:

Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.

3.4 Boundary layer:

Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub layer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.

Turbulent flow through pipes: Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line.

3.5 Open channel flow:

Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation.

3.6 Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower:

Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.

Principles of hydropower development.

4. Geotechnical Engineering:

Soil Type and structure – gradation and particle size distribution – consistency limits.

Water in soil – capillary and structural – effective stress and pore water pressure – permeability concept – field and laboratory determination of permeability – Seepage pressure – quick sand conditions – Shear strength determination – Mohr Coulomb concept.

Compaction of soil – Laboratory and field tests.

Compressibility and consolidation concept – consolidation theory – consolidation settlement analysis.

Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining walls, Application for sheet piles and Braced excavation.

Bearing capacity of soil – approaches for analysis – Field tests – settlement analysis – stability of slope of earth walk.

Subsurface exploration of soils – methods

Foundation – Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures – Design criteria for foundation – Analysis of distribution of stress for footings and pile – pile group action-pile load test.

Ground improvement techniques.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Commerce and Accountancy - Paper - II

Accounting, Taxation & Auditing

1. Financial Accounting:

Accounting as a Financial Information System; Impact of Behavioural Sciences. Accounting Standards e.g., Accounting for Depreciation, Inventories, Research and Development Costs, Long-term Construction Contracts, Revenue Recognition, Fixed Assets, Contingencies, Foreign Exchange Transactions, Investments and Government Grants, Cash Flow Statement, Earnings Per Share.

Accounting for Share Capital Transactions including Bonus Shares, Right Shares, Employees Stock Option and Buy- Back of Securities.

Preparation and Presentation of Company Final Accounts.Amalgamation, Absorption and Reconstruction of Companies.

2. Cost Accounting:

Nature and Functions of Cost Accounting.

Installation of Cost Accounting System. Cost Concepts related to Income Measurement, Profit Planning, Cost Control and Decision Making.

Methods of Costing: Job Costing, Process Costing, Activity Based Costing.

Volume – cost – Profit Relationship as a tool of Profit Planning.

Incremental Analysis/ Differential Costing as a Tool of Pricing Decisions, Product Decisions, Make or Buy Decisions, Shut-Down Decisions etc.

Techniques of Cost Control and Cost Reduction: Budgeting as a Tool of Planning and Control. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis.

Responsibility Accounting and Divisional Performance Measurement.

3. Taxation:

Income Tax: Definitions; Basis of Charge; Incomes which do not form Part of Total Income.

Simple problems of Computation of Income (of Individuals only) under Various Heads, i.e., Salaries, Income from House Property, Profits and Gains from Business or Profession, Capital Gains, Income from other sources, Income of other Persons included in Assessee's Total Income .

Set - Off and Carry Forward of Loss.

Deductions from Gross Total Income.

Salient Features/Provisions Related to VAT and Services Tax.

4. Auditing:

Company Audit: Audit related to Divisible Profits, Dividends, Special investigations, Tax audit.

Audit of Banking, Insurance, Non-Profit Organizations and Charitable Societies/Trusts/Organizations.

Financial Management, Financial Institutions and Markets

1. Financial Management:

Finance Function: Nature, Scope and Objectives of Financial Management: Risk and Return Relationship.

Tools of Financial Analysis: Ratio Analysis, Funds-Flow and Cash-Flow Statement.

Capital Budgeting Decisions: Process, Procedures and Appraisal Methods. Risk and Uncertainty Analysis and Methods.

Cost of capital: Concept, Computation of Specific Costs and Weighted Average Cost of Capital. CAPM as a Tool of Determining Cost of Equity Capital.

Financing Decisions: Theories of Capital Structure - Net Income (NI) Approach, Net Operating Income (NOI) Approach, MM Approach and Traditional Approach.

Designing of Capital structure: Types of Leverages (Operating, Financial and Combined), EBIT- EPS Analysis, and other Factors.

Dividend Decisions and Valuation of Firm: Walter’s Model, MM Thesis, Gordan’s Model Lintner’s Model. Factors Affecting Dividend Policy.

Working Capital Management: Planning of Working Capital. Determinants of Working Capital. Components of Working Capital - Cash, Inventory and Receivables.

Corporate Restructuring with focus on Mergers and Acquisitions (Financial aspects only)

2. Financial Markets and Institutions:

Indian Financial System: An Overview

Money Markets: Participants, Structure and Instruments. Commercial Banks. Reforms in Banking sector. Monetary and Credit Policy of RBI. RBI as a Regulator.

Capital Market: Primary and Secondary Market. Financial Market Instruments and Innovative Debt Instruments; SEBI as a Regulator.

Financial Services: Mutual Funds, Venture Capital, Credit Rating Agencies, Insurance and IRDA
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Electrical Engineering - Paper - II

1. Circuit Theory:

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits; Two-port networks.

2. Signals & Systems:

Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations.

Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

3. E.M. Theory:

Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves.

Transmission line: travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.

4. Analog Electronics:

Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers.

Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits.

Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.

5. Digital Electronics:

Boolean algebra; minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders.

Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

6. Energy Conversion:

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors; Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers.

3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and preformance analysis; speed control.

7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives:

Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters: fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

8. Analog Communication:

Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB.

Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Economics - Paper - II

1. Advanced Micro Economics:

1. Marshallian and Walrasiam Approaches to Price determination.
2. Alternative Distribution Theories: Ricardo, Kaldor, Kaleeki
3. Markets Structure: Monopolistic Competition, Duopoly, Oligopoly.
4. Modern Welfare Criteria: Pareto Hicks & Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A.K. Sen’s Social Welfare Function.

2. Advanced Macro Economics:

Approaches to Employment Income and Interest Rate determination: Classical, Keynes (IS-LM) curve, Neo classical synthesis and New classical, Theories of Interest Rate determination and Interest Rate Structure.

3. Money - Banking and Finance:

Demand for and Supply of Money: Money Multiplier Quantity Theory of Money (Fisher, Pique and Friedman) and Keyne’s Theory on Demand for Money, Goals and Instruments of Monetary Management in Closed and Open Economies. Relation between the Central Bank and the Treasury. Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money.
Public Finance and its Role in Market Economy: In stabilization of supply, allocation of resources and in distribution and development. Sources of Govt. revenue, forms of Taxes and Subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits to taxation, loans, crowding-out effects and limits to borrowings. Public Expenditure and its effects.

4. International Economics:

1. Old and New Theories of International Trade
1. Comparative Advantage
2. Terms of Trade and Offer Curve.
3. Product Cycle and Strategic Trade Theories.
4. Trade as an engine of growth” and theories of under development in an open economy.
2. Forms of Protection: Tariff and quota.
3. Balance of Payments Adjustments: Alternative Approaches.

1. Price versus income, income adjustments under fixed exchange rates,
2. Theories of Policy Mix
3. Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility
4. Floating Rates and their Implications for Developing Countries: Currency Boards.
5. Trade Policy and Developing Countries.
6. BOP, adjustments and Policy Coordination in open economy macro-model.
7. Speculative attacks
8. Trade Blocks and Monetary Unions.
9. WTO: TRIMS, TRIPS, Domestic Measures, Different Rounds of WTO talks.

5. Growth and Development:


1. Theories of growth: Harrod’s model,
2. Lewis model of development with surplus labour
3. Balanced and Unbalanced growth,
4. Human Capital and Economic Growth.
5. Research and Development and Economic Growth

(b) Process of Economic Development of Less developed countries: Myrdal and Kuzments on economic development and structural change: Role of Agriculture in Economic Development of less developed countries.

(c) Economic development and International Trade and Investment, Role of Multinationals.

(d) Planning and Economic Development: changing role of Markets and Planning, Private- Public Partnership

(e) Welfare indicators and measures of growth – Human Development Indices. The basic needs approach.

(f) Development and Environmental Sustainability – Renewable and Non Renewable Resources, Environmental Degradation, Intergenerational equity development.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - General Studies - Page II
General Guidelines:

The nature and standard of questions in the General Studies papers will be such that a well-educated person will be able to answer them without any specialized study.

The questions will be such as to test a candidate’s general awareness of a variety of subjects, which will have relevance for a career in Civil Services.

The questions are likely to test the candidate’s basic understanding of all relevant issues, and ability to analyze, and take a view on conflicting socio-economic goals, objectives and demands.

The candidates must give relevant, meaningful and succinct answers.

Paper - I

1. History of Modern India and Indian Culture

The History of Modern India will cover history of the Country from about the middle of nineteenth century and would also include questions on important personalities who shaped the freedom movement and social reforms.

The part relating to Indian culture will cover all aspects of Indian culture from the ancient to modern times as well as principal features of literature, arts and architecture.

2. Geography of India

In this part, questions will be on the physical, economic and social geography of India.

3. Constitution of India and Indian Polity

This part will include questions on the Constitution of India as well as all constitutional, legal, administrative and other issues emerging from the politico-administrative system prevalent in the country.

4. Current National Issues and Topics of Social Relevance

This part is intended to test the candidate's awareness of current national issues and topics of social relevance in present-day India, such as the following:

The Indian economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
Issues arising from the social and economic exclusion of large sections from the benefits of development.
Other issues relating to the development and management of human resource.
Health issues including the management of Public Health, Health education and ethical concerns regarding health-care, medical research and pharmaceuticals.
Law enforcement, internal security and related issues such as the preservation of communal harmony.
Issues relating to good governance and accountability to the citizens including the maintenance of human rights, and of probity in public life.
Environmental issues, ecological preservation, conservation of natural resources and national heritage.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Geography - Paper - II

Principles of Geography

Physical Geography:

Geomorphology:Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.

Climatology:Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
Oceanography:Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sea-level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
Biogeography:Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
Environmental Geography:Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography:

Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.

Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural - urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch;Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Geology - Paper - II

1. General Geology:

The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts; Earthquakes-causes, effects, Seismic zones of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drifts; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics; Isostasy.

2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing:

Basic concepts of geomorphology; Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage; Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation; Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; Hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.

Aerial photographs and their interpretation-merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum; Orbiting satellites and sensor systems; Indian Remote Sensing Satellites; Satellites data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) - its applications.

3. Structural Geology:

Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, Projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks; Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions; Folds and faults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation.

4. Paleontology:

Species- definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils; Modes of preservation of fossils; Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae; Siwalik fauna; Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance.

5. Indian Stratigraphy:

Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance; Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past; Tectonic framework of India; Evolution of the Himalayas.

6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology:

Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Groundwater chemistry; Salt water intrusion; Types of wells; Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - History - Paper - II

1. Sources:

Archaeological sources:

Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments

Literary sources:

Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2.Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization:

Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures:

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India.

Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas:

Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.

Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire:

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects.

Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs

* The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
* “Indian Feudalism”
* Agrarian economy and urban settlements
* Trade and commerce
* Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
* Condition of women
* Indian science and technology

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:

* Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
* Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
* Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
* Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15. The Thirteenth Century:

* Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success
* Economic, social and cultural consequences
* Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
* Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

16. The Fourteenth Century:

* “The Khalji Revolution”
* Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
* Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
* Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:

* Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
* The Vijayanagra Empire
* Lodis
* Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
* The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
* Portuguese Colonial enterprise
* Bhakti and Sufi Movements

19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:

* Regional cultural specificities
* Literary traditions
* Provincial architecture
* Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar:

* Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
* Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
* Rajput policy
* Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
* Court patronage of art and technology

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

* Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
* The Empire and the Zamindars
* Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
* Nature of the Mughal State
* Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
* The Ahom Kingdom
* Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:

* Population, agricultural production, craft production
* Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution
* Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
* Condition of peasants, condition of women
* Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:

* Persian histories and other literature
* Hindi and other religious literature
* Mughal architecture
* Mughal painting
* Provincial architecture and painting
* Classical music
* Science and technology

24. The Eighteenth Century:

* Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
* The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
* Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
* The Maratha fiscal and financial system
* Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
* State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Law - Paper - II
14 ."LAW"

Constitutional and Administrative Law

1. Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution.
2. Fundamental rights – Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.
3. Relationship between fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties.
4. Constitutional position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.
5. Governor and his powers.
6. Supreme Court and High Courts:

1. Appointments and transfer.
2. Powers, functions and jurisdiction.

7. Centre, States and local bodies:
1. Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.
2. Local bodies.
3. Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies.
4. Eminent domain – State property – common property – community property.
8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.
9. Services under the Union and the States:
1. Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals.
2. Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions – Power and functions
3. Election Commission – Power and functions.
10. Emergency provisions.
11. Amendment of the Constitution.
12. Principles of natural justice – Emerging trends and judicial approach.
13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.
14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.
15. Judicial review of administrative action.
16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.

International Law

1. Nature and definition of international law.
2. Relationship between international law and municipal law.
3. State recognition and state succession.
4. Law of the sea: Inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas.
5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, extradition and asylum.
7. Treaties: Formation, application, termination and reservation.
8. United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, functions and reform.
9. Peaceful settlement of disputes – different modes.
10. Lawful recourse to force: aggression, self-defence, intervention.
11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law – International conventions and contemporary developments.
12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear – non proliferation treaty, CTBT.
13. International terrorism, state sponsored terrorism, hijacking, international criminal court.
14. New international economic order and monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
15. Protection and improvement of the human environment: International efforts.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Management - Paper - II
The candidate should make a study of the concept and development of management as science and art drawing upon the contributions of leading thinkers of management and apply the concepts to the real life of government and business decision making keeping in view the changes in the strategic and operative environment.

Paper – I

1. Managerial Function and Process:


Concept and Foundations of Management, Evolution of Management Thoughts; Managerial Functions – Planning, Organizing, Controlling; Decision making; Role of Manager, Managerial skills; Entrepreneurship; Management of innovation; Managing in a global environment, Flexible Systems Management; Social responsibility and managerial ethics; Process and customer orientation; Managerial processes on direct and indirect value chain.

2. Organisational Behaviour and Design:


Conceptual model of organization behaviour; The individual processes – personality, values and attitude, perception, motivation, learning and reinforcement, work stress and stress management; The dynamics of organization behaviour – power and politics, conflict and negotiation, leadership process and styles, communication; The Organizational Processes - decision making, job design; Classical, Neoclassical and Contingency approaches to organizational design; Organizational theory and design - organizational culture, managing cultural diversity, learning organization; organizational change and development; Knowledge Based Enterprise – systems and processes; Networked and virtual organizations.

