JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD
APPROVED SYLLABUS OF
M.TECH COURSE ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING
(From Academic Year 200506)
COURSE STRUCTURE AND SYLLABUS Name of the Course (Electrical power Engineering).
Title of Degree
Specialization, If any. Intake (Full time) Revised year for Commencement Entry Level Qualification M.Tech.
Electrical Power Engineering 18 200506 B.Tech. (EEE) Course Structure and Scheme of Evaluation (Semesterwise, along with curriculum details)
Name of the Subjects Hrs/Week Credits Evaluation (marks) Lecturer Tutorial Practical Internal External Total Theory Practical I Semester 1.Power System Dynamics 4   8 40 60  100 2.HVDC Transmission 4   8 40 60  100 3.Modern Control Theory 4   8 40 60  100 4. Microprocessors & Microcontrollers 4   8 40 60  100 5. Elective – I 4   8 40 60  100 6. Elective – II 4   8 40 60  100 7. Microprocessor & Micro Controller Lab   3 4 40  60 100 II Semester 1.Neural and Fuzzy Systems 4   8 40 60  100 2. Advanced Power System Protection 4   8 40 60  100 3. Power Quality 4   8 40 60  100 4. FACTS 4   8 40 60  100 5. Elective – III 4   8 40 60  100 6. Elective – IV 4   8 40 60  100 7. Electrical Systems Simulation Lab   3 4 40  60 100 III Semester Seminar & Project    8    100 IV Semester Project    24   Grade*
* Excellent/Good/Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory.
Elective I : 1. High Voltage Engineering and Insulation Coordination 2. Voltage Stability 3. Operation Research
Elective – II : 1. Analysis of Power Electronic Converters 2. Energy Conversion systems 3. Extra High Voltage Transmission
Elective –III : 1. Advanced Digital Signal Processing 2. Distribution Automation 3. Digital Control Systems
Elective – IV : 1. Enterprise Resource Planning 2. Power System Operation and control 3. Reliability Engineering
I  Semester POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS
Unit 1 Basic concepts: Power system stability states of operation and system security system dynamics problems system model analysis of steady State stability and transient stability, simplified representation of Excitation control.
Unit 2 Modeling of synchronous machine: synchronous machine park’s Transformation Transformation of flux linkages, Transformation of stator voltage equations and rotor equations.
Unit 3 Analysis of steady state performance, per unit quantities  Equivalent circuits of synchronous machine  determination of parameters of equivalent circuits.
Unit 4 Excitation system: Excitation system modeling, excitation systems block Diagram system representation by state equations.
Unit 5 Dynamics of a synchronous generator connected to infinite bus: system model Synchronous machine model, stator equations rotor equations, Synchronous machine model with field circuit and with field circuit and one equivalent damper winding on q axis (model 1.1), calculation of Initial conditions.
Unit 6 Analysis of single machine system: small signal analysis with block diagram Representation characteristic equation and application of routh hurwitz criterion
Unit 7 Synchronizing and damping torque analysis, small signal model State equations.
Unit 8 Application of power system stabilizers: basic concepts in applying PSS, Control signals, structure and tuning of PSS, washout circuit, dynamic compensator analysis of single machine infinite bus system with and without PSS.
Text book 1. Power system dynamics K.R. PADIYAR, B.S. Publications Hyderabad
Reference 1. Power system control and stability P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad John wiley sons H.V.D.C. TRANSMISSION
Unit 1 :H.V.D.C. Transmission : General considerations, Power Handling Capabilities of HVDC Lines, Basic Conversion principles, static converter configuration.
Unit 2 : Static Power Converters : 3pulse, 6pulse and 12pulse converters, converter station and Terminal equipment, commutation process, Rectifier and inverter operation, equivalent circuit for converter – special features of converter transformers.
Unit 3 : Harmonics in HVDC Systems, Harmonic elimination, AC and DC filters.
Unit 4 : Control of HVDC Converters and systems : constant current, constant extinction angle and constant Ignition angle control. Individual phase control and equidistant firing angle control, DC power flow control.
Unit 5 : Interaction between HV AC and DC systems – Voltage interaction, Harmonic instability problems and DC power modulation.
Unit 6 : Multiterminal DC links and systems; series, parallel and series parallel systems, their operation and control.
Unit 7 : Transient over voltages in HVDC systems : Over voltages due to disturbances on DC side, over voltages due to DC and AC side line faults
Unit 8:Converter faults and protection in HVDC Systems: Converter faults, over current protection  valve group, and DC line protection. Over voltage protection of converters, surge arresters.
Reference Books :
1. E.W. Kimbark : Direct current Transmission, Wiely Inter Science – NewYork.
1. J.Arillaga : H.V.D.C.Transmission Peter Peregrinus ltd., London UK 1983
2. K.R.Padiyar : High Voltage Direct current Transmission, Wiely Eastern Ltd., New Delhi – 1992.
3. E.Uhlman : Power Transmission by Direct Current, Springer Verlag, Berlin Helberg – 1985.
MODERN CONTROL THEORY UNIT –I MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES Fields, Vectors and Vector Spaces – Linear combinations and Bases – Linear Transformations and Matrices – Scalar Product and Norms – Eigenvalues, Eigen Vectors and a Canonical form representation of Linear operators – The concept of state – State Equations for Dynamic systems – Time invariance and Linearity – Nonuniqueness of state model – State diagrams for ContinuousTime State models .
UNIT II STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS Linear Continuous time models for Physical systems– Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to ContinuousTime State Equations – Solutions of Linear Time Invariant ContinuousTime State Equations – State transition matrix and it’s properties.
