HIMACHAL PRADESH BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION.
Syllabus of plus two (12th) examination
8. POLITICAL SCIENCE
At the senior secondary level students who opt Political Science are given
an opportunity to get introduced to the diverse concerns of a Political Scientist.
At this level there is a need to enable students to engage with political
processes that surround them and provide them with an understanding of the
historical context that has shaped the present. The different courses introduce
the students to the various streams of the discipline of political science :
poltical theory, Indian politics and international politics. Concerns of the other
two streams — comparative politics and public administration — are
accommodated at different places in these courses. In introducing these
streams, special care has been taken not to burden the students with the
current jargon of the discipline. The basic idea here is to lay the foundations
for a serious engagement with the discipline at the undergraduation stage.
Indian Constitution At Work :—
l Enable students to understand historical processes and circumstances in
which the Constitution was drafted.
l Provide opportunity for students to be familiar with the diverse visions that
guided the makers of the Indian Constitution.
l Enable students to identify the certain key features of the Constitution
and compare these to other constitutions in the world.
l Analyse the ways in which the provisions of the Constitution have worked
in real political life.
l Develop the skills for logical reasoning and abstraction.
l Inculcate attention to and respect for viewpoints other than one's own.
l Introduce students to the different political thinkers in relation to a concept
and in everyday social life.
l Enable students to meaningfully participate in a concern of current
political life that surrounds them.
l Encourage the students to analyse any unexamined prejudices that one
may have inherited.
POLITICS IN INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
l Enable students to be familiar with some of the key political events
and figures in the post-independence period.
l Develop skills of political analysis through events and processes of
l Develop their capacity to link macro processes with micro situations
and their own life.
l Encourage the students to take a historical perspective of making
sense of the contemporary India.
CONTEMPORARY WORLD POLITICS
l Enable the students to expand their horizon beyond India and make
sense of the political map of contemporary world.
l Familiarise the students with some of the key political events and
processes in the post cold war era.
l Equip student to be conscious of the way in which global events and
processes shape our everyday lives.
l Strengthen their capacity for political analysis by thinking of
contemporary developments in a historical perspective.
One Paper 85 Marks
UNITS PERIODS MARKS
PART A : POLITICS IN INDIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
1. Era of one-party dominance 12 5
2. Nation-Building and its problems 12 8
3. Politics of Planned Development 10
4. India’s External relations 12 5
5. Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System 10 4
6. Crisis of the Constitutional order 14 6
7. Regional aspirations and conflicts 10 4
8. Rise of New Social Movements 12 5
9. Democratic upsurge and coalition parties 10 4
10. Recent issues and challenges 10 4
PART B : CONTEMPORARY WORLD-POLITICS
11. Cold War Era in World Politics 14 8
12. Disintegration of the Second World and the
Collapse of Bipolarity 12 10
13. US Dominance in World Politics 12
14. Alternative centres of Economic and Political Power 10 8
15. South Asia in the Post-Cold war Era 12
16. International organizations in a unipolar world 12 4
17. Security in Contemporary World 12 4
18. Globalisation and its Critics 12 6
COURSE CONTENTS PERIODS
1. Era of One-Party Dominance : 12
First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the
national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of
Congress. Major opposition parties.
2. Nation-Building and Its Problems : 12
Nehru’s approach to nation-building: Legacy of partition: challenge of
‘refugee’ resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organisation and
reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.
3. Politics of Planned Development 10
Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic
interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and
its political fallouts.
4. India’s External Relations 12
Nehru’s foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and
1971. India’s nuclear programme and shifting alliances in world politics.
5. Challenge to and Restoration of Congress System : 10
Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of
1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress’ victory in 1971
elections, politics of ‘garibi hatao’.
6. Crisis of the Constitutional Order :
Search for ‘committed’ bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement
in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional
and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977
elections and the formation of Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties
7. Regional Aspirations and Conflicts 10
Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti-Sikh riots of 1984. The
Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.
8. Rise of New Social Movements 12
Farmers’ movements, Women’s movement, Environment and
Development-affected people’s movements. Implementation of Mandal
Commission report and its aftermath.
9. Democratic Upsurge and Coalition Politics 10
Participatory upsurge in 1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing
role of regional parties and coalition politics. UF and NDA governments.
Elections 2004 and UPA government.
10. Recent issues and challenges 10
Challenge of and responses to globalization: new economic policy and its
opposition. Rise of OBCs in North Indian politics. Dalit politics ini electoral
and non-electoral arena. Challenge of communalism: Ayodhya dispute,
PART B : CONTEMPORARY WORLD POLITICS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES :
COURSE CONTENT PERIODS
11. Cold War Era in World Politics 14
Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the
cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, quest for new
international economic order. India and the cold war.
12. Disintegration of the ‘Second World’ and the Collapse of Bipolarity
New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and Central Asian
states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in postcommunist
regimes. India’s relations with Russia and other postcommunist
13. US Dominance in World Politics : 12
Growth of unilateralism : Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and
attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and
ideology. India’s renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.
14. Alternative Centres of Economic and Political Power : 10
Rise of China as an economic power in post-Mao era, creation and
expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India’s changing relations with
15. South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era : 12
Democratisation and its reversals in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in
Sri Lanka, Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and
efforts for peace in South Asia. India’s relations with its neighbours.
16. International Organizations in a unipolar World : 12
Restructuring and the future of the UN. India’s position in the restructured
UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic
organisations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new
institutions of global governance ?
17. Security in Contemporary World :
Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Nontraditional
or human security: global poverty, health and education. Issues
of human rights and migration.
18. Globalisation and Its Critics. 12
Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of
consequences of globalisation. Anti-globalisation movements. India as an
arena of globalization and struggle against it.