JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
APPROVED SYLLABUS OF
ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING
(From Academic Year 2005-06)
COURSE STRUCTURE AND SYLLABUS
Name of the Course (Electrical power Engineering).
Title of Degree
If any. Intake
(Full time) Revised year for Commencement
Entry Level Qualification
Electrical Power Engineering 18 2005-06 B.Tech. (EEE)
Course Structure and Scheme of Evaluation (Semester-wise, along with curriculum details)
Hrs/Week Credits Evaluation (marks)
Lecturer Tutorial Practical Internal External Total
1.Power System Dynamics 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
2.HVDC Transmission 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
3.Modern Control Theory 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
4. Microprocessors & Microcontrollers 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
5. Elective – I 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
6. Elective – II 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
7. Microprocessor & Micro Controller Lab - - 3 4 40 - 60 100
1.Neural and Fuzzy Systems 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
2. Advanced Power System Protection 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
3. Power Quality 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
4. FACTS 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
5. Elective – III 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
6. Elective – IV 4 - - 8 40 60 - 100
7. Electrical Systems Simulation Lab - - 3 4 40 - 60 100
Seminar & Project -
- - 8 - - - 100
Project - - - 24 - - Grade*
Elective I : 1. High Voltage Engineering and Insulation Co-ordination
2. Voltage Stability
3. Operation Research
Elective – II : 1. Analysis of Power Electronic Converters
2. Energy Conversion systems
3. Extra High Voltage Transmission
Elective –III : 1. Advanced Digital Signal Processing
2. Distribution Automation
3. Digital Control Systems
Elective – IV : 1. Enterprise Resource Planning
2. Power System Operation and control
3. Reliability Engineering
I - Semester
POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS
Basic concepts: Power system stability states of operation and system security system dynamics problems system model analysis of steady State stability and transient stability, simplified representation of Excitation control.
Modeling of synchronous machine: synchronous machine park’s Transformation Transformation of flux linkages, Transformation of stator voltage equations and rotor equations.
Analysis of steady state performance, per unit quantities - Equivalent circuits of synchronous machine - determination of parameters of equivalent circuits.
Excitation system: Excitation system modeling, excitation systems block Diagram system representation by state equations.
Dynamics of a synchronous generator connected to infinite bus: system model Synchronous machine model, stator equations rotor equations, Synchronous machine model with field circuit and with field circuit and one equivalent damper winding on q axis (model 1.1), calculation of Initial conditions.
Analysis of single machine system: small signal analysis with block diagram Representation characteristic equation and application of routh hurwitz criterion
Synchronizing and damping torque analysis, small signal model State equations.
Application of power system stabilizers: basic concepts in applying PSS, Control signals, structure and tuning of PSS, washout circuit, dynamic compensator analysis of single machine infinite bus system with and without PSS.
1. Power system dynamics K.R. PADIYAR, B.S. Publications Hyderabad
1. Power system control and stability P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad John wiley sons
Unit 1 :H.V.D.C. Transmission : General considerations, Power Handling Capabilities of HVDC Lines, Basic Conversion principles, static converter configuration.
Unit 2 : Static Power Converters : 3-pulse, 6-pulse and 12-pulse converters, converter station and Terminal equipment, commutation process, Rectifier and inverter operation, equivalent circuit for converter – special features of converter transformers.
Unit 3 : Harmonics in HVDC Systems, Harmonic elimination, AC and DC filters.
Unit 4 : Control of HVDC Converters and systems : constant current, constant extinction angle and constant Ignition angle control. Individual phase control and equidistant firing angle control, DC power flow control.
Unit 5 : Interaction between HV AC and DC systems – Voltage interaction, Harmonic instability problems and DC power modulation.
Unit 6 : Multi-terminal DC links and systems; series, parallel and series parallel systems, their operation and control.
Unit 7 : Transient over voltages in HVDC systems : Over voltages due to disturbances on DC side, over voltages due to DC and AC side line faults
Unit 8:Converter faults and protection in HVDC Systems: Converter faults, over current protection - valve group, and DC line protection. Over voltage protection of converters, surge arresters.
Reference Books :
1. E.W. Kimbark : Direct current Transmission, Wiely Inter Science –
1. J.Arillaga : H.V.D.C.Transmission Peter Peregrinus ltd., London UK 1983
2. K.R.Padiyar : High Voltage Direct current Transmission, Wiely Eastern Ltd., New Delhi – 1992.
3. E.Uhlman : Power Transmission by Direct Current, Springer Verlag, Berlin Helberg – 1985.
MODERN CONTROL THEORY
UNIT –I MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES
Fields, Vectors and Vector Spaces – Linear combinations and Bases – Linear Transformations and Matrices – Scalar Product and Norms – Eigenvalues, Eigen Vectors and a Canonical form representation of Linear operators – The concept of state – State Equations for Dynamic systems – Time invariance and Linearity – Nonuniqueness of state model – State diagrams for Continuous-Time State models .
UNIT- II STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS
Linear Continuous time models for Physical systems– Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to Continuous-Time State Equations – Solutions of Linear Time Invariant Continuous-Time State Equations – State transition matrix and it’s properties.