UNITIII CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY General concept of controllability – General concept of Observability – Controllability tests for ContinuousTime Invariant Systems – Observability tests for ContinuousTime Invariant Systems – Controllability and Observability of State Model in Jordan Canonical form – Controllability and Observability Canonical forms of State model.
UNIT IV NON LINEAR SYSTEMS I Introduction – Non Linear Systems  Types of NonLinearities – Saturation – DeadZone  Backlash – Jump Phenomenon etc;– Singular Points – Introduction to Linearization of nonlinear systems, Properties of NonLinear systems – Describing function–describing function analysis of nonlinear systems – Stability analysis of NonLinear systems through describing functions
UNITV NON LINEAR SYSTEMS II Introduction to phaseplane analysis, Method of Isoclines for Constructing Trajectories, singular points, phaseplane analysis of nonlinear control systems.
UNITVI STABILITY ANALYSIS Stability in the sense of Lyapunov, Lyapunov’s stability and Lypanov’s instability theorems  Stability Analysis of the Linear continuous time invariant systems by Lyapunov second method – Generation of Lyapunov functions – Variable gradient method – Krasooviski’s method.
UNIT VII STATE FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS AND OBSERVERS State feedback controller design through Pole Assignment – State observers: Full order and Reduced order
UNIT – VIII Introduction to optimal control  Formulation of optimal control problems – calculus of variations – fundamental concepts, functionals, variation of functionals – fundamental theorem of theorem of Calculus of variations – boundary conditions – constrained minimization – formulation using Hamiltonian method – Linear Quadratic regulator
TEXT BOOKS: 1. Modern Control System Theory by M.Gopal – New Age International 1984 1. Modern Control Engineering by Ogata.K – Prentice Hall  1997
REFERENCES: 1. Optimal control by Kircks MICROPROCESSORS & MICROCONTROLLERS
Unit 1: 8086/8088 processors : Introduction to 8086 Microprocessors, ,Architecture, Addressing modes, Instruction set, Register Organization, Assembler directives.
Unit 2: Hard ware description: Pindiagram signal description min & max modes, bus timing, ready & wait states, 8086 based micro computing system.
Unit 3: Special features & Related Programming : Stack structure of 8086, Memory segmentation, Interrupts, ISR, NMI, MI and interrupt Programming, Macros.
Unit 4: Advanced Microprocessors: Intel 80386 programming model ,memory paging, Introduction to 80486, Introduction to Pentium Microprocessors and special Pentium pro features.
Unit 5 :Basic peripherals & Their Interfacing:Memory Interfacing (DRAM) PPI Modes of operation of 8255 ,Interfacing to ADC & DAC.
Unit 6: Special Purpose of Programmable Peripheral Devices and Their interfacing :Programmable interval timer , 8253 , PIC 8259A,display controller Programmable communication Interface 8251,USART and Exercises.
Unit 7 :Microcontrollers : Introduction to Intel 8 bit &16 bit Microcontrollers, 8051 Architecture, Memory organization, Addressing Modes and exercises
Unit 8: Hardware description of 8051: Instruction formats ,Instruction sets, interrupt Structure & interrupt priorities, Port structures &Operation linear counter Functions ,different Modes of Operation and Programming examples.
TEXT BOOKS : 1.”The Intel Microprocessors” Architecture Programming &Interfacing by Barry b Brey. 2.Advanceed Microprocessors by kenrith J Ayala , Thomson publishers. 3.Microcontrollers by kentrith J ayala,Thomson publishers.
Reference Books: 1. Microprocessors & Interfacing Programming & Hard ware by DOUGLAS V.Hall 2. Microprocessors & Microcontrollers by Prof. C.R.Sarma
HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING & INSULATION COORDINATION (Elective  I)
Unit 1: Conduction and Breakdown in Gases: Ionization process, Twonsend’s current growth equation, current growth in the secondary processes, Twonsend’s criterion for breakdown, streamer theory of breakdown in gases, Paschen law, breakdown in non uniform fields and corona discharge. Unit 2: Conduction, Breakdown in liquids and solids: Pure liquids and commercial liquids, conduction and breakdown in pure liquids, breakdown in solids dielectrics, Intrinsic breakdown, Electromechanical breakdown and thermal breakdown. Unit 3: Generation of High Voltage and Currents: Generation of high D.C. generation of high alternating voltages, generation of impulse voltages, generation of impulse currents, tripping and control of impulse generators Unit 4: Measurement of high voltage and currents: Measurement of high d.c.voltages, Measurement of high a.c. and impulse voltages, Measurement of high d.c., a.c. and impulse currents. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope for impulse voltage and current measurements. Unit 5: Testing of Materials and Apparatus Measurement of D.C. resistivity, measurement of dielectric constant and loss factor, partial discharge measurements, testing of insulators, bushing, circuits breakers, transformers and surge divertors. Unit 6: Over Voltage Phenomenon Insulation Coordination: Causes of over voltage, lighting phenomenon, switching over voltages and power frequency over voltages in power systems, Unit 7: Insulation Coordination: Principle of insulation coordination on high voltage and extra high voltage power systems. Unit 8: Gas insulated substations: Advantages of Gas Insulated Substations, Comparison of Gas Insulated substations and Air Insulated Substations, Design and Layout of Gas Insulated Substations, Description of Various components in GIS.
