HIMACHAL PRADESH BOARD OF SCHOOL EDUCATION.
Syllabus of plus two (12th) examination
The present syllabus reinforces the ideas introduced in the lower classes
while the students learn new concepts besides getting an exposure to
contemporary areas of the subject. The syllabus also aims at emphasizing the
underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants as well as
highlighting the relationships of biology with other areas of knowledge. The
format of the syllabus allows a simple, clear, consequential flow of concepts
without any jarring jumps. The syllabus also stresses the connection of the
study of Biology to real life problems, use of biological discoveries/innovations in everyday life-in environment, nature, medicine, health and agriculture .
The updated syllabus also focuses on reducing the curriculum load while ensuring
that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic
concepts of the subject continues to be available within its framework.
The prescribed syllabus is expected to
c Promote understanding of basic principles of biology
c Learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and
c Encourage rational/specific attitude to issues related to population,
environment and development.
c Enhance awareness about environmental issues and problems and the
c Create awareness amongst the learners about variations amongst the
living and developing respect for the diversities and to appreciate that the
most complex biological phenomenon are also built on essentially simple
It is expected that the students would get an exposure to various
branches of Biology in the syllabus in a more contextual and friendly
manner as they study its various units.
One Paper Time : 3 Hours 60 Marks
1. Sexual reporduction 11
2. Genetics and evolution 17
3. Biology and human Welfare 10
4. Biotechnology and its applications 10
5. Ecology and environment 12
I. Sexual Reproduction (35 Periods)
Pollination and Fertilization in Flowering plants.
Development of seeds and fruits.
Human reproduction : reproductive system in male and female, menstrual
cycle. Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo
development, pregnancy and parturation.
Reproductive health-birth control, contraception and sexually transmitted
II. Genetics and evolution (45 Periods)
Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene
interaction-Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, complementary genes,
Sex determination in human beings : XX, XY
Linkage and crossing over.
Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings.
DNA : replication, transcription, translation.
Gene expression and regulation.
Genome and Human Genome Project.
Evolution : Theories and evidences.
III. Biology and Human Welfare (35 Periods)
Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production.
Microbes in household food processing, industrial production, sewage
treatment and ene generation.
Cancer and AIDS.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse.
IV Biotechnology and ITS Applications (30 Periods)
Recombinant DNA technology.
Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry
Genetically modified (GM) organisms; biosafety issues.
Insulin and Bt cotton.
V. Ecology & Environment (35 Periods)
Ecosystems : components, types and energy flow.
Species, population and community.
Centres of diversity and conservation of biodiversity National Parks and
sanctuaries, Environmental issues.
Time : 3 Hours 60 Periods
1. Two experiments 3 + 3 = 6
2. Slide preparation 4
3. spotting 6
4. Investigatory project and Viva based on the project 5
5. Record and Viva based on the experiment 4
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
2. Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and
3. Study the pH and Water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds
of plants found in them
4. Collect water from different water boides around you and study them for
pH clarity and presence of any living organisms.
5. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two
widely different sites.
6. Study of plant population density by quadrat method.
7. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.
STUDY/OBSERVATION OF THE FOLLOWING (SPOTTING)
1. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (weed,
2. Study of pollen germination on a slide.
3. Study and identify stages of gamete development i.e. t.s. testis and t.s
ovary through parmanent slide.
4. Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent
5. Study of t.s. of blastula through permanent slide.
6. Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any
7. Study prepared prediqree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of
tongue, blood groups, widow's peak,colour blindness.
8. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
9. To identify common diseases causing organism like Ascaris, Antamoeba,
Plasmo dium, ringworm. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they
cause through permanent slides or specimens.
10. Study plants and animals found in xerophytic condition. Comment upon
11. Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon
12. Study analogous and homologous organs in various plants and animals.
BOOKS RECOMMENDED :
Biology Published by N.C.E.R.T., NEW DELHI.
More articles: Biology