UNIT-III CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY
General concept of controllability – General concept of Observability – Controllability tests for Continuous-Time Invariant Systems – Observability tests for Continuous-Time Invariant Systems – Controllability and Observability of State Model in Jordan Canonical form – Controllability and Observability Canonical forms of State model.
UNIT- IV NON LINEAR SYSTEMS -I
Introduction – Non Linear Systems - Types of Non-Linearities – Saturation – Dead-Zone - Backlash – Jump Phenomenon etc;– Singular Points – Introduction to Linearization of nonlinear systems, Properties of Non-Linear systems – Describing function–describing function analysis of nonlinear systems – Stability analysis of Non-Linear systems through describing functions
UNIT-V NON LINEAR SYSTEMS -II
Introduction to phase-plane analysis, Method of Isoclines for Constructing Trajectories, singular points, phase-plane analysis of nonlinear control systems.
UNIT-VI STABILITY ANALYSIS
Stability in the sense of Lyapunov, Lyapunov’s stability and Lypanov’s instability theorems - Stability Analysis of the Linear continuous time invariant systems by Lyapunov second method – Generation of Lyapunov functions – Variable gradient method – Krasooviski’s method.
UNIT- VII STATE FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS AND OBSERVERS
State feedback controller design through Pole Assignment – State observers: Full order and Reduced order
UNIT – VIII
Introduction to optimal control - Formulation of optimal control problems – calculus of variations – fundamental concepts, functionals, variation of functionals – fundamental theorem of theorem of Calculus of variations – boundary conditions – constrained minimization – formulation using Hamiltonian method – Linear Quadratic regulator
TEXT BOOKS: 1. Modern Control System Theory by M.Gopal – New Age International -1984
1. Modern Control Engineering by Ogata.K – Prentice Hall - 1997
1. Optimal control by Kircks
MICROPROCESSORS & MICROCONTROLLERS
Unit 1: 8086/8088 processors : Introduction to 8086 Microprocessors, ,Architecture, Addressing modes, Instruction set, Register Organization, Assembler directives.
Unit 2: Hard ware description: Pindiagram signal description min & max modes, bus timing, ready & wait states, 8086 based micro computing system.
Unit 3: Special features & Related Programming : Stack structure of 8086, Memory segmentation, Interrupts, ISR, NMI, MI and interrupt Programming, Macros.
Unit 4: Advanced Microprocessors: Intel 80386 programming model ,memory paging, Introduction to 80486, Introduction to Pentium Microprocessors and special Pentium pro features.
Unit 5 :-Basic peripherals & Their Interfacing:-Memory Interfacing (DRAM) PPI- Modes of operation of 8255 ,Interfacing to ADC & DAC.
Unit 6:- Special Purpose of Programmable Peripheral Devices and Their interfacing :-Programmable interval timer , 8253 , PIC 8259A,display controller Programmable communication Interface 8251,USART and Exercises.
Unit 7 :-Microcontrollers : Introduction to Intel 8 bit &16 bit Microcontrollers, 8051- Architecture, Memory organization, Addressing Modes and exercises
Unit 8:- Hardware description of 8051: Instruction formats ,Instruction sets, interrupt Structure & interrupt priorities, Port structures &Operation linear counter Functions ,different Modes of Operation and Programming examples.
TEXT BOOKS :-
1.”The Intel Microprocessors” Architecture Programming &Interfacing by Barry b Brey.
2.Advanceed Microprocessors by kenrith J Ayala , Thomson publishers.
3.Microcontrollers by kentrith J ayala,Thomson publishers.
1. Microprocessors & Interfacing Programming & Hard ware by DOUGLAS V.Hall
2. Microprocessors & Microcontrollers by Prof. C.R.Sarma
HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING & INSULATION
(Elective - I)
Unit 1: Conduction and Breakdown in Gases:
Ionization process, Twonsend’s current growth equation, current growth in the secondary processes, Twonsend’s criterion for breakdown, streamer theory of breakdown in gases, Paschen law, breakdown in non uniform fields and corona discharge.
Unit 2: Conduction, Breakdown in liquids and solids:
Pure liquids and commercial liquids, conduction and breakdown in pure liquids, breakdown in solids dielectrics, Intrinsic breakdown, Electromechanical breakdown and thermal breakdown.
Unit 3: Generation of High Voltage and Currents:
Generation of high D.C. generation of high alternating voltages, generation of impulse voltages, generation of impulse currents, tripping and control of impulse generators
Unit 4: Measurement of high voltage and currents:
Measurement of high d.c.voltages, Measurement of high a.c. and impulse voltages,
Measurement of high d.c., a.c. and impulse currents. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope for impulse voltage and current measurements.
Unit 5: Testing of Materials and Apparatus
Measurement of D.C. resistivity, measurement of dielectric constant and loss factor, partial discharge measurements, testing of insulators, bushing, circuits breakers, transformers and surge divertors.