TEXT BOOKS: 1. High Voltage Engineering by M.S.Naidu and V.Kamaraju – TMH. 2. High Voltage Engineering fundamentals by Kuffel and Zungel, Elsavier Publications 3. Switchgear By BHEL, TMH REFERENCES: 1. Fundamentals of Gaseous Ionization and plasma Electronics by Essam Nasser – Wiley  Inter Science. 2. High Voltage Technology by ALSTOM 3. Gaseous Dielectrics by Arora, TMH
VOLTAGE STABILITY
Unit – 1: Introduction to Voltage Stability
Definitions: Voltage Stability, Voltage Collapse, Voltage Security; Physical relation indicating dependency of voltage on reactive power flow; Factors affecting Voltage collapse and instability; Previous cases of voltage collapse incidences.
Unit – 2: Graphical Analysis of Voltage Stability Comparison of Voltage and angular stability of the system; Graphical Methods describing voltage collapse phenomenon: PV and QV curves; detailed description of voltage collapse phenomenon with the help of QV curves.
Unit – 3: Analysis of Voltage Stability Analysis of voltage stability on SMLB system: Analytical treatment and analysis.
Unit – 4: Voltage Stability Indices Voltage collapse proximity indicator; Determinant of Jacobin as proximity indicators; Voltage stability margin.
Unit – 5: Power System Loads Loads that influences voltage stability: Discharge lights, Induction Motor, Airconditioning, heat pumps, electronic power supplies, OH lines and cables.
Unit – 6: Reactive Power Compensation Generation and Absorption of reactive power; Series and Shunt compensation; Synchronous condensers, SVC s; OLTC s; Booster Transformers.
Unit – 7: Voltage Stability Margin Stabilty Margin: Compensated and uncomensated systems.
Unit – 8: Voltage Security Definition; Voltage security; Methods to improve voltage stability and its practical aspects.
Text Books: 1) “Performance, operation and control of EHV power transmission system” A.CHAKRABARTHY, D.P. KOTARI and A.K.MUKOPADYAY, A.H.Wheeler Publishing, I Edition, 1995. 2) “Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control” – K.R.PADIYAR, II Edition, B.S.Publications.
Reference: “Power System Voltage Stability” C.W.TAYLOR, Mc Graw Hill, 1994. OPERATION RESEARCH (Elective  I)
Unit 1: Linear Programming Problem: Formulation – Graphical method  Simplex method – Artificial variable techniques – BigM tune –phase methods Unit 2: Duality theorem – Dual simplex method – Sensitivity analysis  effect of changes in cost coefficients, Constraint constants, Addition/Deletion of variables & constraints Unit 3: Transportation problem – formulation – Initial basic feasible solution methods – Northwest, Least cost & Vogels methods, MODI optimization  Unbalanced & degeneracy treatment Unit 4: Assignment problem – Formulation – Hungarian method – Variants of assignment problems, Sequencing problems – Flow shop sequencing – n jobs?2 machines sequencing  n jobs?3 machines sequencing – Jobshop sequencing – 2 jobs?m machines sequencing – Graphical methods Unit 5: Game Theory  Introduction  Terminology – Saddle point games  with out Saddle point games  2?2 games, analytical method  2?n and m?2 games – graphical method – dominance principle Unit 6: Dynamic programming – Bellman’s principle of optimality – short route – capital investment – inventory allocation Unit 7: Non linear optimization – Single variable optimization problem – Unimodal function  Elimination methods – Fibinocci & Golden reaction methods  Interpolation methods  Quadratic & cubic interpotation method. Multi variable optimization problem – Direct research methods – Univariant method – Pattern search methods – Powell’s , HookJeaves & Rosenbrock’s search method. Unit 8: Geometric programming – Polynomial – Arithmetic – Seametric inequality – Unconstrained G.P – Constraint G.P with ? type constraint. Simulation: Definition – Types steps Simulation of simple electrical systems – Advantages and Disadvantages
TEXT BOOKS: 1. Optimization theory & Applications – S.S.Rao, New Age Internationals 2. Operations Research  S.D.Sharma, Galgotia publishers 3. Operations Research – Kausur & Kumar, Spinger Publishers
REFERENCES: 1. Optimization techniques: Theory & Practice – M.C.Joshi & K.M. More Ugalya, Narosa Publications 2. Optimization : Theory & Practice – Beweridze, Mc Graw Hill 3. Simulation Modelling & Analysis – Law & Kelton –TMH 4. Optimization Concepts and Applications in Engineering A.D. Belegundu , J.R. Chandrupata, Pearson Education, Asia
ANALYSIS OF POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS ( Elective II)
Unit I Single Phase AC Voltage Controllers. Single phase AC voltage controllers with Resistive, Resistiveinductive and Resistiveinductiveinduced e.m.f. loads – ac voltage controllers with PWM Control – Effects of source and load inductances  Synchronous tap changers Applications  numerical problems.
Unit II Three Phase AC Voltage Controllers. Three phase AC voltage controllers – Analysis of controllers with star and delta Connected Resistive, Resistiveinductive loads – Effects of source and load Inductances – applications – numerical problems.
Unit III Cycloconverters. Single phase to single phase cycloconverters – analysis of midpoint and bridge Configurations – Three phase to three phase cycloconverters – analysis of Midpoint and bridge configurations – Limitations – Advantages – Applications  numerical problems.
Unit IV Single Phase Converters. Single phase converters – Half controlled and Fully controlled converters – Evaluation of input power factor and harmonic factor – continuous and Discontinuous load current – single phase dual converters – power factor Improvements – Extinction angle control – symmetrical angle control – PWM – single phase sinusoidal PWM – single phase series converters – Applications  Numerical problems.
Unit V Three Phase Converters. Three phase converters – Half controlled and fully controlled converters – Evaluation of input power factor and harmonic factor – continuous and Discontinuous load current – three phase dual converters – power factor Improvements – three phase PWM  twelve pulse converters – applications – Numerical problems.