3. Human Resource Management:


HR challenges; HRM functions; The future challenges of HRM; Strategic Management of human resources; Human resource planning; Job analysis; Job evaluation; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Promotion and transfer; Performance management; Compensation management and benefits; Employee morale and productivity; Management of organizational climate and Industrial relations; Human resources accounting and audit; Human resource information system; International human resource management.

4. Accounting for Managers:


Financial accounting – concept, importance and scope, generally accepted accounting principles, preparation of financial statements with special reference to analysis of a balance sheet and measurement of business income, inventory valuation and depreciation, financial statement analysis, fund flow analysis, the statement of cash flows; Management accounting – concept, need, importance and scope; Cost accounting – records and processes, cost ledger and control accounts, reconciliation and integration between financial and cost accounts; Overhead cost and control, Job and process costing, Budget and budgetary control, Performance budgeting, Zero-base budgeting, relevant costing and costing for decision-making, standard costing and variance analysis, marginal costing and absorption costing.

5. Financial Management:


Goals of finance function; Concepts of value and return; Valuation of bonds and shares; Management of working capital: Estimation and financing; Management of cash, receivables, inventory and current liabilities; Cost of capital; Capital budgeting; Financial and operating leverage; Design of capital structure: theories and practices; Shareholder value creation: dividend policy, corporate financial policy and strategy, management of corporate distress and restructuring strategy; Capital and money markets: institutions and instruments; Leasing, hire purchase and venture capital; Regulation of capital market; Risk and return: portfolio theory; CAPM; APT; Financial derivatives: option, futures, swap; Recent reforms in financial sector.

6. Marketing Management:


Concept, evolution and scope; Marketing strategy formulation and components of marketing plan; Segmenting and targeting the market; Positioning and differentiating the market offering; Analyzing competition; Analyzing consumer markets; Industrial buyer behaviour; Market research; Product strategy; Pricing strategies; Designing and managing Marketing channels; Integrated marketing communications; Building customer satisfaction, Value and retention; Services and non-profit marketing; Ethics in marketing; Consumer protection; Internet marketing; Retail management; Customer relationship management; Concept of holistic marketing.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Mathematics - Paper - II
(1) Linear Algebra:


Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimension; Linear transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation.

Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruence’s and similarity; Rank of a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution of system of linear equations; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, characteristic polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Symmetric, skew-symmetric, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian, orthogonal and unitary matrices and their eigenvalues.

(2) Calculus:


Real numbers, functions of a real variable, limits, continuity, differentiability, mean-value theorem, Taylor's theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima, asymptotes;

* Curve tracing; Functions of two or three variables: limits, continuity, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange's method of multipliers, Jacobian.

Riemann's definition of definite integrals; Indefinite integrals; Infinite and improper integrals; Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only); Areas, surface and volumes.

(3) Analytic Geometry:


Cartesian and polar coordinates in three dimensions, second degree equations in three variables, reduction to canonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines; Plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.

(4) Ordinary Differential Equations:


Formulation of differential equations; Equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor; Orthogonal trajectory; Equations of first order but not of first degree, Clairaut's equation, singular solution.

Second and higher order linear equations with constant coefficients, complementary function, particular integral and general solution.

Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, Euler-Cauchy equation; Determination of complete solution when one solution is known using method of variation of parameters.

Laplace and Inverse Laplace transforms and their properties; Laplace transforms of elementary functions. Application to initial value problems for 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients.

(5) Dynamics & Statics:


Rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles; constrained motion; Work and energy, conservation of energy; Kepler's laws, orbits under central forces.

Equilibrium of a system of particles; Work and potential energy, friction; common catenary; Principle of virtual work; Stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.

(6) Vector Analysis:


Scalar and vector fields, differentiation of vector field of a scalar variable; Gradient, divergence and curl in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates; Higher order derivatives; Vector identities and vector equations.

Application to geometry: Curves in space, Curvature and torsion; Serret-Frenet’s formulae.

Gauss and Stokes’ theorems, Green’s identities.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Mechanical Engineering - Paper - II

1. Mechanics:


Mechanics of rigid bodies:

Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics.

Mechanics of deformable bodies:

Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design problems on axial stress, shear stress and bearing stress; material properties for dynamic loading; bending shear and stresses in beams;. determination of principle stresses and strains - analytical and graphical; compound and combined stresses; bi-axial stresses - thin walled pressure vessel; material behaviour and design factors for dynamic load; design of circular shafts for bending and torsional load only; deflection of beam for statically determinate problems; theories of failure.

2. Engineering Materials:


Basic concepts on structure of solids; common ferrous and non-ferrous materials and their applications; heat-treatment of steels; non-metals- plastics, ceramics, composite materials and nano-materials.

3. Theory of Machines:


Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms. Cams, Gears and epicyclic gear trains, flywheels, governors, balancing of rigid rotors, balancing of single and multicylinder engines, linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts.

4. Manufacturing Science:


Manufacturing Process:

Machine tool engineering – Merchant’s force analysis; Taylor’s tool life equation; conventional machining; NC and CNC machining process; jigs and fixtures.

Non-conventional machining – EDM, ECM, ultrasonic, water jet machining etc; application of lasers and plasmas; energy rate calculations.

Forming and welding processes- standard processes.

Metrology - concept of fits and tolerances; tools and gauges; comparators; inspection of length; position; profile and surface finish.

Manufacturing Management:

System design: factory location- simple OR models; plant layout - methods based; applications of engineering economic analysis and break- even analysis for product selection, process selection and capacity planning; predetermined time standards.

System planning; forecasting methods based on regression and decomposition, design and balancing of multi model and stochastic assembly lines; inventory management – probabilistic inventory models for order time and order quantity determination; JIT systems; strategic sourcing; managing inter plant logistics.

System operations and control: Scheduling algorithms for job shops; applications of statistical methods for product and process quality control - applications of control charts for mean, range, percent defective, number of defectives and defects per unit; quality cost systems; management of resources, organizations and risks in projects.

System improvement: Implementation of systems, such as total quality management, developing and managing flexible, lean and agile organizations.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Medical Science - Paper - II
1. Human Anatomy:


Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee.

Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus

Applied anatomy of diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region.

Clinical anatomy of kidney, urinary bladder, uterine tubes, vas deferens.

Embryology: Placenta and placental barrier. Development of heart, gut, kidney, uterus, ovary, testis and their common congenital abnormalities.

Central and peripheral autonomic nervous system: Gross and clinical anatomy of ventricles of brain, circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; Neural pathways and lesions of cutaneous sensations, hearing and vision; Cranial nerves, distribution and clinical significance; Components of autonomic nervous system.

2. Human Physiology:


Conduction and transmission of impulse, mechanism of contraction, neuromuscular transmission, reflexes, control of equilibrium, posture and muscle tone, descending pathways, functions of cerebellum, basal ganglia, Physiology of sleep and consciousness.

Endocrine system: Mechanism of action of hormones, formation, secretion, transport, metabolism, function and regulation of secretion of pancreas and pituitary gland.

Physiology of reproductive system: menstrual cycle, lactation, pregnancy.

Blood: Development, regulation and fate of blood cells.

Cardio-vascular, cardiac output, blood pressure, regulation of cardiovascular functions;

3. Biochemistry:


Organ function tests-liver, kidney, thyroid

Protein synthesis.

Vitamins and minerals.

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Radio - immunoassays (RIA).

4. Pathology:


Inflammation and repair, disturbances of growth and cancer, Pathogenesis and histopathology of rheumatic and ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Differentiation between benign, malignant, primary and metastatic malignancies, Pathogenesis and histopathology of bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, oral cancer, cancer cervix, leukemia, Etiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of - cirrhosis liver, glomerulonephritis, tuberculosis, acute osteomyelitis.

5. Microbiology:


Humoral and cell mediated immunity

Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of-

Meningococcus, Salmonella

Shigella, Herpes, Dengue, Polio

HIV/AIDS, Malaria, E. Histolytica, Giardia

Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus

6. Pharmacology:


Mechanism of action and side effects of the following drugs

Antipyretics and analgesics, Antibiotics, Antimalaria; Antikala-azar,Antidiabetics

Antihypertensive, Antidiuretics, General and cardiac vasodilators, Antiviral, Antiparasitic, Antifungal, Immunosuppressants


7. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology:


Forensic examination of injuries and wounds; Examination of blood and seminal stains; poisoning, sedative overdose, hanging, drowning, burns, DNA and finger print study.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Philosophy - Paper - II

History and Problems of Philosophy:


Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.

Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.

Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.

Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God


Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism

Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.

Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.

Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.

Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.

Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.

Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.

Carvaka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.

Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhanginaya; Bondage and Liberation.

Schools of Buddhism: Pratityasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada

Nyaya- Vaisesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.

Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation

Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.

Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge

Schools of Vedanta: Brahman; Isvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda

Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Physics - Paper - II

1. (a) Mechanics of Particles:


Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass and laboratory reference frames.

(b) Mechanics of Rigid Bodies:


System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum and angular momentum; Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid body; Degrees of freedom, Euler’s theorem, angular velocity.


Angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, equation of motion for rotation; Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di and tri-atomic molecules; Precessional motion; top, gyroscope.

(c) Mechanics of Continuous Media:


Elasticity, Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Stokes’ law and applications.

(d) Special Relativity:


Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy relation, simple applications to a decay process; Four dimensional momentum vector; Covariance of equations of physics.

2. Waves and Optics:

(a) Waves:


Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance; Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses and wave packets; Phase and group velocities; Reflection and Refraction from Huygens' principle.

(b) Geometrical Optics:


Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat's principle; Matrix method in paraxial optics-thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.

(c) Interference:


Interference of light-Young's experiment, Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer.

(d) Diffraction:


Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern; Fresnel diffraction: half-period zones and zone plates, circular aperture.

(e) Polarization and Modern Optics:


Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light; Double refraction, quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fibre optics, attenuation; Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; Material dispersion, single mode fibres; Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients; Ruby and He-Ne lasers; Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams; Three-level scheme for laser operation; Holography and simple applications.

3. Electricity and Magnetism:

(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics:


Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications; Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential; Method of images and its applications; Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field; Dielectrics, polarization; Solutions to boundary-value problems-conducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.

(b) Current Electricity:


Kirchhoff's laws and their applications; Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Lenz' law; Self-and mutual-inductances; Mean and r m s values in AC circuits; DC and AC circuits with R, L and C components; Series and parallel resonances; Quality factor; Principle of transformer.

(c) Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation:


Displacement current and Maxwell's equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell's equations; Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics; Fresnel's relations; Total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion; Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation and Planck’s radiation law, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans’ law.

4. Thermal and Statistical Physics:

(a) Thermodynamics:


Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy; Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes; Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs' phase rule and chemical potential; van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants; Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems; Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and Debye's theories of specific heat of solids; Maxwell relations and applications; Clausius- Clapeyron equation; Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.

(b) Statistical Physics:


Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Psychology - Paper - II
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Political Science and International Relations

Political Theory and Indian Politics:


Political Theory: meaning and approaches.

Theories of the State: Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist.

Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.

Equality: Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.

Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights.


Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy – representative, participatory and deliberative.

Concept of power, hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.

Indian Political Thought : Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy .


Foundations of Psychology

1. Introduction:


Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.

2. Methods of Psychology:


Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental design, Quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.

3. Research Methods:


Major steps in Psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing) Fundamental versus applied research; Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire); Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental); Application of statistical technique (t - test, two way ANOVA correlation, regression and factor analysis); Item response theory.

4. Development of Human Behaviour:


Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development - Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span.

5. Sensation, Attention and Perception:


Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception.

6. Learning:


Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models); The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization; Programmed learning, probability learning, self-instructional learning, concepts; Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modeling and social learning.

7. Memory:


Encoding and remembering; Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.

8. Thinking and Problem Solving:


Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgment; Recent trends.

9. Motivation and Emotion:


Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.

10. Intelligence and Aptitude:


Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence - Spearman, Thurstone, Gullford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P; Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

11. Personality:


Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, socio-cultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.

12. Attitudes, Values and Interests:


Definition of attitudes, values and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes; Measurement of attitudes, values and interests; Theories of attitude change; Strategies for fostering values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour; Theories of attribution; Recent trends.

13. Language and Communication:


Human language - Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development - Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication - effective communication training.

14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology:


Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception Simulation studies.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Public Administration - Paper - II
1. Introduction:


Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration; Wilson’s vision of Public Administration; Evolution of the discipline and its present status; New Public Administration; Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management.

2. Administrative Thought:


Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Weber’s bureaucratic model – its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simon’s decision-making theory; Participative Management (R. Likert, C.Argyris, D.McGregor).

3. Administrative Behaviour:


Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories – content, process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modern.

4. Organisations:


Theories – systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies, Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public - Private Partnerships.

5. Accountability and control:


Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive and Judicial control over administration; Citizen and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information; Social audit.

6. Administrative Law:


Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals.

7. Comparative Public Administration:


Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique.

8. Development Dynamics:


Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; ‘Anti-development thesis’; Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries; Women and development - the self-help group movement.

9. Personnel Administration:


Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pay and service conditions; employer-employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics.

10. Public Policy:


Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.

11. Techniques of Administrative Improvement:


Organisation and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information technology; Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.

12. Financial Administration:


Monetary and fiscal policies; Public borrowings and public debt Budgets - types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.


Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Sociology - Paper - II
Paper - I

Fundamentals of Sociology

A. Sociology - The Discipline:


Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.

Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.

Sociology and common sense.

B. Sociology as Science:


Science, scientific method and critique.

Major theoretical strands of research methodology.

Positivism and its critique.


Fact value and objectivity.

Non- positivist methodologies.

C. Research Methods and Analysis:


Qualitative and quantitative methods.

Techniques of data collection.

Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

D. Sociological Thinkers:


Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.

Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.

Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.

Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.

Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups

Mead - Self and identity.

E. Stratification and Mobility:


Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation

Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.

Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.

Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

F. Works and Economic Life:


Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.

Formal and informal organization of work

Labour and society.

G. Politics and Society:


Sociological theories of power

Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.

Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.

Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

H. Religion and Society:


Sociological theories of religion.

Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.

Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

I. Systems of Kinship:


Family, household, marriage.

Types and forms of family.

Lineage and descent

Patriarchy and sexual division of labour

Contemporary trends.

J. Social Change in Modern Society:


Sociological theories of social change.