Unit 6: Over Voltage Phenomenon Insulation Coordination:
Causes of over voltage, lighting phenomenon, switching over voltages and power frequency over voltages in power systems,
Unit 7: Insulation Coordination:
Principle of insulation coordination on high voltage and extra high voltage power systems.
Unit 8: Gas insulated substations:
Advantages of Gas Insulated Substations, Comparison of Gas Insulated substations and Air Insulated Substations, Design and Layout of Gas Insulated Substations, Description of Various components in GIS.
1. High Voltage Engineering by M.S.Naidu and V.Kamaraju – TMH.
2. High Voltage Engineering fundamentals by Kuffel and Zungel, Elsavier Publications
3. Switchgear By BHEL, TMH
1. Fundamentals of Gaseous Ionization and plasma Electronics by Essam Nasser – Wiley - Inter Science.
2. High Voltage Technology by ALSTOM
3. Gaseous Dielectrics by Arora, TMH
Unit – 1: Introduction to Voltage Stability
Definitions: Voltage Stability, Voltage Collapse, Voltage Security; Physical relation indicating dependency of voltage on reactive power flow; Factors affecting Voltage collapse and instability; Previous cases of voltage collapse incidences.
Unit – 2: Graphical Analysis of Voltage Stability
Comparison of Voltage and angular stability of the system; Graphical Methods describing voltage collapse phenomenon: P-V and Q-V curves; detailed description of voltage collapse phenomenon with the help of Q-V curves.
Unit – 3: Analysis of Voltage Stability
Analysis of voltage stability on SMLB system: Analytical treatment and analysis.
Unit – 4: Voltage Stability Indices
Voltage collapse proximity indicator; Determinant of Jacobin as proximity indicators; Voltage stability margin.
Unit – 5: Power System Loads
Loads that influences voltage stability: Discharge lights, Induction Motor, Air-conditioning, heat pumps, electronic power supplies, OH lines and cables.
Unit – 6: Reactive Power Compensation
Generation and Absorption of reactive power; Series and Shunt compensation; Synchronous condensers, SVC s; OLTC s; Booster Transformers.
Unit – 7: Voltage Stability Margin
Stabilty Margin: Compensated and un-comensated systems.
Unit – 8: Voltage Security
Definition; Voltage security; Methods to improve voltage stability and its practical aspects.
1) “Performance, operation and control of EHV power transmission system”- A.CHAKRABARTHY, D.P. KOTARI and A.K.MUKOPADYAY, A.H.Wheeler Publishing, I Edition, 1995.
2) “Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control” – K.R.PADIYAR, II Edition, B.S.Publications.
“Power System Voltage Stability”- C.W.TAYLOR, Mc Graw Hill, 1994.
(Elective - I)
Linear Programming Problem: Formulation – Graphical method - Simplex method – Artificial variable techniques – Big-M tune –phase methods
Duality theorem – Dual simplex method – Sensitivity analysis - effect of changes in cost coefficients, Constraint constants, Addition/Deletion of variables & constraints
Transportation problem – formulation – Initial basic feasible solution methods – Northwest, Least cost & Vogels methods, MODI optimization - Unbalanced & degeneracy treatment
Assignment problem – Formulation – Hungarian method – Variants of assignment problems, Sequencing problems – Flow shop sequencing – n jobs?2 machines sequencing - n jobs?3 machines sequencing – Job-shop sequencing – 2 jobs?m machines sequencing – Graphical methods
Game Theory - Introduction - Terminology – Saddle point games - with out Saddle point games - 2?2 games, analytical method - 2?n and m?2 games – graphical method – dominance principle
Dynamic programming – Bellman’s principle of optimality – short route – capital investment – inventory allocation
Non linear optimization – Single variable optimization problem – Unimodal function - Elimination methods – Fibinocci & Golden reaction methods - Interpolation methods - Quadratic & cubic interpotation method.
Multi variable optimization problem – Direct research methods – Univariant method – Pattern search methods – Powell’s , Hook-Jeaves & Rosen-brock’s search method.
Geometric programming – Polynomial – Arithmetic – Seametric inequality – Unconstrained G.P – Constraint G.P with ? type constraint.
Simulation: Definition – Types- steps- Simulation of simple electrical systems – Advantages and Disadvantages
1. Optimization theory & Applications – S.S.Rao, New Age Internationals
2. Operations Research - S.D.Sharma, Galgotia publishers
3. Operations Research – Kausur & Kumar, Spinger Publishers
1. Optimization techniques: Theory & Practice – M.C.Joshi & K.M. More Ugalya, Narosa Publications
2. Optimization : Theory & Practice – Beweridze, Mc Graw Hill
3. Simulation Modelling & Analysis – Law & Kelton –TMH
4. Optimization Concepts and Applications in Engineering- A.D. Belegundu , J.R. Chandrupata, Pearson Education, Asia
ANALYSIS OF POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS
( Elective II)
Unit I Single Phase AC Voltage Controllers.
Single phase AC voltage controllers with Resistive, Resistive-inductive and
Resistive-inductive-induced e.m.f. loads – ac voltage controllers with PWM
Control – Effects of source and load inductances - Synchronous tap changers-
Applications - numerical problems.