Unit VI D.C. to D.C. Converters. Analysis of stepdown and stepup dc to dc converters with resistive and Resistiveinductive loads – Switched mode regulators – Analysis of Buck Regulators  Boost regulators – buck and boost regulators – Cuk regulators – Condition for continuous inductor current and capacitor voltage – comparison Of regulators –Multiouput boost converters – advantages – applications – Numerical problems.
Unit VII Pulse Width Modulated Inverters(single phase). Principle of operation – performance parameters – single phase bridge inverter  evaluation of output voltage and current with resistive, inductive and Capacitive loads – Voltage control of single phase inverters – single PWM – Multiple PWM – sinusoidal PWM – modified PWM – phase displacement Control – Advanced modulation techniques for improved performance – Trapezoidal, staircase, stepped, harmonic injection and delta modulation – Advantage – application – numerical problems.
Unit VIII Pulse Width Modulated Inverters(three phase). Three phase inverters – analysis of 180 degree condition for output voltage And current with resistive, inductive loads – analysis of 120 degree Conduction – voltage control of three phase inverters – sinusoidal PWM – Third Harmonic PWM – 60 degree PWM – space vector modulation – Comparison of PWM techniques – harmonic reductions – Current Source Inverter – variable d.c. link inverter – boost inverter – buck and boost inverter  inverter circuit design – advantages – applications – numerical problems.
Text books: 1. Power Electronics – Mohammed H. Rashid – Pearson Education – Third Edition – First Indian reprint 2004.
2. Power Electronics – Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland and William P. Robbins – John Wiley & Sons – Second Edition.
ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS (Elective  II) Unit 1: Photo voltaic power generation ,spectral distribution of energy in solar radiation, solar cell configurations, voltage developed by solar cell, photo current and load current, practical solar cell performance, commercial photo voltaic systems, test specifications for pv systems, applications of super conducting materials in electrical equipment systems.
Unit 2: Principles of MHD power generation, ideal MHD generator performance, practical MHD generator, MHD technology.
Unit 3: Wind Energy conversion: Power from wind, properties of air and wind, types of wind Turbines, operating characteristics.
Unit 4: Tides and tidal power stations, modes of operation , tidal project examples, turbines and generators for tidal power generation. Wave energy conversion: properties of waves and power content, vertex motion of Waves, device applications. Types of ocean thermal energy conversion systems Application of OTEC systems examples,
Unit 5: Miscellaneous energy conversion systems: coal gasification and liquefaction, biomass conversion, geothermal energy, thermo electric energy conversion, principles of EMF generation, description of fuel cells
Unit 6: Cogeneration and energy storage, combined cycle cogeneration, energy storage. Global energy position and environmental effects: energy units, global energy position..
Unit 7: Types of fuel cells, H2O2 Fuel cells, Application of fuel cells – Batteries, Description of batteries, Battery application for large power.
Unit 8: Environmental effects of energy conversion systems, pollution from coal and preventive measures steam stations and pollution, pollution free energy systems.
TEXT BOOKS 1. “Energy conversion systems” by Rakosh das Begamudre, New age international publishers, New Delhi  2000. 2. “Renewable Energy Resources” by John Twidell and Tony Weir, 2nd edition, Fspon & Co
EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION
Unit 1 : E.H.V. A.C. Transmission line trends and preliminary aspects standard transmission voltages – power handling capacities and line losses – mechanical aspects.
Unit 2 : Calculation of line resistance and inductances : resistance of conductors, temperature rise of conductor and current carrying capacity. Properties of bundled conductors and geometric mean radims of bundle, inductance of two conductor lines and multi – conductor lines, Maxwell’s coefficient matrix.
Unit 3 : Line capacitance calculation : capacitance of two conductor line, and capacitance of multi conductor lines, potential coefficients for bundled conductor lines, sequence inductances and capacitances and diagonalization.
Unit 4 : Calculation of electro static field traveling waves due to corona – Audio noise die to corona, its generation, characteristics and limits measurement of audio noise.
Unit 5 : Surface voltage Gradient on conductors, surface gradient on 2 conductor bundle and consine law, Maximum surface voltage gradient of bundle with more than 3 sub conductors, Mangolt formula. Unit 6 : Corona : Corona in EHV lines – corona loss formulate – attenuation of traveling waves due to corona – Audio noise due to corona, its generation, characteristics and limits measurement of audio noise.
Unit 7 : Power Frequency voltage control : Problems at power frequency, generalized constants, No load voltage conditions and charging currents, voltage control using synchronous conductor, cas cade connection of components : Shunt and series compensation, sub synchronous resonance in series – capacitor compensated lines
Unit 8 : Static reactive compensatiog systems : Introduction, SVC schemes, Harmonics injected in to network by TCR, design of filters for suppressing harmonics injected in to the system.
Reference Books :
1. Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering – Rakosh Das Begamudre, Wiley Eastem ltd., New Delhi – 1987. 2. EHV Transmission line reference book – Edision Electric Institute (GEC) 1986.
MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS LAB
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
I Microprocessor 8086
1) Introduction to MASM / TASM 2) Arithmetic operations : Multi byte addition, subtraction, Multiplication and Division, Signed and Unsigned Arithmetic operation, ASCII – arithmetic. 3) Logic operations : Shift and rotate – converting packed BCD to unpacked BCD, BCD to ASCII conversion. 4) By using string operation and instruction prefix – Move block, reverse string, sorting, inserting, deleting, length of string, string comparison. 5) Modular programming – Procedure, near and far implementation, recursion. 1) DOS/BIOS programming – Reading key board (buffered with and without echo) – display characters, string.