Development and dependency.

Agents of social change.

Education and social change.

Science, technology and social change.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Statistics - Paper - II
1. Probability:


Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable function, distribution function of a random variable, discrete and continuous-type random variable, probability mass function, probability density function, vector-valued random variable, marginal and conditional distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random variables, expectation and moments of a random variable, conditional expectation, convergence of a sequence of random variable in distribution, in probability, in p-th mean and almost everywhere, their criteria and inter-relations, Chebyshev’s inequality and Khintchine‘s weak law of large numbers, strong law of large numbers and Kolmogoroff’s theorems, probability generating function, moment generating function, characteristic function, inversion theorem, Linderberg and Levy forms of central limit theorem, standard discrete and continuous probability distributions.

2. Statistical Inference:


Consistency, unbiasedness, efficiency, sufficiency, completeness, ancillary statistics, factorization theorem, exponential family of distribution and its properties, uniformly minimum variance unbiased (UMVU) estimation, Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann-Scheffe theorems, Cramer-Rao inequality for single parameter. Estimation by methods of moments, maximum likelihood, least squares, minimum chi-square and modified minimum chi-square, properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators, asymptotic efficiency, prior and posterior distributions, loss function, risk function, and minimax estimator. Bayes estimators.

Non-randomised and randomised tests, critical function, MP tests, Neyman-Pearson lemma, UMP tests, monotone likelihood ratio, similar and unbiased tests, UMPU tests for single parameter likelihood ratio test and its asymptotic distribution. Confidence bounds and its relation with tests.

Kolmogoroff’s test for goodness of fit and its consistency, sign test and its optimality. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and its consistency, Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test, run test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and median test, their consistency and asymptotic normality.

Wald’s SPRT and its properties, OC and ASN functions for tests regarding parameters for Bernoulli, Poisson, normal and exponential distributions. Wald’s fundamental identity.

3. Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis:


Linear statistical models’, theory of least squares and analysis of variance, Gauss-Markoff theory, normal equations, least squares estimates and their precision, test of significance and interval estimates based on least squares theory in one-way, two-way and three-way classified data, regression analysis, linear regression, curvilinear regression and orthogonal polynomials, multiple regression, multiple and partial correlations, estimation of variance and covariance components, multivariate normal distribution, Mahalanobis-D2 and Hotelling’s T2 statistics and their applications and properties, discriminant analysis, canonical correlations, principal component analysis.

4. Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments:


An outline of fixed-population and super-population approaches, distinctive features of finite population sampling, probability sampling designs, simple random sampling with and without replacement, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling and its efficacy , cluster sampling, two-stage and multi-stage sampling, ratio and regression methods of estimation involving one or more auxiliary variables, two-phase sampling, probability proportional to size sampling with and without replacement, the Hansen-Hurwitz and the Horvitz-Thompson estimators, non-negative variance estimation with reference to the Horvitz-Thompson estimator, non-sampling errors.

Fixed effects model (two-way classification) random and mixed effects models (two-way classification with equal observation per cell), CRD, RBD, LSD and their analyses, incomplete block designs, concepts of orthogonality and balance, BIBD, missing plot technique, factorial experiments and 2n and 32, confounding in factorial experiments, split-plot and simple lattice designs, transformation of data Duncan’s multiple range test.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Zoology - Paper - II
Paper – I

A. Non-chordata and Chordata:


Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses: Acoelomate and Coelomate, Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateria and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.

Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction, sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishmania.

Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.

Cnidaria: Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.


Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their pathogenic symptoms.

Nemathelminthes: General features, life history, parasitic adaptation of Ascaris and Wuchereria.

Annelida: Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of Nereis, earthworm and leach.

Arthropoda: Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (Prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insect and its hormonal regulation, social behaviour of Apis and termites.

Mollusca: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.

Echinodermata: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, larval forms, general features and life history of Asterias.

Protochordata: Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdmania.

Pisces: Respiration, locomotion and migration.

Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods, parental care, paedomorphosis.

Reptilia; Origin of reptiles, skull types, status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.

Aves: Origin of birds, flight adaptation, migration.

Mammalia: Origin of mammals, dentition, general features of egg laying mammals, pouched-mammals, aquatic mammals and primates, endocrine glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.

Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches, urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).

B. Ecology:


Biosphere: Concept of biosphere; biomes, Biogeochemical cycles, Human induced changes in atmosphere including green house effect, ecological succession, biomes and ecotones, community ecology.

Concept of ecosystem; structure and function of ecosystem, types of ecosystem, ecological succession, ecological adaptation.

Population; characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.

Biodiversity and diversity conservation of natural resources.

Wildlife of India.

Remote sensing for sustainable development.

Environmental biodegradation, pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.

C. Ethology:


Behaviour: Sensory filtering, reponsiveness, sign stimuli, learning and memory, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.

Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social hierarchies in primates, social organization in insects.

Orientation, navigation, homing, biological rhythms, biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.

Methods of studying animal behaviour including sexual conflict, selfishness, kinship and altruism.

D. Economic Zoology:


Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture, vermiculture.

Major infectious and communicable diseases (malaria, filaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.

Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogen (helminthes) and vectors (ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys).

Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella) oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).

Transgenic animals.

Medical biotechnology, human genetic disease and genetic counselling, gene therapy.

Forensic biotechnology.

E. Biostatistics:


Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student-test, F-test (one-way & two-way F-test).

F. Instrumentation Methods:


Spectrophotometer, phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, radioactive tracer, ultra centrifuge, gel electrophoresis, PCR, ELISA, FISH and chromosome painting.

Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Compulsory English and Indian Language

The aim of the paper is to test the candidate's ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly in English/Indian language concerned.

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :-

1. Comprehension of given passages.
2. Precis Writing
3. Usage and Vocabulary
4. Short Essay

1. Comprehension of given passages.
2. Precis Writing
3. Usage and Vocabulary.
4. Short Essay
5. Translation from English to the Indian language and vice-versa.

Indian Languages

Note 1: The Papers on Indian languages and English will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking.

Note 2: The candidates will have to answer the English and Indian Languages papers in English and the respective Indian language (except where translation is involved).
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Arabic


Answers must be written in Arabic


1. Origin and development of the language-an outline.
2. Significant features of the grammar of the language, Rhetorics, Prosody.
3. Short Essay in Arabic.


Literary History and Literary Criticism: Socio-Cultural Background, Classical literature, literary movements, modern trends, origin and development of modern prose : drama, novel, short story, essay.


This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability. Answers must be written in Arabic.



1. Imraul Qais: Qifa Nabke Min Zikra Habibin Wa Manzili (complete)

Al Muallaqatus Saba

2. Hassan bin Thabit: Lillahi Darru Isabatin Nadamtuhum (complete)

Diwan Hassan Bin Thabit

3.Jarir: Hayyu Umamata Wazkuru Ahdan Mada


Jalbas Sifahi Wa Damiatin Bikila

Nukhbatul Adab: Deptt. of Arabic, A.M.U. Aligarh

4.Farzdaq: Hazal Lazi Tariful Batha-o-Watatuhu (complete)

Majmuatun Minan Nazm-i-Wan Nasr, Jamia Salafiah, Varanasi

5. Al Mutanabbi: Ya Ukhta Khair-e-Akhin Ya Binta Khair-e-Abin


Aqamahul Fikru Bainal Ijz-e-Wattaabi

Nukhbatul Adab, Deptt. of Arabic, A.M.U. Alig.

6. Abul Ala Al-Maarri: Ala Fi Sabil Majdi Ma Ana Faailu


Wa Ya Nafsu Jiddi Inna Dahraki Hazilu

Majmuatul Minan Nazm-i-Wan Nasr, Jamia Salafia, Varanasi

7. Shauqi: Wulidal Huda Falkainatu Diau


Makhtara Illa Dinakal Fuqarau

Salamun Neeli Ya Ghandi (complete)


8. Hafiz Ibrahim: Rajatu Linafsi Fattahamtu Hasati (complete)

Nukhbatul Adab

9. Ilya Abu Madi: Damatun Kharsao (complete)

Mukhtarat Minal Sher Al Arabi Al Hadith, M.M. Badwi


Authors Books Lessons

1. Ibnul Muqaffa Kalilah Wa Dimnah Al Asad Wal Thaur

2. Al-Jahiz Mukhtarat Min Adabil Arab Bakhilun Hakim (complete)

Part II By: S.A. Hasan Ali Nadwi

3. Ibn Khaldun Muqaddamah Araun Fit Talim (complete)

4. Mahmud Taimur Qalar Rawi Am Mutawalli (complete)

5. Taufiqual Hakim Masrahiyat Sirrul Muntahira (complete)

6. Abbas Mahmud Aqqad Mukhtarat Min Adabil Arab-II Assiddiq (complete)

(b) Study Of Indian Authors:

1. Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami

2. Shah Walullah Dehlavi

3. Zulfiqar Ali Deobandl

4. Abdul Aziz Meman

5. Syed Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Assamese


Answers must be written in Assamese



1. History of the origin and development of the Assamese language-its position among the Indo-Aryan Languages-periods in its history.
2. Developments of Assamese prose.
3. Vowels and consonants of the Assamese languages-rules of phonetic changes with stress on Assamese coming down from Old Indo-Aryan.
4. Assamese vocabulary-and its sources.
5. Morphology of the language-conjugation-enclitic definitives and pleonastic suffixes.
6. Dilectical divergences-the standard colloquial and the Kamrupi dialect in particulars.
7. Assamese scripts-its evolution through the ages till 19th century A.D.


Literary Criticism and Literary History

1. Principles of Literary criticism upto New criticism.
2. Different literary genres.
3. Development of literary forms in Assamese.
4. Development of literary criticism in Assamese.
Periods of the literary history of Assam from the earliest beginnings, i.e. from the period of the charyyageets with their socio-cultural background: the proto Assamese-Pre-Sankaradeva-Sankaradeva-post Sankaradeva-Modern period (from the coming of the Britishers)-Post-Independence period. Special emphasis is to be given on the Vaisnavite period, the gonaki and the post-Independence period.


This paper will require fist-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidates’ critical ability.

Answers must be written in Assamese


* Rãmãyana (Ayodhya Kãnda only)-by Madhava Kandali.
* Pãrijãt-Harana-by Sankaradeva.
* Rãsakrïdã-by Sankaradeva (From Kirt
* ana Ghosa). Bargeet-by Madhavadeva
* Rãjasûya-by Madhavadeva.
* Kãthã-Bhãgavata (Books I and II)-by Baikunthanath Bhattacharyya.
* Gurucarit-Kathã (Sankaradeva’s Part only)-ed. by Maheswar Neog.


* Mor Jeevan Soñwaran-by Lakshminath Bezbaroa.
* Kripãbar Barbaruãr Kãkatar Topola-by Lakshminath Bezbaroa.
* Pratimã-by Chandra Kumar Agarwalla.
* Gãoñburhã-by Padmanath Gohain Barua.
* Monamatî-by Rajanikanta Bordoloi.
* Purani Asamîyã Sãhitya-by Banikanta Kakati.
* Kãrengar Ligirî-by Jyotiprasad Agarwalla
* Jeevanar Bãtat-by Bina Barwa (Birinchi Kumar Barua)
* Mrityunjoy-by Birendrakumar Bhattachary-ya
* Samrãt-by Navakanta Barua.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Bengali


History of Language and Literature.

Answers must be written in Bangali.


Topics from the History of Bangla language

The chronological track from Proto Indo-European to Bangla (Family tree with branches and approximate dates).
2. Historical stages of Bangla (Old, Middle, New) and their linguistic features.
3. Dialects of Bangla and their distinguishing characteristics.
4. Elements of Bangla Vocabulary.
5. Forms of Bangla Literary Prose-Sadhu and Chalit.
6. Processes of language change relevant for Bangla.

Apinihiti (Anaptyxis), Abhishruti (umlaut), Murdhanyibhavan (cerebralization), Nasikyibhavan (Nasalization), Samibhavan (Assimilation), Sadrishya (Analogy), Svaragama (Vowel insertion)-Adi Svaragama, Madhya Svaragama or Svarabhakti, Antya Svaragama, Svarasangati (Vowel hormony), y-shruti and w-shruti.

7. Problems of standardization and reform of alphabet and spelling, and those of transliteration and Romanization.
8. Phonology, Morphology and Syntax of Modern Bangla.

(Sounds of Modern Bangla, Conjuncts; word formations, compounds; basic sentence patterns.)


Topics from the History of Bangla Literature.

1. Periodization of Bangla Literature: Old Bangla and Middle Bangla.
2. Points of difference between modern and pre-modern Bangla Literature.
3. Roots and reasons behind the emergence of modernity in Bangla Literature.
Evolution of various Middle Bangla forms: Mangal kavyas, Vaishnava lyrics, Adapted narratives (Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata) and religious biographies.
5. Secular forms in middle Bangla literature.
6. Narrative and lyric trends in the nineteenth century Bangla poetry.
7. Development of prose.
8. Bangla dramatic literature (nineteenth century, Tagore, Post-1944 Bangla drama).
9. Tagore and post-Tagoreans.
10. Fiction, major authors :

(Bankimchandra, Tagore, Saratchandra, Bibhutibusan, Tarasankar, Manik).
11. Women and Bangla literature: creators and created.


Prescribed texts for close study.

Answers must be written in Bangali.


Vaishnava Padavali (Culcutta University)

Poems of Vidyapati, Chandidas, Jnanadas, Govindadas and Balaramdas.

1. Chandimangal Kalketu episodes by Mukunda (Sahitya Akademi).
2. Chaitanya Charitamrita Madya Lila, by Krishnadas Kaviraj (Sahitya Akademi).
3. Meghnadbadh Kavya by Madhusudan Dutta.
4. Kapalkundala by Bankimchandra Chattarjee.
5. Samya and Bangadesher Krishak by Bankimchandra Chatterjee.
6. Sonar Tari by Rabindranath Tagore.
7. Chhinnapatravali by Rabindranath Tagore.