Unit II Three Phase AC Voltage Controllers.
Three phase AC voltage controllers – Analysis of controllers with star and delta
Connected Resistive, Resistive-inductive loads – Effects of source and load
Inductances – applications – numerical problems.
Unit III Cycloconverters.
Single phase to single phase cycloconverters – analysis of midpoint and bridge
Configurations – Three phase to three phase cycloconverters – analysis of
Midpoint and bridge configurations – Limitations – Advantages – Applications
- numerical problems.
Unit IV Single Phase Converters.
Single phase converters – Half controlled and Fully controlled converters –
Evaluation of input power factor and harmonic factor – continuous and
Discontinuous load current – single phase dual converters – power factor
Improvements – Extinction angle control – symmetrical angle control –
PWM – single phase sinusoidal PWM – single phase series converters –
Applications - Numerical problems.
Unit V Three Phase Converters.
Three phase converters – Half controlled and fully controlled converters –
Evaluation of input power factor and harmonic factor – continuous and
Discontinuous load current – three phase dual converters – power factor
Improvements – three phase PWM - twelve pulse converters – applications –
Unit VI D.C. to D.C. Converters.
Analysis of step-down and step-up dc to dc converters with resistive and
Resistive-inductive loads – Switched mode regulators – Analysis of Buck
Regulators - Boost regulators – buck and boost regulators – Cuk regulators –
Condition for continuous inductor current and capacitor voltage – comparison
Of regulators –Multiouput boost converters – advantages – applications –
Unit VII Pulse Width Modulated Inverters(single phase).
Principle of operation – performance parameters – single phase bridge inverter - evaluation of output voltage and current with resistive, inductive and
Capacitive loads – Voltage control of single phase inverters – single PWM –
Multiple PWM – sinusoidal PWM – modified PWM – phase displacement
Control – Advanced modulation techniques for improved performance –
Trapezoidal, staircase, stepped, harmonic injection and delta modulation –
Advantage – application – numerical problems.
Unit VIII Pulse Width Modulated Inverters(three phase).
Three phase inverters – analysis of 180 degree condition for output voltage
And current with resistive, inductive loads – analysis of 120 degree
Conduction – voltage control of three phase inverters – sinusoidal PWM –
Third Harmonic PWM – 60 degree PWM – space vector modulation –
Comparison of PWM techniques – harmonic reductions – Current Source
Inverter – variable d.c. link inverter – boost inverter – buck and boost inverter
- inverter circuit design – advantages – applications – numerical problems.
1. Power Electronics – Mohammed H. Rashid – Pearson Education –
Third Edition – First Indian reprint 2004.
2. Power Electronics – Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland and William P. Robbins – John Wiley & Sons – Second Edition.
ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS
(Elective - II)
Photo voltaic power generation ,spectral distribution of energy in solar radiation, solar cell configurations, voltage developed by solar cell, photo current and load current, practical solar cell performance, commercial photo voltaic systems, test specifications for pv systems, applications of super conducting materials in electrical equipment systems.
Principles of MHD power generation, ideal MHD generator performance, practical MHD generator, MHD technology.
Wind Energy conversion: Power from wind, properties of air and wind, types of wind
Turbines, operating characteristics.
Tides and tidal power stations, modes of operation , tidal project examples, turbines and
generators for tidal power generation. Wave energy conversion: properties of waves and
power content, vertex motion of Waves, device applications. Types of ocean thermal
energy conversion systems Application of OTEC systems examples,
Miscellaneous energy conversion systems: coal gasification and liquefaction, biomass
conversion, geothermal energy, thermo electric energy conversion, principles of EMF
generation, description of fuel cells
Co-generation and energy storage, combined cycle co-generation, energy storage. Global
energy position and environmental effects: energy units, global energy position..
Types of fuel cells, H2-O2 Fuel cells, Application of fuel cells – Batteries, Description of
batteries, Battery application for large power.
Environmental effects of energy conversion systems, pollution from coal and preventive
measures steam stations and pollution, pollution free energy systems.
1. “Energy conversion systems” by Rakosh das Begamudre, New age international publishers, New Delhi - 2000.
2. “Renewable Energy Resources” by John Twidell and Tony Weir, 2nd edition, Fspon & Co
EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION
Unit 1 : E.H.V. A.C. Transmission line trends and preliminary aspects standard transmission voltages – power handling capacities and line losses – mechanical aspects.
Unit 2 : Calculation of line resistance and inductances : resistance of conductors, temperature rise of conductor and current carrying capacity. Properties of bundled conductors and geometric mean radims of bundle, inductance of two conductor lines and multi – conductor lines, Maxwell’s coefficient matrix.
Unit 3 : Line capacitance calculation : capacitance of two conductor line, and capacitance of multi conductor lines, potential coefficients for bundled conductor lines, sequence inductances and capacitances and diagonalization.
Unit 4 : Calculation of electro static field traveling waves due to corona – Audio noise die to corona, its generation, characteristics and limits measurement of audio noise.