II Interfacing to 8086
1) 8259 – interrupt controller 2) 8279 – keyboard / display 3) 8255 – PPI 4) 8251 – USART 5) Stepper Motor 6) Traffic light control 7) GPIB (IEEE 488) Interface 8) Numeric printer interface 9) RTC interface 10) A/D and D/A 1) DMA interface 2) FDCEPROM Programmer Interface
III Microcontroller 8051
1) Reading and writing on a parallel port 2) Timer in different modes 3) Serial communication implementation 4) Understanding three memory areas of 00FF (Programs using above areas) 5) ing external interrupts 1) Programs using special instructions like SWAP, Bit/Byte, Set/ Reset etc. 2) Program based on sort, Page, absolute addressing.
II Semester
NEURAL & FUZZY SYSTEMS
Unit – I: Introduction to Neural Networks Introduction, Humans and Computers, Organization of the Brain, Biological Neuron, Biological and Artificial Neuron Models, HodgkinHuxley Neuron Model, IntegrateandFire Neuron Model, Spiking Neuron Model, Characteristics of ANN, McCullochPitts Model, Historical Developments, Potential Applications of ANN.
Unit II: Essentials of Artificial Neural Networks Artificial Neuron Model, Operations of Artificial Neuron, Types of Neuron Activation Function, ANN Architectures, Classification Taxonomy of ANN – Connectivity, Neural Dynamics (Activation and Synaptic), Learning Strategy (Supervised, Unsupervised, Reinforcement), Learning Rules, Types of Application
Unit–III: Feed Forward Neural Networks Introduction, Perceptron Models: Discrete, Continuous and MultiCategory, Training Algorithms: Discrete and Continuous Perceptron Networks, Perceptron Convergence theorem, Limitations of the Perceptron Model, Applications. Multilayer Feed forward Neural Networks Credit Assignment Problem, Generalized Delta Rule, Derivation of Backpropagation (BP) Training, Summary of Backpropagation Algorithm, Kolmogorov Theorem, Learning Difficulties and Improvements.
Unit IV: Associative Memories Paradigms of Associative Memory, Pattern Mathematics, Hebbian Learning, General Concepts of Associative Memory (Associative Matrix, Association Rules, Hamming Distance, The Linear Associator, Matrix Memories, Content Addressable Memory), Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) Architecture, BAM Training Algorithms: Storage and Recall Algorithm, BAM Energy Function, Proof of BAM Stability Theorem Architecture of Hopfield Network: Discrete and Continuous versions, Storage and Recall Algorithm, Stability Analysis, Capacity of the Hopfield Network.
Unit V: SelfOrganizing Maps (SOM) and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) Introduction, Competitive Learning, Vector Quantization, SelfOrganized Learning Networks, Kohonen Networks, Training Algorithms, Linear Vector Quantization, StabilityPlasticity Dilemma, Feed forward competition, Feedback Competition, Instar, Outstar, ART1, ART2, Applications.
Unit – VI: Classical & Fuzzy Sets Introduction to classical sets  properties, Operations and relations; Fuzzy sets, Membership, Uncertainty, Operations, properties, fuzzy relations, cardinalities, membership functions.
UNIT VII: Fuzzy Logic System Components Fuzzification, Membership value assignment, development of rule base and decision making system, Defuzzification to crisp sets, Defuzzification methods.
UNIT VIII: Applications Neural network applications: Process identification, Function Approximation, control and Process Monitoring, fault diagnosis and load forecasting. Fuzzy logic applications: Fuzzy logic control and Fuzzy classification.
TEXT BOOK: 1. Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms: synthesis and applications by Rajasekharan and Rai – PHI Publication. 2. Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems  Jacek M. Zuarda, Jaico Publishing House, 1997.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Neural and Fuzzy Systems: Foundation, Architectures and Applications,  N. Yadaiah and S. Bapi Raju, Pearson Education 2. Neural Networks – James A Freeman and Davis Skapura, Pearson, 2002. 3. Neural Networks – Simon Hykins , Pearson Education 4. Neural Engineering by C.Eliasmith and CH.Anderson, PHI 5. Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic System by Bork Kosko, PHI Publications
DVANCED POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION
Unit 1: Primary and back up protection, current transformers for protection, potential transformer, review of electromagnetic relays static relays. Unit 2: Over current relays time current characteristic, current setting time setting, directional relay, static over current relays. Unit 3: Distance protection : impedance, reactance, mho, angle impedance relays. Input quantities for various types of distance relays, effect of arc resistance on the performance of distance relays, selection of distance relays. MHO relay with blinders, quadrilateral relay, elliptical relay. Restricted mho, impedance directional, reactance relays. Swiveling characteristics. Unit 4: Compensation for correct distance measurement, reduction of measuring units switched schemes. Pilot relaying schemes. Wire pilot protection, circulating current scheme, balanced voltage scheme, transley scheme , carrier current protection, phase comparison carrier current protection, carrier aided distance protection. Unit 5: Digital relaying algorithms, differential equation technique, discrete fourier transform technique, walshhadamard transform technique, rationalized harr transform technique, removal of dc offset
Unit 6: Introduction to Microprocessors: review of microprocessors and interfacing. single chip microcomputers programmable interval timer, A/D converter. Unit 7: Microprocessor based protective relays: over current, directional, impedance, reactance relays. Generalized mathematical expressions for distance relays, mho and offset mho relays, quadrilateral relay. . Unit 8: Microprocessor implementation of digital distance relaying algorithms.