8. Raktakarabi by Rabindranath Tagore.
9. Nabajatak by Rabindranath Tagore.
10. Grihadaha by Saratchandra Chatterjee.
11. Prabandha Samgraha Vol. 1, by Pramatha Choudhuri.
12. Aranyak by Bibhutibhusan Banerjee
Short stories by Manik Bandyopadhyay: Atashi Mami, Pragaitihasik, Holud-Pora, Sarisrip, Haraner Natjamai, Chhoto-Bokulpurer Jatri, Kustharogir Bou, Jakey Ghush Ditey Hoy.
14. Shrestha Kavita by Jibanananda Das.
15. Jagori by Satinath Bhaduri.
16. Ebam Indrajit by Badal Sircar.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Bodo - Paper - II

Bodo Paper-I

History of Bodo Language and Literature

Answers must be written in Bodo

Section- A

History of Bodo Language

1. Homeland, language family, its present status and its mutual contact with Assamese.
2. (a) Phonemes: Vowel and Consonant Phonemes. (b)Tones.
3. Morphology: Gender, Case & Case endings, Plural suffix, Definitives, Verbal suffix.
4. Vocabulary and its sources.
5. Syntax: Types of sentences, Word Order
6. History of scripts used in writing Bodo Language since inception.

Section B

History of Bodo literature

1. General introduction of Bodo folk literature.
2. Contribution of the Missionaries.
3. Periodization of Bodo Literature.
4. Critical analysis of different genre (Poetry, Novel, Short Story and Drama)
5. Translation Literature.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Chinese


This paper will require the candidates to have a good knowledge of standard Chinese language and its characteristics so as to test the candidate’s organisational capabilities. All the questions except the question on translation from Chinese to English must be answered in Chinese. All the questions carry equal marks.


1. Essay writing in about 500 Chinese characters on a topical subject.

2. Translation :

1. Chinese-English
2. English-Chinese

3. Syntactic and grammatical usage.


1. Explanation of idioms and phrases in Chinese.

2. Development of Chinese language

3. Copmprehension Precis writing.


This paper will require the candidates to have a good grasp of Chinese studies and will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability. All the questions must be answered in Chinese. All the questions carry equal marks.


1. Short notes on topics related to major events in modern Chinese history (from 1919 till date).

2. Critical evaluation of major literary works in pre-liberation period (1919-1949):

1. Lao She : Four Generations, Rickshaw-puller.
2. Ba Jin: Family.
3. Lu Xum: Medicine, Madman’s Diary. The True Story of Ah Q.
4. Mao Dun: Midnight
5. Ai Quing: Coal’s Reply (Mei de Duihua), Begger (Qigai), I Love This Land (Wo Ai Zhe Tudi), Old Man (Laoren)
6. Guo Moruo: The Goddesses.

Role of Philosophy and Religion in the Development of Chinese Society.


1. Socio-Economic/Political/Educational/Sports/Science and Technological Development since 1979.

2. Critical appreciation of major literary works in post-liberation period (1949 till date) :

1. Gu Hua: The Town Called Hibiscus (Furongzhen)
2. Chen Rong: Till the Middle Age (Ren dao Zhongnian)
3. Liu Xinwu: The Class-in-Charge (Ban Zhuren)
4. Lu Yao: The Human Existence (Rensheng)
5. Ai Qing: Fish Fossil, The Mirror, The Gardener’s Dream, The Hunter Who Drew Birds
6. Shu Ting: Motherland, My Beloved Motherland.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Dogri - Paper II


History of Dogri Language and Literature

Answers must be written in Dogri

Section- A

History of Dogri Language

1. Dogri language: Origin and development through different stages.

2. Linguistic boundaries of Dogri and its dialects.

3. Characteristic features of Dogri language

4. Structure of Dogri Language:

(a) Sound Structure:

1. Segmental: Vowels and Consonants
2. Non-segmental: Length, Stress, Nasalization, Tone and Juncture.

(b) Morphology of Dogri:

1. Inflection Categories: Gender, Number, Case, Person, Tense and Voice.
2. Word Formation: use of prefixes, infixes and suffixes.
3. Vocabulary: tatsam, tadbhav, foreign and regional.

(c) Sentence Structure: Major Sentence- types and their constituents, agreement and concord in Dogri syntax.

5. Dogri Language and Scripts: Dogre/Dogra Akkhar, Devanagari and Persian.

Section B

History of Dogri literature

1. A brief account of Pre-independence Dogri Literature: Poetry & Prose.
2. Development of modern Dogri Poetry and main trends in Dogri Poetry.
3. Development of Dogri short-story, main trends & prominent short-story writers.
4. Development of Dogri Novel, main trends & contribution of Dogri Novelists.
5. Development of Dogri Drama & contribution of prominent playwrights.
6. Development of Dogri Prose:- Essays, Memoirs & travelogues.
7. An introduction to Dogri Folk literature- Folk songs, Folk tales & Ballads.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - English

The syllabus consists of two papers, designed to test a first-hand and critical reading of texts prescribed from the following periods in English Leterature:

Paper I: 1600-1900 and Paper II: 1900-1990.

There will be two compulsory questions in each paper:

1. A short-notes question related to the topics for general study, and
2. A critical analysis of Unseen passages both in prose and verse.


Answers must be written in English.

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :

The Renaissance: Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama; Metaphysical Poetry; The Epic and the Mock-epic; Neo-classicism; Satire; The Romantic Movement; The Rise of the Novel; The Victorian Age.


1. William Shakespeare : King Lear and The Tempest.

2. John Donne.

The following poems:

* Canonization;
* Death be not proud;
* The Good Morrow;
* On his Mistress going to bed;
* The Relic;

3. John Milton : Paradise Lost, I, II, IV, IX

4. Alexander Pope. The Rape of the Lock.

5. William Wordsworth.

The following poems:

* Ode on Intimations of Immortality.
* Tintern Abbey.
* Three years she grew.
* She dwelt among untrodden ways.
* Michael.
* Resolution and Independence.
* The World is too much with us.
* Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour.
* Upon Westminster Bridge.

6. Alfred Tennyson: In Memoriam.

7. Henrik Ibsen: A Doll’s House.


1. Jonathan Swift. Gulliver’s Travels.
2. Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice.
3. Henry Fielding. Tom Jones.
4. Charles Dickens. Hard Times.
5. George Eliot. The Mill on the Floss.
6. Thomas Hardy. Tess of the d’Urbervilles.
7. Mark Twain. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.


Answers must be written in English.

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :

Modernism; Poets of the Thirties; The stream-of-consciousness Novel; Absurd Drama; Colonialism and Post-Colonialism; Indian Writing in English; Marxist, Psychoanalytical and Feminist approaches to literature; Post-Modernism.

1. William Butler Yeats. The following poems:

* Easter 1916
* The Second Coming
* A Prayer for my daughter.
* Sailing to Byzantium.
* The Tower.
* Among School Children.
* Leda and the Swan.
* Meru
* Lapis Lazuli
* The Second Coming
* Byzantium.

2. T.S. Eliot. The following poems :

* The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock
* Journey of the Magi.

3. W.H. Auden. The following poems :

* Partition
* Musee des Beaux Arts
* in Memory of W.B. Yeats
* Lay your sleeping head, my love
* The Unknown Citizen
* Consider
* Mundus Et Infans
* The Shield of Achilles
* September 1, 1939
* Petition.

4. John Osborne : Look Back in Anger.

5. Samuel Beckett. Waiting for Godot.

6. Philip Larkin. The following poems :

* Next
* Please
* Deceptions
* Afternoons
* Days
* Mr. Bleaney

7. A.K. Ramanujan. The following poems :

* Looking for a Causim on a Swing
* A River
* Of Mothers, among other Things
* Love Poem for a Wife 1
* Samll-Scale Reflections on a Great House
* Obituary

All these poems are available in the anthology Ten Twentieth Century Indian Poets, edited by R. Parthasarthy, published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi).


1. Joseph Conrad. Lord Jim
2. James Joyce. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
3. D.H. Lawrence. Sons and Lovers.
4. E.M. Forster. A Passage to India.
5. Virginia Woolf. Mrs Dalloway.
6. Raja Rao. Kanthapura.
7. V.S. Naipal. A House for Mr. Biswas.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Essay

Candidates will be required to write an essay on a specific topic. The choice of subjects will be given. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - French


Answers must be written in French except in the careof question requiring translation from French to English.


1. Main trends in French Literature

1. Classicism
2. Rommanticism
3. Realism

2. Art in France

1. Romanticism
2. Realism
3. Impressionism

3. The Vth Republic

1. De Gaulle and the Vth Republique
2. May 1968
3. Pompidou
4. Giscard d' Estaing
5. Mitterrand
6. Chirac

4. Translation : French to English (2 passages of socio-politico-economic nature of 200 words each).


1. Main trends in French Literature

1. Symbolism
2. Surrealism
3. Theatre of the Absurd

2. Art in French

1. Surrealism
2. Cubism
3. Abstract Painting

3. The Vth Republic

1. Parts politiques en France
2. Place et rôle du Président de la Ve Republique
3. Le gouvernement
4. Le Parlement
5. Le Senat

4. Translation : English to French 2 passages of socio-politico-economic nature of 200 words each.


Answers must be written in French.


This paper will require an in-depth reading of the following texts and the questions will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.

1. XVIIth Century

1. Corneille : Le Cid
2. Racine : Andromaque
3. Moliere : L’Avare

2. XVIIIth Century

1. Beaumarchais : Le Mariage de Figaro

3. XIXth Century

1. Lamartine: Le lac Le Vallon
2. Victor Hugo : La Conscience. Elle Avait Pris Ce Pli..... Demain, Dés L' Aube
3. Victor Hugo : Hernani
4. Musset : Souvenir. La Nuit de Decembre
5. Marimee : Colomba
6. Balzac : Eugenie Grandet
7. Flaubert : Madame Bovary
8. Baudelaire : L’Invitation au Voyage, Recueillement. L’Albatros.
9. Rimbaud : Le Dormeur du Val
10. Verlaine : Chanson d’Automne, Mon Reve Familier, II Pleure Dans mon Coeur...


4. XXth Century

1. Appolinaire : Nuit Rhenane, Le Pont Mirabeau
2. Jacques Prevert : Pour Faire Le Portrait d’Un Oiseau, Barbara.
3. Paul Eluard : Liberte
4. Paul Valery : Les Pas, La Fileuse
5. Andre Gide : La Symphonie pastorale
6. Camus:L’Etranger
7. Sartre:Les Mains Sales
8. Lonesco:Rhinoceros


1. Gerard Besette:Le Libraire
2. Ananda Devi:Le Voile de Draupadi
3. Cheikh Hamidou :L’Aventure Kane Ambigiüe
4. Abdellatif Laabi:Poemes en prose

1.L’Arbre a poemes (L’Etreinte du Monde)

2.Les Reves viennent mourir sur la page (L’Etreinte du Monde)

5. Essay of general nature on a contemporary theme.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - German


Answers must be written in German


1. Structure of Language :

Candidates are expected to have a thorough knowledge of German grammar with reference to specific aspects such as word order, syntactic structures and semantics.

2. Essay in German :

Candidates are expected to demonstrate command over techniques of written expression in German by writing an essay on a contemporary topic of a general nature.


1. Translation of a text of a general nature from English into German.

2. Socio-political and cultural history of Germany from the 18th century onwards with special reference to :

1. Impact of Enlightenment on German society and culture
2. The impact of Prussian culture on Germany.
3. Cultural debates in the Weimar Republic.
4. The concept of culture under National Socialism in Germany.
5. The development of two German literatures and cultures after 1945.
6. Reunification of Germany and the problems of cultural pluralism.
7. The role and relevance of German language and literature in the European Union.


Answers must be written in German.


1. Development of German literature from the 19th century to the present.

Candidates should know the main trends, representative authors and their important works. The emphasis is not on collecting information on works and authors, but the candidate is expected to identify features of a literary epoch on the basis of representative texts.

2. The Study of literary genres.

Candidates must be aware of the characteristic features of the different genres like Roman, Novelle, Drama, Ballade, Elegie, Marchen, Fabein, Kurzgeschichte.


1. Perceptions of Literary Interpretation.

Candidates should be aware of various approaches to a critical understanding of literature.

2. Sutdy of Selected Texts.

1. Goethe : Die Leiden des jungen Werther.
2. Schiller: Maria Stuart.
3. Eichendorff: Gedichte.
4. Gottfried Keller: Kleider machen Leute.
5. Thomas Mann: Die vertauschten Kopfe.
6. Franz Kafka: Vor Dem Gesetz.
7. Friedrich Durrenmatt : Die Physiker.
8. Max Frisch: Andorra.
9. Heinrich Boll: Die verlorence Ehre der Katharina Blum.
10. Ingeborg Bachmann : Alles (aus dem Erzahlband : Das dreBigste Jahr)
11. Rose Auslander: Gedichte.
12. Christa Wolf: Der geteilte Himmel.
13. Gunter Grass: Zunge zeigen.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Gujarati


Answers must be written in Gujarati


Gujarati Language: Form and history

1. History of Gujarati Language with special reference to New Indo-Aryan i.e. last one thousand years.

2. Significant features of the Gujarati language: Phonology, morphology and syntax.

3. Major dialects: Surti, Pattani, charotari and Saurashtri.

History of Gujarati Literature

Medieval :

Ashwatthama- Sitanshu Yash-aschandra

4. Jaina tradition

5.Bhakti tradition: Sagun and Nirgun (Jnanmargi)

6. Non-sectarian tradition (Laukik parampara)

7. Sudharak yug

8. Pandit yug

9. Gandhi yug

10.Anu-Gandhi yug

11. Adhunik yug


Literary Forms : (Salient features, history and development of the following literary forms):

(a) Medieval

1. Narratives: Rasa, Akhyan and Padyavarta
2. Lyrical: Pada

(b) Folk

3. Bhavai

(c) Modern

4. Fiction: Novel and short story
5. Drama
6. Literary Essay
7. Lyrical Poetry

(d) Criticism

8. History of theoretical Gujarati criticism
9. Recent research in folk tradition


Answers must be written in Gujarati

The paper will reqire first hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidate.