Unit 5 : Surface voltage Gradient on conductors, surface gradient on 2 conductor bundle and consine law, Maximum surface voltage gradient of bundle with more than 3 sub conductors, Mangolt formula.
Unit 6 : Corona : Corona in EHV lines – corona loss formulate – attenuation of traveling waves due to corona – Audio noise due to corona, its generation, characteristics and limits measurement of audio noise.
Unit 7 : Power Frequency voltage control : Problems at power frequency, generalized constants, No load voltage conditions and charging currents, voltage control using synchronous conductor, cas cade connection of components : Shunt and series compensation, sub synchronous resonance in series – capacitor compensated lines
Unit 8 : Static reactive compensatiog systems : Introduction, SVC schemes, Harmonics injected in to network by TCR, design of filters for suppressing harmonics injected in to the system.
Reference Books :
1. Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering – Rakosh Das Begamudre, Wiley Eastem ltd., New Delhi – 1987.
2. EHV Transmission line reference book – Edision Electric Institute (GEC) 1986.
MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS LAB
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
I Microprocessor 8086
1) Introduction to MASM / TASM
2) Arithmetic operations : Multi byte addition, subtraction, Multiplication and Division, Signed and Unsigned Arithmetic operation, ASCII – arithmetic.
3) Logic operations : Shift and rotate – converting packed BCD to unpacked BCD, BCD to ASCII conversion.
4) By using string operation and instruction prefix – Move block, reverse string, sorting, inserting, deleting, length of string, string comparison.
5) Modular programming – Procedure, near and far implementation, recursion.
1) DOS/BIOS programming – Reading key board (buffered with and without echo) – display characters, string.
II Interfacing to 8086
1) 8259 – interrupt controller
2) 8279 – keyboard / display
3) 8255 – PPI
4) 8251 – USART
5) Stepper Motor
6) Traffic light control
7) GPIB (IEEE 488) Interface
8) Numeric printer interface
9) RTC interface
10) A/D and D/A
1) DMA interface
2) FDC-EPROM Programmer Interface
III Microcontroller 8051
1) Reading and writing on a parallel port
2) Timer in different modes
3) Serial communication implementation
4) Understanding three memory areas of 00-FF (Programs using above areas)
5) ing external interrupts
1) Programs using special instructions like SWAP, Bit/Byte, Set/ Reset etc.
2) Program based on sort, Page, absolute addressing.
NEURAL & FUZZY SYSTEMS
Unit – I: Introduction to Neural Networks
Introduction, Humans and Computers, Organization of the Brain, Biological Neuron, Biological and Artificial Neuron Models, Hodgkin-Huxley Neuron Model, Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Model, Spiking Neuron Model, Characteristics of ANN, McCulloch-Pitts Model, Historical Developments, Potential Applications of ANN.
Unit- II: Essentials of Artificial Neural Networks
Artificial Neuron Model, Operations of Artificial Neuron, Types of Neuron Activation Function, ANN Architectures, Classification Taxonomy of ANN – Connectivity, Neural Dynamics (Activation and Synaptic), Learning Strategy (Supervised, Unsupervised, Reinforcement), Learning Rules, Types of Application
Feed Forward Neural Networks
Introduction, Perceptron Models: Discrete, Continuous and Multi-Category, Training Algorithms: Discrete and Continuous Perceptron Networks, Perceptron Convergence theorem, Limitations of the Perceptron Model, Applications.
Multilayer Feed forward Neural Networks
Credit Assignment Problem, Generalized Delta Rule, Derivation of Backpropagation (BP) Training, Summary of Backpropagation Algorithm, Kolmogorov Theorem, Learning Difficulties and Improvements.
Unit IV: Associative Memories
Paradigms of Associative Memory, Pattern Mathematics, Hebbian Learning, General Concepts of Associative Memory (Associative Matrix, Association Rules, Hamming Distance, The Linear Associator, Matrix Memories, Content Addressable Memory), Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) Architecture, BAM Training Algorithms: Storage and Recall Algorithm, BAM Energy Function, Proof of BAM Stability Theorem
Architecture of Hopfield Network: Discrete and Continuous versions, Storage and Recall Algorithm, Stability Analysis, Capacity of the Hopfield Network.
Unit V: Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)
Introduction, Competitive Learning, Vector Quantization, Self-Organized Learning Networks, Kohonen Networks, Training Algorithms, Linear Vector Quantization, Stability-Plasticity Dilemma, Feed forward competition, Feedback Competition, Instar, Outstar, ART1, ART2, Applications.
Unit – VI: Classical & Fuzzy Sets
Introduction to classical sets - properties, Operations and relations; Fuzzy sets, Membership, Uncertainty, Operations, properties, fuzzy relations, cardinalities, membership functions.
UNIT VII: Fuzzy Logic System Components
Fuzzification, Membership value assignment, development of rule base and decision making system, Defuzzification to crisp sets, Defuzzification methods.
UNIT VIII: Applications
Neural network applications: Process identification, Function Approximation, control and Process Monitoring, fault diagnosis and load forecasting.