Text book 1. Power system protection & switchgear by Badri ram & vishwakarma, TMH publication New Delhi 1995.
2. Power System Protection by Madhava Rao TMH
Reference Books 1. Power System by Ravindra Nath and Chandar PHI.
POWER QUALITY
Unit 1: Introduction : Introduction of the Power Quality (PQ) problem, Terms used in PQ: Voltage, Sag, Swell, Surges, Harmonics, over voltages, spikes, Voltage fluctuations, Transients, Interruption, overview of power quality phenomenon, Remedies to improve power quality, power quality monitoring Unit 2: Long Interruptions Interruptions – Definition – Difference between failure, outage, Interruptions – causes of Long Interruptions – Origin of Interruptions – Limits for the Interruption frequency – Limits for the interruption duration – costs of Interruption – Overview of Reliability evaluation to power quality, comparison of observations and reliability evaluation. Unit 3: Short Interruptions Short interruptions – definition, origin of short interruptions, basic principle, fuse saving, voltage magnitude events due to reclosing, voltage during the interruption, monitoring of short interruptions, difference between medium and low voltage systems. Multiple events, single phase tripping – voltage and current during fault period, voltage and current at post fault period, stochastic prediction of short interruptions. Unit 4: Voltage sag – characterization – Single phase: Voltage sag – definition, causes of voltage sag, voltage sag magnitude, monitoring, theoretical calculation of voltage sag magnitude, voltage sag calculation in nonradial systems, meshed systems, voltage sag duration. Unit 5: Voltage sag – characterization – Three phase: Three phase faults, phase angle jumps, magnitude and phase angle jumps for three phase unbalanced sags, load influence on voltage sags. Unit 6: PQ considerations in Industrial Power Systems: Voltage sag – equipment behaviour of Power electronic loads, induction motors, synchronous motors, computers, consumer electronics, adjustable speed AC drives and its operation. Mitigation of AC Drives, adjustable speed DC drives and its operation, mitigation methods of DC drives. Unit 7: Mitigation of Interruptions and Voltage Sags: Overview of mitigation methods – from fault to trip, reducing the number of faults, reducing the fault clearing time changing the power system, installing mitigation equipment, improving equipment immunity, different events and mitigation methods. System equipment interface – voltage source converter, series voltage controller, shunt controller, combined shunt and series controller. Unit 8: Power Quality and EMC Standards: Introduction to standardization, IEC Electromagnetic compatibility standards, European voltage characteristics standards, PQ surveys. Reference Book:
“Understanding Power Quality Problems” by Math H J Bollen. IEEE Press.
FLEXIBLE AC. TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Unit 1: FACTS Concepts: Transmission interconnections power flow in an AC system, loading capability limits, Dynamic stability considerations, importance of controllable parameters basic types of FACTS controllers, benefits from FACTS controllers. Unit 2:Voltage Source Converters: Single phase three phase full wave bridge converters transformer connections for 12 pulse 24 and 48 pulse operation. Unit 3: Three level voltage source converter, pulse width modulation converter, basic concept of current source Converters, comparison of current source converters with voltage source converters. Unit 4: Static Shunt Compensation: Objectives of shunt compensation, mid point voltage regulation voltage instability prevention, improvement of transient stability, Power oscillation damping, Unit 5: Methods of controllable var generation, variable impedance type static var generators switching converter type var generators hybrid var generators. Unit 6: SVC and STATCOM: The regulation and slope transfer function and dynamic performance, transient stability enhancement and power oscillation damping operating point control and summary of compensator control. Unit 7: Static Series Compensators: concept of series capacitive compensation, improvement of transient stabillity, power oscillation damping Unit 8: Functional requirements. GTO thyristor controlled series capacitor(GSC) , thyristor switched series capacitor(TSSC), and thrystor controlledseries capaci tor(TCSC) control schemes for GSC TSSC and TCSC.
Text Book : 1. “ Understanding FACTS Devices” N.G. Hingorani and L. Guygi. IEEE Press Publications 2000.
ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
UNITI: Digital Filter Structure Block diagram representationEquivalent StructuresFIR and IIR digital filter Structures All pass Filterstunable IIR Digital FiltersIIR tapped cascaded Lattice StructuresFIR cascaded Lattice structuresParallelDigital Sinecosine generatorComputational complexity of digital filter structures.
UNITII: Digital filter design Preliminary considerationsBilinear transformation method of IIR filter designdesign of Low pass highpassBandpass, and Band stop IIR digital filtersSpectral transformations of IIR filters FIR filter designbased on Windowed Fourier series design of FIR digital filters with least –mean Squareerrorconstrained Leastsquare design of FIR digital filters
UNITIII: DSP algorithm implementation Computation of the discrete Fourier transform Number representationArithmetic operationshandling of overflowTunable digital filtersfunction approximation.
UNITIV Analysis of finite Word length effects The Quantization process and errors Quantization of fixed point and floating point NumbersAnalysis of coefficient Quantization effects  Analysis of Arithmetic Roundoff errorsDynamic range scalingsignal to noise ratio in Low order IIR filtersLowSensitivity Digital filtersReduction of Product roundoff errors using error feedbackLimit cycles in IIR digital filters Roundoff errors in FFT Algorithms.