1. Medieval

1. Vasantvilas phagu-Ajnatkrut
2. Kadambari-Bhalan
3. Sudamacharitra-Premanand
4. Chandrachandravatini varta-Shamal
5. Akhegeeta-Akho

2. Sudharakyug & Pandityug

1. Mari Hakikat-Narmadashankar Dave
2. Farbasveerah- Dalpatram
3. Saraswatichandra-Part-I Govar-dhanram Tripathi
4. Purvalap- 'Kant' (Manishankar Ratnaji Bhatt)
5. Raino Parvat-Ramanbhai Neel-kanth


1. Gandhiyug & Anu Gandhiyug

1. Hind Swaraj-Mohandas Kar-machand Gandhi
2. Patanni Prabhuta- Kanhaiyalal Munshi
3. Kavyani Shakti- Ramnarayan Vish-wanath Pathak
4. Saurashtrani Rasdhar Part 1- Zaver-chand Meghani
5. Manvini Bhavai-Pannalal Patel
6. Dhvani-Rajendra Shah

2. Adhunik yug

1. Saptapadi-Umashankar Joshi
2. Janantike- Suresh Joshi

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Hindi


Answers must be written in Hindi.


1. History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi.

1. Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
2. Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during medieval period.
Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Sant Sahitaya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.
4. Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during 19th Century.
5. Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
6. Development of Hindi as national Language during freedom movement.
7. The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.

8. Scientific & Technical development of Hindi Language.
9. Prominent dialects of Hindi and their inter relationship.
10. Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard form of Hindi.
11. Grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.


2. History of Hindi Literature.

The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi Literature.
2. Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi Literature.

A : Adikal-Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.

Prominent poets-Chandvardai, Khusaro, Hemchandra, Vidyapati.

B : Bhaktikal-Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.

Prominent Poets-Kabir, Jayasi, Sur & Tulsi.

C: Ritikal-Ritikavya, Ritibaddhakavya & Riti Mukta Kavya.

Prominent Poets-Keshav, Bihari, Padmakar and Ghananand.

D : Adhunik Kal

a. Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal.

b. Prominent Writers : Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.

c. Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry : Chhayavad, Pragativad, Proyogvad, Nai Kavita, Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.

Prominent Poets : Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun.
3. Katha Sahitya

A. Upanyas & Realism

B. The origin and develpment of Hindi Novels.

C. Prominent Novelists : Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.

D. The origin and development of Hindi short story.

E. Prominent short Story Writers : Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh & Krishna Shobti.
4. rama & Theatre

A. The origin & Development of Hindi Drama.

B. Prominent Dramatists : Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma, Mohan Rakesh.

C. The development of Hindi Theature.
5. Criticism

A: The origin and development of Hindi criticism : Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi, Manovishleshanvadi & Nai Alochana.

B: Prominent critics : Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma & Nagendra.
6. The other forms of Hindi prose-Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran, Yatra-vrittant.


Answers must be written in Hindi.

This paper will require first hand reading of prescribed texts and will test the critical ability of the candidates.


1. Kabir : Kabir Granthawali, Ed, Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis.)
2. Surdas: Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (First hundred Padas)
3. Tulsidas: Ramchrit Manas (Sundar Kand) Kavitawali (Uttar Kand).
4. Jayasi: Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sinhal Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog Khand)
5. Bihari: Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
6. Maithili Sharan Gupta : Bharat Bharati
7. Prasad: Kamayani (Chinta and Sharddha Sarg)
8. Nirala: Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja & Kukurmutta).
9. Dinkar: Kurushetra
10. Agyeya: Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
11. Muktiboth: Brahma Rakshas
12. Nagarjun: Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.


1. Bharatendu: Bharat Durdasha
2. Mohan Rakesh: Ashad Ka Ek Din
3. Ramchandra Shukla: Chintamani (Part I) (Kavita Kya Hai] Shraddha Aur Bhakti)
Dr. Satyendra: Nibandh Nilaya-Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
Premchand: Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai, Manjusha - Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai
6. Prasad: Skandgupta
7. Yashpal: Divya
8. Phaniswar Nath Renu : Maila Anchal
9. Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj
10. Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)
Main Examination Syllabus - Subject : Kannada
Paper-I (Answers must be written in Kannada.)


History of Kannada Language
What is Language? General characteristics of Language. Dravidian Family of Languages and its specific features, Antiquity of Kannada Language Different Phases of its Development.
Dialects of Kannada Language : Regional and Social Various aspects of development of Kannada Language : phonological and Semantic changes. Language borrowing.
History of Kannada Literature
Ancient Kannada literature : Influence and Trends. Poets for study : Specified poets from Pampa to Ratnakara Varni are to be studied in the light of contents, form and expression : Pampa, Janna, Nagachandra.
Medieval Kannada literature : Influence and Trends.
Vachana literature : Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi.
Medieval Poets : Harihara, Ragha-vanka, Kumar-Vyasa.
Dasa literature : Purandra and Kanaka.
Sangataya : Ratnakaravarni
Modern Kannada literature
Influence, trends and idealogies, Navodaya, Pragatishila, Navya, Dalita and Bandaya.

Poetics and literary criticism
Definition and concepts of poetry : Word, Meaning, Alankara, Reeti, Rasa, Dhwani, Auchitya.
Interpretations of Rasa Sutra.
Modern Trends of literary criticism : Formalist, Historical, Marxist, Feminist, Post-colonial criticism.
Cultlural History of Karnataka
Contribution of Dynasties to the culture of Karnataka : Chalukyas of Badami and Kalyani, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara rulers, in literary context.
Major religions of Karnataka and their cultural contributions.
Arts of Karnataka : Sculpture, Architecture, Painting, Music, Dance-in the literary context.
Unification of Karnataka and its impact on Kannada literature.
Paper-II (Answers must be written in Kannada.)
The paper will require first-hand reading of the Texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidates.


Old Kannada Literature
Vikramaarjuna Vijaya of Pampa (cantos 12 & 13), (Mysore University Pub.)
Vaddaraadhane (Sukumaraswamyia Kathe, Vidyutchorana Kathe)
Medieval Kannada Literature
Vachana Kammata, Ed: K. Marulasiddappa K.R. Nagaraj (Bangalore University Pub.)
Janapriya Kanakasamputa, Ed. D. Javare Gowda (Kannada and Culture Directorate, Bangalore)
Nambiyannana Ragale, Ed., T.N. Sreekantaiah (Ta.Vem. Smaraka Grantha Male, Mysore)
Kumaravyasa Bharata : Karna Parva (Mysore University)
Bharatesha Vaibhava Sangraha Ed. Ta. Su. Shama Rao (Mysore University)

Modern Kannada Literature
Poetry : Hosagannada Kavite, Ed : G.H. Nayak (Kannada Saahitya Parishattu, Bangalore)
Novel : Bettada Jeeva-Shivarama Karanta Madhavi-Arupama Niranjana Odalaala-Devenuru Mahadeva
Short Story : Kannada Sanna Kathegalu, Ed. G.H. Nayak (Sahitya Academy, New Delhi).
Drama : Shudra Tapaswi-Kuvempu. Tughalk-Girish Karnad.
Vichara Saahitya : Devaru-A.N. Moorty Rao (Pub : D.V.K. Moorty, Mysore.)
Folk Literature
Janapada Swaroopa-Dr. H.N. Nayak. (Ta. Vem. Smaraka Grantha Male, Mysore.)
Janapada Geetaanjali-Ed.D. Javare Gowda. (Pub : Sahitya Academy, New Delhi.)
Kannada Janapada Kathegalu-Ed. J.S. Paramashivaiah, (Mysore University.)
Beedi Makkalu Beledo. Ed. Kalegowda Nagavara (Pub : Bangalore University.)
Savirada Ogatugalu-Ed : S.G. Imrapura.
Main Examination Syllabus - Subject : Kashmiri
Paper-I (Answers must be written in Kashmiri.)

Section A

Genealogical relationship of the Kashmiri language: various theories.
Areas of occurrence and dialects (geographical/social)
Phonology and grammar:
Vowel and consonant system;
Nouns and pronouns with various case inflections;
Verbs: various types and tenses.
Syntactic structure:
Simple , active and declarative statments;
Section B

Kashmiri literature in the 14th century (Socio-cultural and intellectual background with special reference to Lal Dyad and Sheikhul Alam)
Nineteenth century Kashmiri literature (development of various genres: vatsun; ghazal; and mathnavi).
Kashmiri literature in the first half of the twentieth century (with special reference to Mahjoor and Azad; various literary influences).
Modern Kashmiri literature (with special refernece to the development of the short story, drama, novel and nazm).
Paper-II (Answers must be written in Kashmiri.)

Section A

Intensive study of Kashmiri poetry upto the nineteenth century:
Lal Dyad
Sheikhul Aalam
Habba Khatoon
Kashmiri poetry: 19th Century
Mahmood Gami (Vatsans)
Maqbool Shah (Gulrez)
Rasool Mir (Ghazals)
Abdul Ahad Nadim (N'at)
Krishanjoo Razdan (Shiv Lagun)
Sufi Poets (Text in Sanglaab, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir)
Twentieth Century Kashmiri poetry (text in Azich Kashir Shairi, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir)
Literary criticism and research work: development and various trends.

An analytical study of the short story in Kashmiri.
Afsana Majmu'a, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.
Kashur Afsana Az, published by the Sahitya Akademi
Hamasar Kashur Afsana, published by the Sahitya Akademi
The following short story writers only: Akhtar Mohi-ud-Din, Amin Kamil, Hari Krishan Kaul, Hraday Kaul Bharti, Bansi Nirdosh, Gulshan Majid.
Novel in Kashmiri:
Mujrim by G.N. Gowhar
Marun-Ivan Ilyichun, (Kashmiri version of Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Iiyich (Published by Kashmiri Deptt).
Drama in Kashmiri
Natuk Kariv Band, by Hari Krishan Kaul
Ok Angy Natuk, ed. Motilal Keemu. published by Sahitya Akademi.
Razi Oedipus, tr. Naji Munawar, published by Sahitya Akademi.
Kashmiri Folk Literature:
Kashur Luki Theatre by Mohammad Subhan Bhagat, published by Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.
Kashiry Luki Beeth (all volumes) published by the J & K Cultural Academy.
Main Examination Syllabus - Subject : Konkani
Paper-I (Answers must be written in Konkani.)


History of Konkani Language
Origin and development of the language and influences on it.
Major variants of Konkani and their linguistic features.
Grammatical and lexicographic work in Konkani, including a study of cases, adverbs, indeclinables and voices.
Old Standard Konkani, new Standard and standardisation problems.

History of Konkani literature
Candidates would be expected to be well-acquainted with Konkani literature and its social and cultural background and consider the problems and issues arising out of them.

History of Konkani literature from its probable source to the present times, with emphasis on its major works, writers and movements.
Social and cultural background of the making of Konkani literature from time to time.
Indian and Western influences on Konkani literature from the earliest to modern times.
Modern literary trends in the various genres and regions including a study of Konkani folklore.
Paper-II (Answers must be written in Konkani.)

Tectual Criticism of Konkani Literature

The paper will be designed to test the canidate's critical and analytical abilities. Candidates would be expected to be well-acquainted with Konkani Literature and required to have a first-hand reading of the following texts:



Konkani Mansagangotri (excluding poetry) ed. by Prof. Olivinho Gomes
Old Konkani language and literature-the Portuguese Role
Otmo Denvcharak-a novel by A.V da Cruz.
Vadoll ani Varem-A novel by Antonio Pereira.
Devache Kurpen-a novel by V J P Saldanha.
Vajralikhani-Shenoy Goem-bab-An anthology-ed. by Shantaram Varde Valavalikar
Konkani Lalit Niband-Essays-ed. by Shyam Verenkar
Teen Dasakam-An lAnthology-ed. by Chandrakant Keni.
Demand-Drama-by Pundalik Naik
Kadambini- A miscellany of modern Prose-ed. by Prof. OJF Gomes & Smt. P.S. Tadkodkar.
Ratha Tujeo Ghudieo-by Smt. Jayanti Naik.


Ev ani Mori: Poetry by Eduardo Bruno de Souza.
Abravanchem Yadnyadan-by Luis Mascarenhas.
Godde R.K. Rao
Ratnahar I &II-collection of poems-ed. R.V. Pandit.
Zayo Zuyo-poems-Manohar L. Sardessai.
Kanadi Mati Konkani Kavi-Anthology of Poems-ed. PratapHome
Main Examination Syllabus - Subject : Malayalam
Paper-I (Answers must be written in Malayalam.)


Early phase of Malayalam Language
Various theories: origin from proto Dravidian, Tamil, Sanskrit.
Relation between Tamil and Malyalam: Six nayas of A.R. Rajarajavarma.
Pattu school-definition, Ramacharitam, later pattu works-Niranam works and Krishnagatha.
Linguistic features of
Manipravalam-definition. Language of early manipravala works-Champu, Sandesakavya, Chandrotsava, minor works. Later Manipravala works-medieval Champu and Attakkatha.
Folklore-Southern and Northern ballads, Mappila songs.
Early Malayalam prose-Bhashakautaliyam, Brahmandapuranam, Attaprakaram, Kramadipika and Nambiantamil.
Satandardisation of Malayalam
Peculairities of the language of Pana, Kilippattu and Tullai.
Contributions of indigenous and European missionaries to Malayalam.
Characteristics of contemporary Malayalam : Malayalam as administravie language. Language of scientific and technical literature-media language.
Section-B (Literary History)

Ancient and Medieval Literature:
Pattu-Ramacharitam, Niranam works and Krishnagatha.
Manipravalam-early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu.
Folk literature.
Kilippattu, Tullal and Mahakavya.
Modern Literature-Poerty
Venmani poets and contemporaries.
The advent of Romanticism-Poerty of Kavitraya i.e., Asan, Ulloor and Vallathol
Poetry after Kavitraya.
Modernism in Malayalam poetry.
Modern Literature-Prose
Short story
Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism.
Paper-II(Answers must be written in Malayalam.)

This paper will requre first hand reading of the texts prescribed and is designed to test the candidate's critical ability.


Unit 1

Ramacharitam-Patalam 1.
Kannassaramayanam-Balakandam first 25 stanzas.
Unnunilisandesam-Purvabhagam 25 slokas including Prastavana
Mahabharatham Kilippattu-Bhishmaparvam.,
Unit 2
Kumaran Asan-Chintavisthayaya Sita.
G. Sankara Kurup-Perunthachan.
N.V. Krishna Variar-Tivandiyile Pattu.
Unit 3
ONV -Bhumikkoru Charamagitam
Ayyappa Panicker-Kurukshetram.
Akkittam-Pandathe Messanthi
Attur Ravivarma-Megharupan.