Fuzzy logic applications: Fuzzy logic control and Fuzzy classification.
1. Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms: synthesis and applications by Rajasekharan and Rai – PHI Publication.
2. Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems - Jacek M. Zuarda, Jaico Publishing House, 1997.
1. Neural and Fuzzy Systems: Foundation, Architectures and Applications, - N. Yadaiah and S. Bapi Raju, Pearson Education
2. Neural Networks – James A Freeman and Davis Skapura, Pearson, 2002.
3. Neural Networks – Simon Hykins , Pearson Education
4. Neural Engineering by C.Eliasmith and CH.Anderson, PHI
5. Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic System by Bork Kosko, PHI Publications
DVANCED POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION
Primary and back up protection, current transformers for protection, potential transformer, review of electromagnetic relays static relays.
Over current relays time current characteristic, current setting time setting, directional relay, static over current relays.
Distance protection : impedance, reactance, mho, angle impedance relays. Input quantities for various types of distance relays, effect of arc resistance on the performance of distance relays, selection of distance relays. MHO relay with blinders, quadrilateral relay, elliptical relay. Restricted mho, impedance directional, reactance relays. Swiveling characteristics.
Compensation for correct distance measurement, reduction of measuring units switched schemes. Pilot relaying schemes. Wire pilot protection, circulating current scheme, balanced voltage scheme, transley scheme , carrier current protection, phase comparison carrier current protection, carrier aided distance protection.
Digital relaying algorithms, differential equation technique, discrete fourier transform technique, walsh-hadamard transform technique, rationalized harr transform technique, removal of dc offset
Introduction to Microprocessors: review of microprocessors and interfacing. single chip microcomputers programmable interval timer, A/D converter.
Microprocessor based protective relays: over current, directional, impedance, reactance relays. Generalized mathematical expressions for distance relays, mho and offset mho relays, quadrilateral relay.
Microprocessor implementation of digital distance relaying algorithms.
1. Power system protection & switchgear by Badri ram & vishwakarma, TMH publication New Delhi 1995.
2. Power System Protection by Madhava Rao TMH
1. Power System by Ravindra Nath and Chandar PHI.
Unit 1: Introduction :
Introduction of the Power Quality (PQ) problem, Terms used in PQ: Voltage, Sag, Swell, Surges, Harmonics, over voltages, spikes, Voltage fluctuations, Transients, Interruption, overview of power quality phenomenon, Remedies to improve power quality, power quality monitoring
Unit 2: Long Interruptions
Interruptions – Definition – Difference between failure, outage, Interruptions – causes of Long Interruptions – Origin of Interruptions – Limits for the Interruption frequency – Limits for the interruption duration – costs of Interruption – Overview of Reliability
evaluation to power quality, comparison of observations and reliability evaluation.
Unit 3: Short Interruptions
Short interruptions – definition, origin of short interruptions, basic principle,
fuse saving, voltage magnitude events due to re-closing, voltage during the
interruption, monitoring of short interruptions, difference between medium and
low voltage systems. Multiple events, single phase tripping – voltage and
current during fault period, voltage and current at post fault period, stochastic
prediction of short interruptions.
Unit 4: Voltage sag – characterization – Single phase:
Voltage sag – definition, causes of voltage sag, voltage sag magnitude,
monitoring, theoretical calculation of voltage sag magnitude, voltage sag
calculation in non-radial systems, meshed systems, voltage sag duration.
Unit 5: Voltage sag – characterization – Three phase:
Three phase faults, phase angle jumps, magnitude and phase angle jumps for
three phase unbalanced sags, load influence on voltage sags.
Unit 6: PQ considerations in Industrial Power Systems:
Voltage sag – equipment behaviour of Power electronic loads, induction
motors, synchronous motors, computers, consumer electronics, adjustable
speed AC drives and its operation. Mitigation of AC Drives, adjustable speed
DC drives and its operation, mitigation methods of DC drives.
Unit 7: Mitigation of Interruptions and Voltage Sags:
Overview of mitigation methods – from fault to trip, reducing the number of
faults, reducing the fault clearing time changing the power system, installing
mitigation equipment, improving equipment immunity, different events and
mitigation methods. System equipment interface – voltage source converter,
series voltage controller, shunt controller, combined shunt and series controller.
Unit 8: Power Quality and EMC Standards:
Introduction to standardization, IEC Electromagnetic compatibility standards,
European voltage characteristics standards, PQ surveys.
“Understanding Power Quality Problems” by Math H J Bollen. IEEE Press.
FLEXIBLE AC. TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Unit 1: FACTS Concepts:
Transmission interconnections power flow in an AC system, loading capability limits, Dynamic stability considerations, importance of controllable parameters basic types of FACTS controllers, benefits from FACTS controllers.
Unit 2:Voltage Source Converters:
Single phase three phase full wave bridge converters transformer connections for 12 pulse 24 and 48 pulse operation.
Three level voltage source converter, pulse width modulation converter, basic
concept of current source Converters, comparison of current source converters with
voltage source converters.