UNIT V: Power Spectrum Estimation Estimation of spectra from Finite Duration Observations signals – Nonparametric methods for power spectrum Estimation – parametric method for power spectrum EstimationEstimation of spectral formFinite duration observation of signalsNonparametric methods for power spectrum estimationWalsh methodsBlackman & torchy method. Reference Books:
1. Digital signal processingsanjit K. MitraTMH second edition 2. Discrete Time Signal Processing – Alan V.Oppenheim, Ronald W.Shafer  PHI1996 1st edition9th reprint 3 Digital Signal Processing principles, algorithms and Applications – John G.Proakis PHI –3rd edition2002 4 Digital Signal Processing – S.Salivahanan, A.Vallavaraj, C. Gnanapriya – TMH  2nd reprint2001 5 Theory and Applications of Digital Signal ProceesingLourensR. Rebinar&Bernold Digital Filter Analysis and DesignAuntonianTMH
*** DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION
Unit 1: Distribution Automation and the utility system : Introduction to Distribution Automation (DA), control system interfaces, control and data requirements, centralized (Vs) decentralized control, DA System (DAS), DA Hardware, DAS software. Unit 2: Distribution Automation Functions : DA capabilities, Automation system computer facilities, management processes, Information management, system reliability management, system efficiency management, voltage management, Load management. Unit 3: Communication Systems for DA : DA communication requirements, Communication reliability, Cost effectiveness, Data rate requirements, Two way capability, Ability to communicate during outages and faults, Ease of operation and maintenance, Conforming to the architecture of data flow
Unit 4: Communication systems used in DA : Distribution line carrier (Power line carrier), Ripple control, Zero crossing technique, telephone, cable TV, Radio, AM broadcast, FM SCA, VHF Radio, UHF Radio, Microwave satellite. fiber optics, Hybrid Communication systems, Communication systems used in field tests. Unit 5: Technical Benefits : DA benefit categories, Capital deferred savings, Operation and Maintenance savings, Interruption related savings, Customer related savings, Operational savings, Improved operation, Function benefits, Potential benefits for functions, function shared benefits, Guide lines for formulation of estimating equations Unit 6: Parameters required, economic impact areas, Resources for determining benefits impact on distribution system, integration of benefits into economic evaluation. Unit 7: Economic Evaluation Methods : Development and evaluation of alternate plans, Select study area, Select study period, Project load growth, Develop Alternatives, Calculate operating and maintenance costs, Evaluate alternatives. Unit 8: Economic comparision of alternate plans, Classification of expenses and capital expenditures, Comparision of revenue requirements of alternative plans, Book Life and Continuing plant analysis, Year by year revenue requirement analysis, short term analysis, end of study adjustment, Break even analysis, Sensitivity analysis computational aids.
REFERENCE :
1. IEEE Tutorial Course “Distribution Automation” IEEE Working Group on “Distribution Automation”
DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
UNIT – I SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Introduction, sample and hold operations, Sampling theorem, Reconstruction of original sampled signal to continuoustime signal.
THE Z – TRANSFORMS Introduction, Linear difference equations, pulse response, Z – transforms, Theorems of Z – Transforms, the inverse Z – transforms, Modified Z Transforms.
UNITII ZPLANE ANALYSIS OF DISCRETETIME CONTROL SYSTEM ZTransform method for solving difference equations; Pulse transforms function, block diagram analysis of sampled – data systems, mapping between splane and zplane: Primary strips and Complementary Strips.
UNIT – III STATE SPACE ANALYSIS
State Space Representation of discrete time systems, Pulse Transfer Function Matrix solving discrete time state space equations, State transition matrix and it’s Properties, Methods for Computation of State Transition Matrix, Discretization of continuous time state – space equations
UNIT – IV CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY
Concepts of Controllability and Observability, Tests for controllability and Observability. Duality between Controllability and Observability, Controllability and Observability conditions for Pulse Transfer Function.
UNIT – V STABILITY ANALYSIS
Stability Analysis of closed loop systems in the ZPlane. Jury stablility test – Stability Analysis by use of the Bilinear Transformation and Routh Stability criterion. Stability analysis using Liapunov theorems.
UNIT – VI DESIGN OF DISCRETE TIME CONTROL SYSTEM BY CONVENTIONAL METHODS
Design of digital control based on the frequency response method – Bilinear Transformation and Design procedure in the wplane, Lead, Lag and LeadLag compensators and digital PID controllers. Design digital control through deadbeat response method.
UNIT – VII STATE FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS AND OBSERVERS
Design of state feedback controller through pole placement – Necessary and sufficient conditions, Ackerman’s formula. State Observers – Full order and Reduced order observers.
UNIT – VIII Linear Quadratic Regulators Min/Max principle, Linear Quadratic Regulators, Kalman filters, State estimation through Kalman filters, introduction to adaptive controls.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. DiscreteTime Control systems  K. Ogata, Pearson Education/PHI, 2nd Edition 2. Digital Control and State Variable Methods by M.Gopal, TMH
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Digital Control Systems, Kuo, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2003. 2. Digital Control Engineering, M.Gopal *** ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ELECTIVEIV)
Unit 1: General modes for ERP, Integrated management information; Benefits of ERP.Business modelling for ERP.
Unit 2: Representative lists of various core processes and of entities forming data model.
Unit 3: Problem statement ; Key issues; Implementation methodology and guidelines. ERP Domain in power plants: Power plant management, Project management, Operation management, Maintenance Management, Fuel management, Materials management, Human resource management, Finance management, Safety management, and Environment management Unit 4: Introduction to IRP and DSM; Framework of DSM.
Unit 5: Customer load control; Interruptible electric service; Various evaluation criteria, Rate design in DSM: Objectives, Time  of  use (TOU) rate.
Unit 6: Market planning, generic load  shape changes
Unit 7: Evaluating DSM programs, an overview of detailed evaluation approach.