Unit 4

O. Chanthu Menon-Indulekha
O V Vijayan-Khasakkinte Ithihasam.
Unit 5
MT Vasudevan Nair-Vanaprastham (Collection).
N S Madhavan-Higvitta (Collection).
C J. Thomas-1128-il Crime 27.
Unit 6
Kuttikrishna Marar-Bharataparyatanam
M. K Sanu-Nakshatrangalute Snehabhajanam
V.T. Bhattathirippad-Kannirum Kinavum.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Manipuri


Answers must be written in Manipuri.



a) General characteristics of Manipuri Language and history of its development; its importance and status among the Tibeto-Burman Languages of North-East India; recent development in the study of Manipuri language; evolution and study of old Manipuri script.

b) Significant features of Manipuri language:

Phonology-Phoneme-vowels, consonants juncture, tone, consonant cluster and its occurrence, syllable-its structure, pattern and types.
Morphology : Word-class, root and its types; affix and its types; grammatical categories-gender, number, person, case, tense and aspects, process of compounding (samas and sandhi).
Syntax : Word order: types of sentences, pharse and clause structures.


a) Literary History of Manipuri :

Early period (upto 17th century)-Social and cultural background; Themes, diction and style of the works.

Medieval period (18th and 19th century)- Social, religious and political background; Themes, diction and style of the works.

Modern period-Growth of major literary forms; change of Themes, diction and style.

b) Manipuri Folk Literature :

c) Aspects of Manipuri Culture :

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Marathi


Answers must be written in Marathi.


Language and Folk-Iore

(a) Nature and Functions of Language (with reference to Marathi)

Language as a signifying system : Langue and Parole; Basic functions; Poetic language; Standard Language and dialect; Language variations according to social parameters.

Linguistic features of Marathi in thirteenth century and seventeenth century.

(b) Dialects of Marathi

Ahirani; Varhadi; Dangi

(c) Marathi Grammar

Parts of Speech; Case-system; Prayog-vichar (Voice)

(d) Nature and kinds of Folk-lore

(with special reference to Marathi)

Lok-Geet, Lok Katha, Lok Natya


History of Literature and Literary Criticism

(a) History of Marathi Literature

1. From beginning to 1818 AD, with special reference to the following : The Mahanubhava writers, the Varkari poets, the Pandit poets, the Shahirs, Bakhar literature.
2. From 1850 to 1990, with special reference to developments in the following major forms : Poetry, Fiction (Novel and Short Story), Drama; and major literary currents and movements, Romantic, Realist, Modernist, Dalit Gramin, Feminist.

(b) Literary Criticism

1. Nature and function of Literature;
2. Evaluation of Literature;
3. Nature, Objectives and Methods of Criticism;
4. Literature, Culture and Society.


Answers must be written in Marathi.

Textual study of prescribed literary works

The paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.



1. ‘Smritishala’
2. Mahatma Jotiba Phule
3. "Shetkaryacha Asud; ‘Sarvajanik Satyadharma’ S.V. Ketkar
4. ‘Brahmankanya; P.K. Atre
5. ‘Sashtang Namaskar’ Sharchchandra Muktibodh
6. ‘Jana Hey Volatu Jethe’ Uddhav Shelke
7. ‘Shilan’ Baburao Bagul
8. ‘Jevha Mi Jaat Chorli Hoti’ Gouri Deshpande
9. ‘Ekek Paan Galavaya’ P.I. Sonkamble
‘Athavaninche Pakshi’



1. Namadevanchi Abhangawani’
2. Ed: Inamdar, Relekar, Mirajkar Modern Book Depot, Pune ‘Painjan’
3. Ed : M.N. Adwant Sahitya Prasar Kendra, Nagpur ‘Damayanti-Swayamvar’
4. By Raghunath Pandit ‘Balakvinchi Kavita’
5. By Balkavi ‘Vishakha’
6. By Kusumagraj ‘Mridgandh’
7. By Vinda Karandikar ‘Jahirnama’
8. By Narayan Surve ‘Sandhyakalchya Kavita’
9. By Grace ‘Ya Sattet Jeev Ramat Nahi’
By Namdev Dhasal

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Nepali


Answers must be written in Nepali.


1. History of the origin and development of Nepali as one of the new Indo-Aryan Languages

2. Fundamentals of Nepali Grammar and phonology:

1. Nominal forms and categories :
2. Gender, Number, Case, Adjectives, Pronouns, Avyayas Verbal forms and categories-
3. Tense, Aspects, Voice, Roots and Fixes Nepali Swara and Vyanjana;

3. Major Dialects of Nepali

4. Standardisation and Modernisation of Nepali with special reference to language movements (viz. Halanta Bahiskar, Jharrovad etc.)

5. Teaching of Nepali language in India-Its history and development with special reference to its socio-cultural aspects.


1. History of Nepali literature with special reference to its development in India.

2. Fundamental concepts and theories of literature :

Kavya/Sahitya, Kavya Prayojan, Literary genres, Shabda Shakti, Rasa, Alankara, Tragedy, Comedy, Aesthetics, Stylistics.

3. Major literary trends and movements-

Swachchhandatavad, Yatharthavad, Astitwavad, Ayamik Movement, Contemporary Nepali writings, Postmodernism.

4. Nepali folklores (the following folk-form only)- Sawai, Jhyaurey, Selo, Sangini, Lahari.


Answers must be written in Nepali.

This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed below and questions will be designed to test the candidate’s critical acumen.


1. Santa Jnandil Das-Udaya Lahari
2. Lekhnath Poudyal-Tarun Tapasi
3. (Vishrams III, V, VI, XII, XV, XVIII only)
Agam Singh Giri-Jaleko Pratibimba : Royeko Pratidhwani (The following poems only-rasawako Chichy-ahat-sanga Byunjheko Ek Raat, Chhorolai, Jaleko Pratibimba : Royeko Prati-dhwani, Hamro Akashmani Pani Hunchha Ujyalo, Tihar).
Haribhakta Katuwal-Yo Zindagi Khai Ke Zindagi : (The following poems only - Jeevan : Ek Dristi, Yo Zindagi Khai Ke Zindagi, Akashka tara Ke Tara, Hamilai Nirdho Nasamjha, Khai Many-ata Yahan Atmahutiko Balidan Ko).
5. Balkrishna Sama-Prahlad
Manbahadur Mukhia-Andhyaroma Banchneharu (The following One-Act plays only-‘Andhyaroma Banchneharu’, ‘Suskera’).


1. Indra Sundas-Sahara
2. Lilbahadur Chhetri-Brahmaputrako Chheuchhau
Rupnarayan Sinha-Katha Navaratna (The following stories only-Biteka Kura, Jimmewari Kasko, Dhanamatiko Cinema-Swapna, Vidhwasta Jeevan).
Indrabahadur Rai-Vipana Katipaya (The following stories only-Raatbhari Huri Chalyo, Jayamaya Aphumatra Lekha-pani Aipugi, Bhagi, Ghosh Babu, Chhutyaiyo).
Sanu Lama-Katha Sampad (The following stories only-Swasni Manchhey, Khani Tarma Ekdin, Phurbale Gaun Chhadyo, Asinapo Manchhey).
Laxmi Prasad Devkota-Laxmi Nibandha Sangraha (The following essays only-Sri Ganeshaya Namah, Nepali Sahityako Itihasma Sarvashrestha Purus, Kalpana, Kala Ra Jeevan, Gadha Buddhiman Ki Guru?)
Ramkrishna Sharma-Das Gorkha (The following essays only-Kavi, Samaj Ra Sahitya, Sahityama Sapekshata, Sahityik Ruchiko Praudhata, Nepali Sahityako Pragati).

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Oriya


Answers must be written in Oriya.


History of Oriya Language

Origin and development of Oriya Language-Influence of Austric, Dravidian, Perso-Arabic and English on Oriya Language.
2. Phonetics and Phonemics: Vowels, Consonants Principles of changes in Oriya sounds.
Morphology: Morphemes (free, bound compound and complex), derivational and inflectional affixes, case inflection, conjugation of verb.
4. Syntax: Kinds of sentences and their transformation, structure of sentences.
Semantics-Different types of change in meaning Euphemism.

Common errors in spellings, grammatical uses and construction of sentences.
Regional variations in Oriya Language (Western, Southern and Northern Oriya) and Dialects (Bhatri and Desia)


History of Oriya Literature

Historical backgrounds (social, cultural and political) of Oriya Literature of different periods.
2. Ancient epics, ornate kavyas and padavalis.
3. Typical structural forms of Oriya Literature (Koili, Chautisa, Poi, Chaupadi, Champu).
4. Modern trends in poetry, drama short story, novel, essay and literary criticism.


Answers must be written in Oriya.

Critical Study of texts -

The paper will require first hand reading of the text and test the critical ability of the candidate.



1. Sãralã Das-Shanti Parva from Mãhãbharãta.
2. 2. Jaganãth Das-Bhãgãbate, XI Skandha-Jadu Avadhuta Sambãda.
3. (Medieval) 3. Dinãkrushna Dãs-Rasakallola- (Chhãndas-16 & 34)
4. 4. Upendra Bhanja-Lãvanyabati (Chhãndas-1 & 2)
5. (Modern) 5. Rãdhãnãth Rãy-Chandrabhãgã
6. 6. Mãyãdhãr Mãnasinha-Jeevan Chitã
7. 7. Satchidãnanda Routray-Kabitã-1962
8. 8. Ramãkãnta Ratha-Saptama Ritu.



9. Manoranjan Dãs-Kãtha-Ghodã
10. Bijay Mishra-Tata Niranjanã
11. Novel: Fakir Mohan Senãpati-Chhamãna Ãthaguntha
12. Gopinãth Mohanty-Dãnãpãni
13. Short Story Surendra Mohãnty-Marãlãra Mrityu
14. Manoj Dãs-Laxmira Abhisara
15. Essay: Chittaranjan Dãs-Taranga O Tadit (First five essays).
16. Chandra Sekhar Rath-Mun Satya-dhãrma Kahuchhi (First five essays)

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Pali


(Pali Language)

N.B. All answers must be written in Pali language in Devanagari or Roman Script.


Origin and Homeland of Pali and its characteristics.

2. Pali Grammar

1. Technical Terms of Pali Grammar-Akkhara, Sara, Vyanjana, Niggahita, Nama, Sabbanama, Akhyata, Upasagga, Nipata, Abyaya,
2. Karaka,
3. Samasa;
4. Sandhi;

5. Taddhita. (Apaccabodhaka-and Adhikarabo-dhaka-Paccaya);
6. Etymological derivation of the following words: -

Buddho, Bhikkhu, Samanero, Sattha, Dhammo, Lataya, Purisanam, Tumhe, Amhebhi, Munina, Rattisu, Phalaya, Atthisu, Rannam, Sangho.

3.Translation of two Pali unseen passages into English.


4. Essays consisting of 300 words on any one of the following:

1. Bhagava Buddho,
2. Tilakkhanam,
3. Ariyo atthangiko maggo,
4. Cattari ariyasaccani,
5. Kammavado
6. Paticcasamuppado,
7. Nibbanam paramam sukham,
8. Tipitakam,
9. Dhammapadam,
10. Majjhima-Patipada.

5. Summary of Pali passages.

6. Explanation of Pali verses in Pali.

7. The meaning of following indeclinables (Abyaya and Nipata) and their use in candidates’ own Pali sentences:

1. Atha,
2. Antara,
3. Addha,
4. Kada,
5. Kittavata,
6. Ahorattam,
7. Diva,
8. Yatha,
9. Ce,
10. Seyyathidam,
11. Vina,
12. Kudacannam,
13. Saddhim,
14. Antarena,
15. Kho,
16. Ma,
17. Evam,
18. Ettha,
19. Kira,
20. Pana.


(PAli Literature)

There will be two compulsory questions, which must be answered in Pali Languege in Devanagari or Roman Script. The remaining questions must be attempted either in Pali or in the medium of examination opted by the candidate.


1. Life and teachings of Buddha from the Pali sources.
History of Pali Literature-Canonical and Non-Canonical with reference to the following books and authors:

Mahavagga, Cullavagga, Patimokkha, Digha-Nikaya, Dhammapada, Jataka, Theragatha, Therigatha,Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa, Dathavamsa, Sasanavamsa, Milindapanha, Petakopadesa, Nettippa-karana, Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala.


1. Textual questions, critical comments and annotated translations would be asked from the following prescribed texts :

1. Digha-Nikaya (Only the Samannaphala-Sutta)
2. Sutta-nipata (Only the Khaggavisana-Sutta and Dhaniya-Sutta)
3. Dhammapada (Only the first five Vagga-s)
4. Milindapanha (Only the Lakkhana-panha)
5. Mahavamsa (Only the Tatiya-Sangiti)
6. Abhidhammattha-sangaha (First, Second and Sixth Chapters)
(vii) Pali Prosody : Vuttodaya-Anutthubha, Indavajira, Upendavajira, Vasantatilaka, Malini, Sikharini, Upajati, totaka, Dodhaka, Vamsattha.
(viii) Pali Rhetoric : Subodhalankara -Yamaka, Anuppasa, Rûpaka, Upama, Atisayutti, Vyatireka, Nidassana, Atthanta-ranyasa, Dipaka, Ditthanta.

2. Short Notes on Buddhist concepts dealt within the prescribed texts.

3. Explanation of Pali Verses from the prescribed texts.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Persian


There will be two questions, which must be answered in Persian. The remaining questions must be answered either in Persian or in the medium of examination opted by the candidate.


Description of the origin and development of Persian language (to be answered in Persian).
Applied Grammar, Rhetorics, Prosody, Idioms and Phrases frequently used.
Grammar: Ism and its kinds, Zamir-e-Muttasil and Munfasil, Murakkabi-Tausifi, Murakkab-i-Izafi, Ismi-Ishara, Musharun Elaih, Fel and its kinds, Tenses, Gardan, singular and plural, Jumleh and its kinds.
Rhetorics : Tajnees, Ishteqaq, Luzum-ma-la-yalzum, seyaqatul Aadad, Qalb, Tarsee, Esteaara, Maratun Nazir, Laff-o-Nashr, Iham, Husn-i-Taalil, Tajahuli-Aarefaneh, Talmih, Tansiqus Sifat.

