HIMACHAL PRADESH BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION.
Syllabus of plus two (12th) examination
Higher Secondary is the most crucial stage of school education because
at this juncture specialized discipline based, content-oriented courses are
introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and
opt for Chemistry with a purpose of pursuing their career in basic sciences or
professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology and study courses
in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and
professional courses after the higher secondary stage.
The new and updated curriculum is based on disciplinary approach with
rigour and depth taking care that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same
time it is comparable to the international level. The knowledge related to the
subject of Chemistry has undergone tremendous changes during the past one
decade. Many new areas like synthetic materials, bio-molecules, natural
resources, industrial chemistry are coming in a big way and deserve to be an
integral part of chemistry syllabus at senior secondary stage. At international
level, new formulations and nomenclature of elements and compounds,
symbols and units of physical quantities floated by scientific bodies like IUPAC
and CGPM are of immense importance and need to be incorporated in the
updated syllabus. The revised syllabus takes care of all these aspects. Greater
emphasis has been laid on use of new nomenclature, symbols and
formulations, teaching of fundamental concepts, applications of concepts in
chemistry to industry/technology, logical sequencing of units, removal of
obsolete content and repetition etc.
The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage
are to help the learners :
c To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while
retaining the excitement of chemistry.
c To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and
professional courses (such as medicine technology) at tertiary level.
c To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and
apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their
application in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology.
c To equip students to face various changes related to health, nutrition,
environment, population, weather, industries and agriculture.
c To develop problem solving skills in students.
c To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their
c To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of
science such as physics, biology, geology, engineering etc.
c To acquaint students with different aspects of chemistry used in daily life.
c To develop an interest in students to study chemistry as a discipline.
One Paper Time: 3 Hours 60 Marks
Unit No. Title Marks
Unit I Solid State 3
Unit II Solutions 4
Unit III Electrochemistry 5
Unit IV Chemical Kinetics 4
Unit V Surface chemistry 3
Unit VI General Principles and processes of Isolation of Elements 2
Unit VII p-Block Elements 6
Unit VIII d-and f-Block Elements 5
Unit IX Coordination Compounds 3
Unit X Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 4
Unit XI Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 4
Unit XII Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids 5
Unit XIII Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen 4
Unit XIV Biomolecules 3
Unit XV Polymers 3
Unit XVI Chemistry in Everyday life 2
Unit I : Solid State (Periods 12)
Classification of solids based on different binding forces : molecular, ionic,
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids
(elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional
lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number
of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and
Unit II : Solutions (Periods 12)
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in
liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties -
relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of B.P. depression of
freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses
using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit III : Electrochemistry (Periods 14)
Redox reactions, conductance in electroytic solutions, specific and molar
conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's
Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cellelectroytic
cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell
standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to
chemical cells, fuel cells ; corrosion.
Unit IV : Chemical Kinetics (Periods 12)
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of
reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a
reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations
and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision
theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Unit V : Surface Chemistry (Periods 8)
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption factors affecting adsorption
of gases of solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous activity
and selectivity : enzyme catalysis; colloidal state : distinction between true
solutions colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular,
and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect,
Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion - types of
Unit VI : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction
electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of
aluminium, copper, zinc and Iron.
Unit VII : p-Block Elements (Periods 16)
Group 15 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration,
occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties;
nitrogen - preparation, properties and uses ; compounds of nitrogen;
preparation, properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen
(structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms ; compounds of
phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3,
PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only)
Group 16 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration,
oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties;
dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone.
Sulphur- allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur : preparation, properties
and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of
manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration,
oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties;
compounds of halogens : Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine
and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens
Group 18 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration.
Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII : d and f-Block Elements (Periods 14)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrene and
characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first
row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation
states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial
compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2 Cr2 O7
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical
reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit IX : Coordination Compounds (Periods 12)
Coordination Compounds - introduction, ligands and coordination number,
colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of
mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding; isomerism, importance
of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals
and biological systems).
Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. (Periods 12)
Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties,
meachanism of substitution reactions.
Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen
for monosubstituted compounds only)
Uses and environmental effects of -dichloromethane, trichloromethane,
tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI : Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12)
Alcohols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary
and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, some important
compounds-methanol and ethanol.
Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions,
uses of phenols
Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemcial
Unit XII : Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (Periods 12)
Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group,
methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and mechanism
of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII : Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen (Periods 10)
Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary,
secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides : will be mentioned at relevant places in
Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in
synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV : Biomolecules (Periods 12)
Carbohydrates : Classification, (aldoses and ketoses) monosaccharides,
(glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),
polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins : Elementary idea of a-amino acids: peptide bond, polypeptides,
proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structures and
quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins;
Vitamins : Classification and functions
Nucleic Acids : DNA & RNA.
Unit XV : Polymers (Periods 8)
Classification : natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition
and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers : natural
and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
Unit XVI : Chemistry in Everyday Life (Periods 8)
1. Chemicals in medicines : analygesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics,
disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids,
2. Chemics in food : preservatives, artificial sweetening agents,
3. Cleansing agents : soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
EVALUATION SCHEME FOR EXAMINATION MARKS
Volumetric Analysis 8 Marks
Salt Analysis 6 Marks
Content Based Experiment 3 Marks
Class Record and Viva 4 Marks
Investigatory Project 4 Marks
Total 25 Marks
A. Surface Chemistry (Periods 6)
(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.
Lyophilic sol-Starch, egg albumin and gum.
Lyophobic sol - aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsensious
(b) Study of the role of emulsifying agent in stabilizing the emulsions of
B. Chemical Kinetics (Periods 4)
(a) Effect of concentratiion and temperature on the rate of reaction
between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following :
(i) Reaction fo iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room
temperatue using different concentration of iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, KIO3 and sodium sulphite
: (Na2 SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
C. Thermochemistry (Periods 6)
(a) Any one of the following experiments :
(i) Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
(ii) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base
(iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen
bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.
D. Electrochemistry (Periods 2)
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+||CU2+/Cu with change in
concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature.
E. Chromatography (Periods 2)
(i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by pap
chromatography and determination of Rf values.
(ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing
cations only (constituents having wide difference in Rf values to be
F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (Periods 4)
(i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash
(ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.
G. Preparation of Organic Compounds (Periods 4)
Preparation of any two of the following compounds
(ii) Di-benzal acetone
(iv) Aniline yellow or 2- Napthol aniline dye.
H. Test for the functional groups present in organic compounds :
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and
amino (Primary groups).
I. Study of Carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure form and
detection of their presence in given food stuffs. (Periods 4)
J. Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by
titrating it against a standard solution of : (Periods 8)
(i) Oxalic acid
(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate.
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing
K. Qualitative analysis (Periods 16)
?? Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt
Cations - Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, AI3+, Fe3+ Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+,
Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+
Anions - CO32–, S2–, 2 2 - 3
SO3 ,SO4 , NO2, NO3 ,Cl ,Br , I ,PO4; C2O4
(Note Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting
information from other sources.
A Few suggested Projects
Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of
Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with
respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under
various conditions (temperature, concentration, time etc.)
Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and, effect of PH and
temperature on it.
Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following mateials: wheat
flour, gram, flour, Potato juice, carrot juice etc.
Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum),
Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil butter sugar, turmeric
powder, chilli powder and pepper.
Note : Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 period
of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.
BOOKS RECOMMENDED :
Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.
More articles: Syllabus