Unit 8: Cost benefit analysis, consumer perspective, utility perspective. Customer acceptance of DSM programs. Strategic marketing, Marketing implementation strategies.
REFERENCES :
1. Vinod Kumar Garg and N.K. Venkita Krishnan : “Enterprise Resource Planning  Concepts and Practice”, Prentice  Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 1999
2. C.W. Gellings and J.G. Chamberlin : “Demand  Side Management : Concepts and Methods”, The Fairmont Press, Inc, 1993.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
Unit 1 : Unit commitment problem : Introductions to UCP, thermal & Hydral constraints in Unit commitment : Priority list scheme method, unit commitment problem solution by priority list scheme method,
Unit 2 : Unit commitment problem solutions by Dynamic programming Approach. Introduction, advantages of DP method over priority list scheme, Back word DP approach, forward DP approach algorithm and their flow charts solution UCP using Dynamic program method.
Unit 3 : Load Frequency ControlI : Necessity of keeping frequency constant. Definition of control area, single area control, Block diagram representation of an isolated Power System, Steady State analysis, Dynamic responseUncontrolled case.
Unit 4 : Proportional plus Integral control of single area and its block diagram representation, steady state response, load frequency control and Economic dispatch control.
Unit 5 : Load Frequency ControlII : Load frequency control of 2area system : uncontrolled case and controlled case, tietime bias control.
Unit 6 : Optimal LF controlsteady state representation, performance Index and optimal parameter adjustment.
Unit 7 : Generation with limited Energy supply : Takeorpay fuel supply contract, composite generation production cost function. Solution by gradient search techniques, Hard limits and slack variables, Fuel scheduling by linear programming.
Unit 8 : Interchange Evaluation and Power Pools Economy Interchange, Economy interchange Evaluation, Interchange Evaluation with unit commitment, Multiple Interchange contracts. Afterthefact production costing, Transmission Losses in transaction Evaluation, other types of Interchange, power pools.
Reference Books :
1. Power Generation, Operation and Control  by A.J.Wood and B.F.Wollenberg,John wiley & sons Inc. 1984. 2. Electrical Energy Systems Theory  by O.I.Elgerd, Tata Mc GrawHill Publishing Company Ltd, 2nd edition. 3. Modern Power System Analysis  by I.J.Nagrath & D.P.Kothari, Tata Mc GrawHill Publishing Company ltd, 2nd edition.
RELIABILITY ENGINEERING (ELECTIVEIV) Unit 1: Elements of probability theory Probability distributions : Random variables, density and distribution functions. Mathematical expectation. Binominal distribution, Poisson distribution, normal distribution, exponential distribution, Weibull distribution. Unit 2: Definition of Reliability. Significance of the terms appearing in the definition. Component reliability, Hazard rate, derivation of the reliability function in terms of the hazarad rate. Hazard models. Unit 3: Failures: Causes of failures, types of failures ( early failures, chance failures and wearout failues). Modes of failure. Bath tub curve. Effect of preventive maintenance. Measures of reliability: mean time to failure and mean time between failures. Unit 4: Reliability logic diagrams ( reliability block diagrams) Classification of engineering systems: series, parallel, seriesparallel, parallelseries and nonseriesparallel configurations. Expressions for the reliability of the basic configurations. Unit 5: Reliability evaluation of Nonseriesparallel configurations: minimal tieset, minimal cutset and decomposition methods. Deduction of the minimal cutsets from the minimal pathsets. Unit 6: Discrete Markov Chains: General modelling concepts, stochastic transitional probability matrix, time dependent probability evaluation and limiting state probability evaluation. Absorbing states. Unit 7: Continuous Markov Processes: Modelling concepts, State space diagrams, Stochastic Transitional Probability Matrix, Evaluating limiting state Probabilities. Reliability evaluation of repairable systems. Unit 8: Series systems, parallel systems with two and more than two components, Network reduction techniques. Minimal cutset/failure mode approach. TEXT BOOKS : 1. “ RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF ENGINEERING SYSTEMS”, Roy Billinton and Ronald N Allan, Plenum Press. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS SIMULATION LAB
1. Write program and simulate dynamical system of following models: a) I/O Model b) State variable model Also identify time domain specifications of each. 2. Obtain frequency response of a given system by using various methods: (a) General method of finding the frequency domain specifications. (b) Polar plot (c) Bode plot Also obtain the Gain margin and Phase margin. 3. Determine stability of a given dynamical system using following methods. a) Root locus b) Bode plot c) Nyquist plot d) Liapunov stability criteria 4. Transform a given dynamical system from I/O model to state variable model and vice versa. 5. Obtain model matrix of a given system, obtain its diagonalize form if exists or obtain Jordon Canonical form of system. 6. Write a program and implement linear quadratic regulator 7. Design a compensator for a given systems for required specifications. 8. Conduct a power flow study on a given power system. 9. Design a PID controller. 10. Conduct a power flow study on a given power system network using GuassSeidel iterative method. 11. Develop a program to solve Swing Equation. 12. Develop a Simulink model for a single area load frequency problem and simulate the same. 13. Develop a Simulink model for a twoarea load frequency problem and simulate the same. 14. Design a PID controller for twoarea power system and simulate the same. 15. PSPICE Simulation of Single phase full converter using RL&E loads. 16. PSPICE Simulation of Three phase full converter using RL&E loads. 17. PSPICE Simulation of Single phase AC Voltage controller using RL load. 18. PSPICE Simulation of Three phase inverter with PWM controller. 19. PSPICE Simulation of resonant pulse commutation circuit. 20. PSPICE Simulation of impulse commutation circuit.