Prosody: Bahri-Muzara, Ramal, Mutaqarib, Tawil, Hazaj, Kamil.

Secton B

1. Short essay in Persian-250 words (to be answered in Persian).
History of Persian Literature in Iran and India; Literary criticism and styles; trends in classical and modern literature; socio-cultural influences, development of modern literary genres including drama, novel, short story.


There will be two compulsory questions–one each in textual portions of prose and poetry which are to be answered in Persian. The remaining questions are to be answered either in Persian or in the medium of examination opted by the candidate.

This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.



1. Nizami Aroozi Samarqandi : Chahar Maqala :

1. Dabiri
2. Shaairi

2. Qabus.b, Washmgir : Qabus Nama :

1. Dar Shinakhtan-e-Haqq-e-Pidar-wa- Madar
2. Dar Bishi Justan Az Sukhandani
3. Dar Talib Ilmi Wa Faqih Wa Fuqaha

3. Sadi Shirazi : Gulistan :

1. Dar Tasir-e-Suhbat

4. Moh. Awfi : Jawameul Hikayat :

1. First Ten Hikayaat

5. Ziauddin Burney : Tarikh-i-Firozshahi :

1. Wasaya-i-Sultan Balban Be Farzand-e-Buzurg

6. Abul Fazl Ain-e-Akbari:

1. Ain-Khazina-i-Abadi
2. Ain-e-Shabistan-e-Iqbal
3. Ain-e-Manzil Dar Yurisha
4. Ain-e-Cheragh Afrozi

7. Sadiq-i-Hedayat:

1. Dash Akul
2. Girdab

8. Mohd. Hijazi :

1. Khudkushi
2. Pezeshk-e-Chashm



1. Firadausi : Shahnama :

1. Rustam-o-Sohrab

2. Khayyam : Rubaaiyat (Radif Alif and Be)

3. Saadi Shirazi : Bustan:

‘Dar Adl-u-Tadbir-u-Rai’

Amir Khusrau: Majmua-i-Diwan-e-Khusrau. (Radif Dal)

4. Maulana Rum: Mathnawi Maanawi

(First Half of Daftar Duwwum)

6. Hafiz : (Radif Alif and Dal)

7. Urfi Shirazi : Qasaaid :

1. Iqbal-e-Karam Migazad Arbabi-Himam Ra.
2. Har Sukhta Jane Ki Ba Kashmir Dar Ayad.
3. Sabah-e-Idd Ke Dar Takiyagah-e-Naz-u-Naeem.

8. Ghalib : Ghazaaliyat (Radif Alif)

9. Bahar Mashhadi :

1. Jughd-e-Jung
2. Sukoot-e-Shab
3. Damawandiye
4. Dukhtar-e-Basra

10. Furugh-e-Farrukhzad:

1. Dar Barabad-e-Khuda
2. Diw-e-Shab

11. Nimayushij :

1. Qu
2. Khar-Kan

Note: Textual portions of prose and poetry are to be explained in Persian compulsorily.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Punjabi


Answers must be written in Punjabi in Gurumukhi Script.


Origin of Punjabi language: different stages of development and recent development in Punjabi language: characteristics of Punjabi phonology and the study of its tones: classification of vowels and consonants.
Punjabi morphology: the number-gender system (animate and inanimate), prefixes, affixes and different categories of Postpositions: Punjabi word formation: Tatsam. Tad Bhav, forms: Sentence structure, the notion of subject and object in Punjabi: Noun and verb phrases.
Language and dialect; the notions of dialect and idiolect; major dialects of Punjabi; Pothohari, Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Puadhi; the validity of speech variation on the basis of social stratification, the distinctive features of various dialects with special reference to tones. Language and script; origin and development of Gurmukhi; suitability of Gurmukhi for Punjabi.

4. Classical background; Nath Jogi Sahil

Medieval literature : Gurmat, Sufti, Kissa and Var Janamsakhis.


Modern trends Mystic, romantic, progressive and neomystic (Vir Singh, Puran Singh, Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, Bawa Balwant, Pritam Singh Safeer, J.S. Neki).

Experimentalist (Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia, Ravinder Ravi, Ajaib Kamal)

Aesthetes (Harbhajan Singh, Tara Singh)

Neo-progressive (Pash. Jagtar, Patar)

Origin and Development of Genres :
Folk literature Folk songs, Folk tales. Riddles, Proverbs.

Epic (Vir Singh, Avtar Singh, Azad Mohan Singh)

Lyric (Gurus, Sufis and Modern Lyricists-Mohan Singh Amrita Pritam, Shiv Kumar, Harbhajan Singh)
Drama (I.C. Nanda, Harcharan Singh, Balwant Gargi, S.S.Sekhon, Charan Das Sidhu)

Novel (Vir Singh, Nanak Singh, Jaswant Singh Kanwal, K.S. Duggal, Sukhbir, Gurdial Singh, Dalip Kaur Tiwana, Swaran Chandan)

Short Story (Sujan Singh, K.S. Virk. Prem Parkash, Waryam Sandhu).
Socio-cultural and Sanskrit, Persian Literary influences : and Western.

Essay (Puran Singh, Teja Singh, Gurbaksh Singh)

Literary Criticism (S.S. Sekhon, Attar Singh, Kishan Singh, Harbhajan Singh, Najam Hussain Sayyad).


Answers must be written in Punjabi in Gurumukhi Script.

This paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designedto test the candidate’s critical ability.


1. Sheikh Farid The complete Bani as included in the Adi Granth.
2. Guru Nanak Japu Ji Baramah, Asa di Var
3. Bulleh Shah Kafian
4. Waris Shah Heer


1. Shah Mohammad Jangnama (Jang Singhan te Firangian)

* Dhani Ram Chatrik (Poet) Chandan Vari
* Sufi Khana
* Nawan Jahan

2. Nanak Singh (Novelist) Chitta Lahu

* Pavittar Papi
* Ek Mian Do Talwaran

3. Gurbaksh Singh (Essayist) Zindagi di Ras

* Nawan Shivala
* Merian Abhul Yadaan.
* Balraj Sahni (Travelogue) Mera Roosi Safarnama
* Mera Pakistani Safarnama

4. Balwant Gargi (Dramatist) Loha Kutt

* Dhuni-di-Agg
* Sultan Razia
* Sant Singh Sekhon (Critic) Sahityarth
* Parsidh Punjabi Kavi
* Punjabi Kav Shiromani

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Russian


Answers must be written in Russian except in the case of question regarding translation from Russian to English.

(Language and Culture)


* Modern Russian Language:

Phonetics, Morphology, Syntax, Lexicology, Lexicography and Semantics, linguistics.
* Translation from Russian into English and vice-versa.


Socio-political and economical development of the Russian Federation: Patriotic war of 1812, October Revolution, Perestroika and Glasnost, disintegration of USSR. Regional & Cultural variations of the Russian Federation.
* Essay on general topics.


Answers must be written in Russian Literature


Literary History and Literary Criticism

Literary movements, Sentimentalism, Romanticism, Naturalism, Realism, Critical Realism, Socialism, Acmeism, Symbolism, Futurism; Origin and development of literary genres : Folk literature, Lyrics and poems-A.S. Pushkin, M.U. Lermontov, Alexander Blok, Esenin, V. Mayakovky, Anna Akhmatova. Epic-L.N. Tolstoy, M. Sholokhov, Short story, novelet, novels-Pushkin, Lermontov, N.V. Gogol, S. Shchedrin, I. Goncharov, I. Turgenev, F.M. Dostoevsky, L.N. Tolstoy, A.P. Chekhov, M. Gorky, M. Sholokhov, I. Bunin, E. Zamyatin, Boris Pasternak, A. Solzhenitsyn, M. Bulgakov, Chingiz Aitmatov, V. Rasputin, V. Shukshin, Criticism-Belinsky, Dobrolyubov, Chernyshevsky, Pisarev, Drama-Chekhov, Gogol. Influence of socio-political movements on literature.


This part will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidates’ critical ability.

1. A.S. Pushkin Evgeny Onegin
2. M.U. Lermontov Hero of our times
3. N.V. Gogol Revizor
4. I.S. Turgenev Fathers and sons
5. F.M. Dostoevsky Crime and Punishment
6. L.N. Tolstoy
1. War and Peace
2. Resurrection
7. A.P. Chekhov i. Toska
1. Smert Chinovnika
2. Chameleon
8. A.M. Gorky Mother
9. A. Blok The twelve
10. B.B.
1. Cloud in plants Mayakovsky
2. Good
11. M. Sholokhov Fate of a man
12. B. Pasternak Doctor Zhivago
13. Solzhenitsyn One day in the life of Ivan Danisovich
14. V. Rasputin Zhivi i Pomni
15. Chingiz Aitmatov Bely Porokhod
16. V. Shukshin Chudik

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Sanskrit


There will be three questions, which must be answered in Sanskrit. The remaining questions must be answered either in Sanskrit or in the medium of examination opted by the candidate.


1. Significant features of the grammar, with particular stress on Sanjna, Sandhi, Karaka, Samasa, Kartari and Karmani vacyas (voice usages) (to be answered in Sanskrit).

1. Main characteristics of Vedic Sanskrit language.
2. Prominent features of classical Sanskrit language.
3. Contribution of Sanskrit to linguistic studies.

2. General Knowledge of: -

1. Literary history of Sanskit,
2. Principal trends of literary criticism
3. Ramayana,
4. Mahabharata
5. The origin and development of literary geners of:
* Mahakavya
* Rupaka (drama)
* Katha
* Akhyayika
* Campu
* Khandakavya
* Muktaka Kavya.


1. Essentials of Indian Culture with stress on

1. Purusarthas-
2. Samskaras-
3. Varnasramavyavastha
4. Arts and fine arts
5. Technical sciences

2. Trends of Indian Philosophy

1. Mimansa
2. Vedanta
3. Nyaya
4. Vaisesika
5. Sankhya
6. Yoga
7. Bauddha
8. Jaina
9. Carvaka

3. Short Essay in Sanskrit

4. Unseen passage with the questions, to be answered in Sanskrit.


Question from Group 4 is to be answered in Sanskrit only. Question from Groups 1, 2 and 3 are to be answered either in Sanskrit or in the medium opted by the candidate.


General study of the following groups:-

Group 1

* Raghuvamsam-Kalidasa
* Kumarasambhavam-Kalidasa
* Kiratarjuniyam-Bharavi
* Sisupalavadham-Magha
* Naisadhiyacaritam-Sriharsa
* Kadambari-Banabhatta
* Dasakumaracaritam -Dandin
* Sivarajyodayam-S.B. Varnekar

Group 2

* Isavasyopanisad
* Bhagavadgita
* Sundarakanda of Valmiki’s Ramayana
* Arthasastra of Kautilya

Group 3

* Svapnavasavadattam- Bhasa
* Abhijnanasakuntalam- Kalidasa
* Mrcchakatikam-Sudraka
* Mudraraksasam-Visakhadatta
* Uttararamacaritam- Bhavabhuti
* Ratnavali-Sriharshavardhana
* Venisamharam-Bhattanarayana

Group 4

Short notes in Sanskrit on the following:-

* Meghadutam-Kalidasa
* Nitisatakam-Bhartrhari
* Panchtantra
* Rajatarangini-Kalhana
* Harsacaritam-Banabhatta
* Amarukasatakam-Amaruka
* Gitagovindam-Jayadeva


Questions from Groups 1 & 2 are to be answered in Sanskrit only. (Questions from Groups 3 & 4 are to be answered in Sanskrit or in the medium opted by the candidate).

This Section will require first hand reading of the following selected texts: -

Group 1

* Raghuvansam-Canto I, Verses 1 to 10
* Kumarasambhavam-Canto I, Verses 1 to 10
* Kiratarjuniyam-Canto I, Verses 1 to 10

Group 2

* Isavasyopanisad-verses-1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 15 and 18
* Bhagavatgita II chapter verses 13 to 25
* Sundarakandam of Valmiki Canto 15, Verses 15 to 30 (Geeta Press Edition)

Group 3

* Meghadutam-verses 1 to 10
Nitisatakam-Verses 1 to 10 (Edited by D.D. Kosambi Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Publication)
* Kadambari-Sukanasopadesa (only)

Group 4

* Svapnavasavadattam Act VI
* Abhijnansakuntalam Act IV verses 15 to 30

(M.R. Kale Edition)
* Uttararamacaritam Act 1 verses 31 to 47

(M.R. Kale Edition)
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Santali - Paper - II

Paper I

(Answers must be written in Santali)

Section A

Part – I History of Santali Language.

1. Main Austric Language family, population and distribution.
2. Grammatical structure of Santali Language.

Important character of Santali Language: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Translation, and Lexicography.
4. Impact of other languages on Santali.
5. Standardization of Santali Language.

Part – II History of Santali Literature.

I. Literary trends of the following four periods of

History of Santali Literature

1. Ancient literature before 1854.
2. Missionary period: Literature between 1855 to 1889 AD.
3. Medieval period: Literature between 1890 to 1946 AD.
4. Modern period: Literature from 1947 AD to till date.

II. Writing tradition in History of Santali literature.

Section B

Literary forms – Main characteristics, history and development of following literary forms.

Part – I Folk Literature in Santali – folk song, folk tale, phrase, idioms, puzzles, and Kudum.

Part – II Modern literature in Santali

1. Development of poetry and prominent poets.
2. Development of prose and prominent writers.
1. Novels and prominent Novelists.
2. Stories and prominent story writers.
3. Drama and prominent Dramatist.
4. Criticism and prominent critics.
5. Essay, sketches, memoirs, travelogues and prominent writers.

Santali writers.

Shyam Sundar Hembram, Pandit Raghunath Murmu, Barha Beshra, Sadhu Ramchand Murmu, Narayan Soren ‘Toresutam’, Sarada Prasad Kisku, Raghunath Tudu, Kalipada Soren, Sakla Soren, Digambar Hansda, Aditya Mitra ‘Santali’, Babulal Murmu ‘Adivasi’, Jadumani Beshra, Arjun Hembram, Krishna Chandra Tudu, Rupchand Hansda, Kalendra Nath Mandi, Mahadev Hansda, Gour Chandra Murmu, Thakur Prasad Murmu, Hara Prasad Murmu, Uday Nath Majhi, Parimal Hembram, Dhirendra Nath Baske, Shyam Charan Hembram, Damayanti Beshra, T.K. Rapaj, Boyha Biswanath Tudu.