Unit 4: Static Shunt Compensation:
Objectives of shunt compensation, mid point voltage regulation voltage instability
prevention, improvement of transient stability, Power oscillation damping,
Methods of controllable var generation, variable impedance type static var generators
switching converter type var generators hybrid var generators.
Unit 6: SVC and STATCOM:
The regulation and slope transfer function and dynamic performance, transient
stability enhancement and power oscillation damping operating point control and
summary of compensator control.
Unit 7: Static Series Compensators:
concept of series capacitive compensation, improvement of transient stabillity, power
Functional requirements. GTO thyristor controlled series capacitor(GSC) , thyristor
switched series capacitor(TSSC), and thrystor controlledseries capaci- tor(TCSC)
control schemes for GSC TSSC and TCSC.
Text Book :
1. “ Understanding FACTS Devices” N.G. Hingorani and L. Guygi.
IEEE Press Publications 2000.
ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
UNIT-I: Digital Filter Structure
Block diagram representation-Equivalent Structures-FIR and IIR digital filter Structures All pass Filters-tunable IIR Digital Filters-IIR tapped cascaded Lattice Structures-FIR cascaded Lattice structures-Parallel-Digital Sine-cosine generator-Computational complexity of digital filter structures.
UNIT-II: Digital filter design
Preliminary considerations-Bilinear transformation method of IIR filter design-design of Low pass highpass-Bandpass, and Band stop- IIR digital filters-Spectral transformations of IIR filters- FIR filter design-based on Windowed Fourier series- design of FIR digital filters with least –mean- Square-error-constrained Least-square design of FIR digital filters
UNIT-III: DSP algorithm implementation
Computation of the discrete Fourier transform- Number representation-Arithmetic operations-handling of overflow-Tunable digital filters-function approximation.
UNIT-IV Analysis of finite Word length effects
The Quantization process and errors- Quantization of fixed -point and floating -point Numbers-Analysis of coefficient Quantization effects - Analysis of Arithmetic Round-off errors-Dynamic range scaling-signal- to- noise ratio in Low -order IIR filters-Low-Sensitivity Digital filters-Reduction of Product round-off errors using error feedback-Limit cycles in IIR digital filters- Round-off errors in FFT Algorithms.
UNIT V: Power Spectrum Estimation
Estimation of spectra from Finite Duration Observations signals – Non-parametric methods for power spectrum Estimation – parametric method for power spectrum Estimation-Estimation of spectral form-Finite duration observation of signals-Non-parametric methods for power spectrum estimation-Walsh methods-Blackman & torchy method.
1. Digital signal processing-sanjit K. Mitra-TMH second edition
2. Discrete Time Signal Processing – Alan V.Oppenheim, Ronald W.Shafer - PHI-1996 1st edition-9th reprint
3 Digital Signal Processing principles, algorithms and Applications – John
G.Proakis -PHI –3rd edition-2002
4 Digital Signal Processing – S.Salivahanan, A.Vallavaraj, C. Gnanapriya – TMH - 2nd reprint-2001
5 Theory and Applications of Digital Signal Proceesing-LourensR. Rebinar&Bernold
Digital Filter Analysis and Design-Auntonian-TMH
Unit 1: Distribution Automation and the utility system :
Introduction to Distribution Automation (DA), control system interfaces, control and data
requirements, centralized (Vs) decentralized control, DA System (DAS), DA Hardware,
Unit 2: Distribution Automation Functions :
DA capabilities, Automation system computer facilities, management processes,
Information management, system reliability management, system efficiency management,
voltage management, Load management.
Unit 3: Communication Systems for DA :
DA communication requirements, Communication reliability, Cost effectiveness, Data rate
requirements, Two way capability, Ability to communicate during outages and faults,
Ease of operation and maintenance, Conforming to the architecture of data flow
Unit 4: Communication systems used in DA :
Distribution line carrier (Power line carrier), Ripple control, Zero crossing technique,
telephone, cable TV, Radio, AM broadcast, FM SCA, VHF Radio, UHF Radio,
Microwave satellite. fiber optics, Hybrid Communication systems, Communication
systems used in field tests.
Unit 5: Technical Benefits :
DA benefit categories, Capital deferred savings, Operation and Maintenance savings,
Interruption related savings, Customer related savings, Operational savings, Improved
operation, Function benefits, Potential benefits for functions, function shared benefits,
Guide lines for formulation of estimating equations
Parameters required, economic impact areas, Resources for determining benefits impact
on distribution system, integration of benefits into economic evaluation.
Unit 7: Economic Evaluation Methods :
Development and evaluation of alternate plans, Select study area, Select study period,
Project load growth, Develop Alternatives, Calculate operating and maintenance costs,
Economic comparision of alternate plans, Classification of expenses and capital
expenditures, Comparision of revenue requirements of alternative plans, Book Life and
Continuing plant analysis, Year by year revenue requirement analysis, short term analysis,
end of study adjustment, Break even analysis, Sensitivity analysis computational aids.
1. IEEE Tutorial Course “Distribution Automation”
IEEE Working Group on “Distribution Automation”
DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
UNIT – I SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Introduction, sample and hold operations, Sampling theorem, Reconstruction of original sampled signal to continuous-time signal.
