HIMACHAL PRADESH BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION.
Syllabus of plus two (12th) examination
Senior Secondary stage of school education is a stage of transition from
general education to discipline-based focus on curriculum. The present
updated syllabus keeps in view the rigour and depth of disciplinary approach
as well as the comprehension level of learners. Due care has also been taken
that the syllabus is not heavy and is at the same time, comparable to the
international standards. Salient features of the syllabus include :
c Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content.
c Emphasis, on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical
quantities and formulations as per international standards.
c Providing logical sequencing of the units of the subject matter and proper
placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning.
c Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/
content within the discipline and other disciplines.
c Promoting process-skills, problems-solving abilities and applications of
Besides, the syllabus also attempts to :
c Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide
firm foundation for further learning in the subject.
c Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related
industrial and technological applications.
c Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative,
decision making and investigatory skills in the learners.
c Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners.
c Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize
and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.
One Paper Time : 3 hrs. 60 Marks
Unit-I Electrostatics 07
Unit-II Current Electricity 07
Unit-III Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism 07
Unit-IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current 07
Unnit-V Electromagnetic Waves 03
Unit-VI Optics 12
Unit-VII Dual Nature of Matter 03
Unit-VIII Atoms and Nuclei 04
Unit-IX Electronic Devices 06
Unit-X Communication Systems 04
Unit I : Electrostatics (Periods 25)
Electric Charges ; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between
two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition
principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines;
electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform
Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find
field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane
sheet and uniformaly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point
charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical
potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in
an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a
conductor; Dielectrics and, electric polarisation, capacitor and
capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel,
capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric
medium between the plates; energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff
Unit II : Current Electricity (Periods 22)
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift
velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law,
electrical resistance, V-I characteristics, (linear and non-linear) electrical
energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors,
colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of
resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, Potential difference and emf of a cell,
combination of cells in series and in parallel.
Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, Metre
Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential
difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal
resistance of a cell.
Unit III : Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism (Periods 25)
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
Biot-Savart law, and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight
and toroidal solenoids.
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force
between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere.
Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving
coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment;
Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron; Magnetic field intensity
due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to
its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic
field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s
magnetic field and magnetic elements; Para, dia and ferro-magnetic
substances with examples, Electromagnets and factors affecting their
strengths Permanent magnets.
Unit IV : Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current (Period 20)
Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws, Induced emf and current,
Lenz’s law, Eddy currents, Self and mutual inductance.
Need for displacement current.
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage,
reactance and impedance; LC oscillations, (qualitative treatment only),
LCR series circuit, resonance; Power in AC circuits, wattless current.
AC generator and transformer.,
Unit V Electromagnetic Waves (Periods 4)
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only);
Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radiowaves, microwaves, infrared, visible,
ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their
Unit VI : Optics (Periods 30)
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light
total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at
spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker's formula.
Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact.
Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light - blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the
sun at sun rise and sunset.
Optical instruments - Human eye, image formation and
accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia,
presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical
telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave Optics : Wave front and Huygen’s principle; reflection and
refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of
laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference -
Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent
sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single
slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and
astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light, Brewster’s
law; uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids
Unit VII : Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation (Periods 8)
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's
observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Matter waves - wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson -
Unit VIII : Atomic & Nuclei (Periods 18)
Alpha-particle scattering experiment, Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr
model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars;
isotones, Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their
properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect;
binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear
fission and fusion.
Unit IX : Electronic Devices (Periods 18)
Semiconductors; Semiconductor diode-I-V characteristics in forward and
reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode,
solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction
transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an
amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR,
AND, NOT, NAND and NOR); Transistor as a switch.
Unit X : Communication Systems (Periods 10)
Elements of a communication systems (block diagram only); bandwidth of
signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission
medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky
and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and
detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.
Every student will perform 10 experiments (5 from each section) and 8
activities (4 from each section) during the academic year. Two
demonstration experiments must be performed by the teacher with
participation of students. The students will maintain a record of these
B. Evaluation Scheme for Practical Examination :
l One experiment from any one Section 7 Marks
l Two activities (one from each section) 3 + 3 = 6 Marks
Practical record (experiments & activities) 5 Marks
l Record of demonstration experiments & Viva 2 Marks
based on these experiments
l Viva on experiments and activities 5 Marks
Total 25 Marks
1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of
potential difference versus current.
2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence
determine the specific resistance of its material.
3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a
4. To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
5. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using
6. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and
to find its figure of merit.
7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance of figure of merit)
into an ammeter and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
8. To find the frequency of the a.c. mains with a sonometer
1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without
2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC and check
continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off)
switches, a fuse and a power source.
4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady
6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery,
resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that
are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the
1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of, a concave mirror
and to find the focal length.
2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and
v or between l/u and 1/v.
3. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a
graph between angle of incidence and the angle of deviation.
6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling
7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex
lens and plane mirror.
8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction in forward bias and
9. To draw the characteristic curves of a zener diode and to determine its
reverse break down voltage.
10. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp, transistor
and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.
1. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on
2. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a
capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
3. Use of multimeter to
(i) identify base of transistor
(ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors
(iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED.
(iv) Check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor
or I C ) is in working order.
4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident
obliquely on a glass slab.
5. To observe polarization of ight using two polaroids.
6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit
7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens
(ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for
different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two
lenses from the given set of lenses.
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Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.
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