Part – III Cultural Heritage of Santali tradition, customs, festival and rituals (birth, marriage and death).

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Sindhi


Answers must be written in Sindhi (Arabic or Devanagari script).



1. Origin and evolution of Sindhi language-views of different scholars.
2. Significant linguistic features of Sindhi language, including those pertaining to its phonology, morphology and syntax.
3. Major dialects of the Sindhi language.
4. Sindhi vocabularly-stages of its growth, including those in the pre-partition and post-partition periods.
5. Historical study of various Writing Systems (Scripts) of Sindhi.
6. Changes in the structure of Sindhi language in India, after partition, due to influence of other languages and social conditions.


2. Sindhi literature through the ages in context of socio-cultural conditions in the respective periods:

1. Early medieval literature upto 1350 A.D. including folk literature.
2. Late medicval period from 1350 A.D. to 1850 A.D.
3. Renaissance period from 1850 A.D. to 1947 A.D.
4. Modern period from 1947 and onwards.

(Literary genres in Modern Sindhi literature and experiments in poetry, drama, novel, short story, essay, literary criticism, biography, autobiography, memoirs, and travelogues.)


Answers must be written in Sindhi (Arabic of Devanagari script).

This paper will require the first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidates’ critical ability.


References to context and critical appreciation of the texts included in this section.

(1) Poetry

1. "Shah Jo Choond Shair" : ed. H.I. Sadarangani, Published by Sahitya Akademi (First 100 pages)
2. "Sachal Jo Choond Kalam" : ed. Kalyan B. Advani Published by Sahitya Akademi (Kafis only)
3. "Sami-a-ja Choond Sloka" : ed. B.H. Nagrani Published by Sahitya Akademi (First 100 pages)
4. "Shair-e-Bewas" : by Kishinchand Bewas ("Saamoondi Sipoon" portion only)
5. "Roshan Chhanvro" : Narayan Shyam
6. "Virhange Khanpoije Sindhi Shair jee Choond" : ed. H.I. Sadarangani Published by Sahitya Akademi

(2) Drama
7. "Behtareen Sindhi Natak" (One-act Plays) : Edited by M. Kamal Published by Gujarat Sindhi Academy.
8. "Kako Kaloomal" (Full-length Play) : by Madan Jumani


References to context and critical appreciation of the texts included in this section.

1. ‘Pakheeara Valar Khan Vichhrya’ (Novel) : by Gobind Malhi
2. ‘Sat Deenhan’ (Novel) : by Krishan Khatwani
3. ‘Choond Sindhi Kahanyoon’ (Short Stories) Vol. III. : Edited by Prem Prakash, Published by Sahitya Akademi.
4. ‘Bandhan’ (Short Stories) : Sundari Uttamchandani
5. ‘Behtareen Sindhi Mazmoon’ (Essays) : Edited by Hiro Thakur, published by Gujarat Sindhi Akademi.
6. ‘Sindhi Tanqeed’ (Criticism) : Edited by Harish Vaswani : Published by Sahitya Akademi.
7. ‘Mumhinjee Hayati-a ja Sona Ropa varqa’ (Autobiography) : by Popati Hiranandani
8. "Dr. Choithram Gidwani" (Biography) : by Vishnu Sharma

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Tamil



Answers must be written in Tamil.

Section: A

Part: 1 History of Tamil Language

Major Indian Language Families-The place of Tamil among Indian languages in general and Dravidian in particular-Enumeration and Distributionof Dravidian languages.

The language of Sangam literature-The language of medieval Tamil: Pallava period only-Historical study of Nouns, Verbs, adjectives, adverbs Tense markers and case markers in Tamil.

Borrowing of words from other languages into Tamil-Regional and social dialects-difference between literary and spoken Tamil.

Part: 2 History of Tamil Literature

Tolkappiyam-Sangam Literatue-The division of Akam and puram-The secular characteristics of Sangam Literature-The development of Ethical literature-Silappadikaram and Manimekalai.

Part: 3 Devotional literature (Alwars and Nayanmars) The bridal mysticism in Alwar hymns-Minor literary forms (Tutu, Ula, Parani, Kuravanji)

Social factors for the development of Modern Tamil literature: Novel, Short story and New Poetry-The impact of various political ideologies on modern writings.


Part:1 Recent trends in Tamil Studies

Approaches to criticism: Social , psychologiocal, hostorical and moralistic-the use of criticism-the various techniques in literature: Ullurai, Iraicchi, Thonmam (Myth) Otturuvagam (allegory), Angadam (Satire), Meyppadu, Padimam(image), Kuriyeedu (Symbol), Irunmai (ambiguity)-The concep[t of comparative literature-the principle of comparative literature.

Part: 2 Folk literature in Tamil:Ballads, Songs, proverbs and riddles-Sociological study of Tamil folklore. Uses of translation-Translation of Tamil works into other languages-Development of journalism in Tamil.

Part: 3 Cultural Heritage of the Tamils

Concept of Love and War-Concept of Aram-the ethical codes adopted by the ancient Tamils in their warfare-customs, beliefs, rituals, modes of worship in the five Thinais.

The cultural changes as revealed in post sangam literature-cultural fusion in the medieval period (Jainism & Buddhism). The development of arts and architecture through the ages (Pallavas, later cholas, and Nayaks).

The impact of various political, social, religious and cultural movements on Tamil Society. The role of mass media in the cultural change of contemporary Tamill society.


Answers must be written in Tamil.

The paper will require first hand reading of the Text prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidate.

Section-: A

Part: 1 Ancient Literature

1. Kuruntokai (1-25 poems)
2. Purananurui (182-200 poems)
3. Tirukkural Porutpal : Arasiyalum Amaichiyalum (from Iraimatchi to Avaianjamai)

Part : 2 Epic Literature
# Silappadikaram: Madhurai Kandam only.
# Kambaramayanam: Kumbakarunan Vadhai Padalam

Part 3: Devotional Literature

1. Tiruvasagam: Neetthal Vinnappam
2. Tiruppavai: (Full Text)

Section-: B

Modern Literature

Part:1 Poetry

1. Bharathiar: Kannan Pattu
2. Bharathidasan: Kudumba Vilakku
3. Naa. Kamarasan: Karuppu Malarkal


1. Mu. Varadharajanar. Aramum Arasiyalum
2. C N Annadurai: Ye! Thazhntha Tamilagame.

Part : 2 Novel, Short story and Drama

1. Akilon: Chittirappavai
2. Jayakanthan: Gurupeedam
3. Cho: Yarukkum Vetkamillai

Part: 3 Folk Literature

1. Muthuppattan Kathai Edited by Na. Vanamamalai, (Publication: Madurai Kamaraj University)
2. Malaiyaruvi, Edited by Ki. Va Jagannathan (Publication: Saraswathi, Mahal, Thanjavur)
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam - Telugu


Answers must be written in Telugu.



Place of Telugu among Dravidian languages and its antiquity-Etymological history of Telugu, Tenugu and Andhra.
Major linguistic changes in phonological, morphological, grammatical and syntactical levels, from Proto-Dravidian to old Telugu and from old Telugu to Modern Telugu.
Evolution of spoken Telugu when compared to classical Telugu-Formal and functional view of Telugu language.
Influence of other languages and its impact on Telugu.
Modernization of Telugu language.

1. Linguistic and literary movements and their role in modernization of Telugu.
2. Role of media in modernization of Telugu (Newspapers, Radio, TV etc.)
3. Problems of terminology and mechanisms in coining new terms in Telugu in various discourses including scientific and technical.

Dialects of Telugu-Regional and social variations and problems of standardization.
Syntax-Major divisions of Telugu sentences-simple, complex and compound sentences-Noun and verb predications-Processes of nominlization and relativization-Direct and indirect reporting-conversion processes.
Translation-Problems of translation, cultural, social and idiomatic-Methods of translation-Approaches to translation-Literary and other kinds of translation-various uses of translation.



1. Literature in Pre-Nannaya Period-Marga and Desi poetry.
2. Nannaya Period-Historical and literary background of Andhra Mahabharata.
3. Saiva poets and their contribution-Dwipada, Sataka, Ragada, Udaharana.
4. Tikkana and his place in Telugu literature.
5. Errana and his literary works-Nachana Somana and his new approach to poetry.
6. Srinatha and Potana-Their woks and contribution.
7. Bhakti poets in Telugu literature-Tallapaka Annamayya, Ramadasu, Tyagayya.
8. Evolution of prabandhas-Kavya and prabandha.
Southern school of Telugu literature-Raghunatha Nayaka, Chemakura Vankatakavi and women poets-Literary forms like yakshagana, prose and padakavita.
10. Modern Telugu Literature and literary forms-Novel, Short Story, Drama, Playlet and poetic forms.
11. Literary Movements : Reformation, Nationalism, Neo-classicism, Romanticism and Progressive, Revolutionary movements.
12. Digambarakavulu, Feminist and Dalit Literature.
13. Main divisions of folk literature-Performing folk arts.


Answers must be written in Telugu.

This paper will require first hand reading of the prescribed texts and will be designed to test the candidate's critical ability, which will be in relation to the following approaches.

1. Aesthetic approach-Rasa, Dhwani, Vakroti and Auchitya-Formal and Structural-Imagery and Symbolism.
2. Sociological, Historical, Ideological, Psychological approaches.


1. Nannaya-Dushyanta Charitra (Adiparva 4th Canto verses 5-109)
2. Tikkana-Sri Krishna Rayabaramu (Udyoga parva -3rd Canto verses 1-144)
3. Srinatha-Guna Nidhi Katha (Kasi-khandam, 4th Canto, verses 76-133)
4. Pingali Surana-Sugatri Salinulakatha (Kalapurnodayamu 4 Canto verses, 60-142)
5. Molla-Ramayanamu (Balakanda including avatarika)
6. Kasula Purushothama Kavi-Andhra Nayaka Satakamu

7. Gurajada Appa Rao-Animutyalu (Short stories)
8. Viswanatha Satyanarayana-Andhra prasasti
9. Devulapalli Krishna Sastry-Krishnapaksham (excluding Urvasi and Pravasam)
10. Sri Sri-Maha prastanam.
11. Jashuva-Gabbilam (Part I)
12. C. Narayana Reddy-Karpuravasanta rayalu.
13. Kanuparti Varalakshmamma-Sarada lekhalu (Part I)
14. Atreya-N.G.O.
15. Racha konda Visswanatha Sastry-Alpajaeevi.

***UPSC : Civil Services Exam Paper Pattern (Kannada)***

Note: Answers must be written in Kannada

Paper I

Section A

History of Kannada Language

What is Language?

General characteristics of Language.

Dravidian Family of Languages and its specific features.

Antiquity of Kannada Language.

Different Phases of its Development.

Dialects of Kannada Language:

Regional and Social Various aspects of development of Kannada Language.

Phonological and Semantic changes.

Language borrowing.

History of Kannada Literature

Ancient Kannada literature:

Influence and Trends.

Poets for study: Specified poets from Pampa to Ratnakara Varni are to be studied in the light of contents, form and expression: Pampa , Janna, Nagachandra.

Medieval Kannada literature: Influence and Trends.

Vachana literature: Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi.

Medieval Poets: Harihara, Ragha-vanka, Kumar-Vyasa.

Dasa literature: Purandra and Kanaka.

Sangataya: Ratnakaravarni

Modern Kannada literature

Influence, trends and ideologies, Navodaya, Pragatishila, Navya, Dalita and Bandaya.

Section B

Poetics and literary criticism

Definition and concepts of poetry: Word, Meaning, Alankara, Reeti, Rasa, Dhwani, Auchitya.

Interpretations of Rasa Sutra.

Modern Trends of literary criticism: Formalist, Historical, Marxist, Feminist, Post-colonial criticism.

Cultural History of Karnataka

Contribution of Dynasties to the culture of Karnataka: Chalukyas of Badami and Kalyani, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara rulers, in literary context.

Major religions of Karnataka and their cultural contributions.

Arts of Karnataka: Sculpture, Architecture, Painting, Music, Dance-in the literary context.

Unification of Karnataka and its impact on Kannada literature.

Paper II

The paper will require first-hand reading of the Texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidates.

Section A

Old Kannada Literature

Vikramaarjuna Vijaya of Pampa (cantos 12 & 13), (Mysore University Pub.)

Vaddaraadhane (Sukumaraswamyia Kathe, Vidyutchorana Kathe)

Medieval Kannada Literature

Vachana Kammata, Ed: K. Marulasiddappa K.R. Nagaraj ( Bangalore University Pub.)

Janapriya Kanakasamputa, Ed. D. Javare Gowda (Kannada and Culture Directorate, Bangalore )

Nambiyannana Ragale, Ed., T.N. Sreekantaiah (Ta.Vem. Smaraka Grantha Male, Mysore )

Kumaravyasa Bharata: Karna Parva ( Mysore University )

Bharatesha Vaibhava Sangraha Ed. Ta. Su. Shama Rao ( Mysore University )

Section B

Modern Kannada Literature

Poetry: Hosagannada Kavite, Ed : G.H. Nayak (Kannada Saahitya Parishattu, Bangalore )

Novel: Bettada Jeeva-Shivarama Karanta Madhavi-Arupama Niranjana Odalaala-Devanuru Mahadeva

Short Story: Kannada Sanna Kathegalu, Ed. G.H. Nayak ( Sahitya Academy , New Delhi ).

Drama: Shudra Tapaswi-Kuvempu. Tughalak-Girish Karnad.

Vichara Saahitya: Devaru-A.N. Moorty Rao (Pub : D.V.K. Moorty, Mysore .)

Folk Literature

Janapada Swaroopa- Dr. H.M. Nayak. (Ta. Vem. Smaraka Grantha Male, Mysore .)

Janapada Geetaanjali- Ed.D. Javare Gowda. (Pub: Sahitya Academy , New Delhi .)

Kannada Janapada Kathegalu- Ed. J.S. Paramashivaiah, ( Mysore University .)

Beedi Makkalu Beledo. Ed. Kalegowda Nagavara (Pub: Bangalore University .)

Savirada Ogatugalu- Ed. S.G. Imrapura.

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