THE Z – TRANSFORMS
Introduction, Linear difference equations, pulse response, Z – transforms, Theorems of Z – Transforms, the inverse Z – transforms, Modified Z- Transforms.
UNIT-II Z-PLANE ANALYSIS OF DISCRETE-TIME CONTROL SYSTEM
Z-Transform method for solving difference equations; Pulse transforms function, block diagram analysis of sampled – data systems, mapping between s-plane and z-plane: Primary strips and Complementary Strips.
UNIT – III STATE SPACE ANALYSIS
State Space Representation of discrete time systems, Pulse Transfer Function Matrix solving discrete time state space equations, State transition matrix and it’s Properties, Methods for Computation of State Transition Matrix, Discretization of continuous time state – space equations
UNIT – IV CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY
Concepts of Controllability and Observability, Tests for controllability and Observability. Duality between Controllability and Observability, Controllability and Observability conditions for Pulse Transfer Function.
UNIT – V STABILITY ANALYSIS
Stability Analysis of closed loop systems in the Z-Plane. Jury stablility test – Stability Analysis by use of the Bilinear Transformation and Routh Stability criterion. Stability analysis using Liapunov theorems.
UNIT – VI DESIGN OF DISCRETE TIME CONTROL SYSTEM BY CONVENTIONAL METHODS
Design of digital control based on the frequency response method – Bilinear Transformation and Design procedure in the w-plane, Lead, Lag and Lead-Lag compensators and digital PID controllers. Design digital control through deadbeat response method.
UNIT – VII STATE FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS AND OBSERVERS
Design of state feedback controller through pole placement – Necessary and sufficient conditions, Ackerman’s formula.
State Observers – Full order and Reduced order observers.
UNIT – VIII Linear Quadratic Regulators
Min/Max principle, Linear Quadratic Regulators, Kalman filters, State estimation through Kalman filters, introduction to adaptive controls.
1. Discrete-Time Control systems - K. Ogata, Pearson Education/PHI, 2nd Edition
2. Digital Control and State Variable Methods by M.Gopal, TMH
1. Digital Control Systems, Kuo, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2003.
2. Digital Control Engineering, M.Gopal
ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING
General modes for ERP, Integrated management information; Benefits of ERP.Business modelling for ERP.
Representative lists of various core processes and of entities forming data model.
Problem statement ; Key issues; Implementation methodology and guidelines. ERP Domain in power plants: Power plant management, Project management, Operation management, Maintenance Management, Fuel management, Materials management, Human resource management, Finance management, Safety management, and Environment management
Introduction to IRP and DSM; Framework of DSM.
Customer load control; Interruptible electric service; Various evaluation criteria, Rate design in DSM: Objectives, Time - of - use (TOU) rate.
Market planning, generic load - shape changes
Evaluating DSM programs, an overview of detailed evaluation approach.
Cost benefit analysis, consumer perspective, utility perspective. Customer acceptance of DSM programs. Strategic marketing, Marketing implementation strategies.
1. Vinod Kumar Garg and N.K. Venkita Krishnan : “Enterprise Resource Planning - Concepts and Practice”, Prentice - Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 1999
2. C.W. Gellings and J.G. Chamberlin : “Demand - Side Management : Concepts and Methods”, The Fairmont Press, Inc, 1993.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
Unit 1 : Unit commitment problem : Introductions to UCP, thermal & Hydral constraints in Unit commitment : Priority list scheme method, unit commitment problem solution by priority list scheme method,
Unit 2 : Unit commitment problem solutions by Dynamic programming Approach. Introduction, advantages of DP method over priority list scheme, Back word DP approach, forward DP approach algorithm and their flow charts solution UCP using Dynamic program method.
Unit 3 : Load Frequency Control-I : Necessity of keeping frequency constant. Definition of control area, single area control, Block diagram representation of an isolated Power System, Steady State analysis, Dynamic response-Uncontrolled case.
Unit 4 : Proportional plus Integral control of single area and its block diagram representation, steady state response, load frequency control and Economic dispatch control.
Unit 5 : Load Frequency Control-II : Load frequency control of 2-area system : uncontrolled case and controlled case, tie-time bias control.
Unit 6 : Optimal LF control-steady state representation, performance Index and optimal parameter adjustment.
Unit 7 : Generation with limited Energy supply : Take-or-pay fuel supply contract, composite generation production cost function. Solution by gradient search techniques, Hard limits and slack variables, Fuel scheduling by linear programming.
Unit 8 : Interchange Evaluation and Power Pools Economy Interchange, Economy interchange Evaluation, Interchange Evaluation with unit commitment, Multiple Interchange contracts. After-the-fact production costing, Transmission Losses in transaction Evaluation, other types of Interchange, power pools.
Reference Books :
1. Power Generation, Operation and Control - by A.J.Wood and B.F.Wollenberg,John wiley & sons Inc. 1984.
2. Electrical Energy Systems Theory - by O.I.Elgerd, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, 2nd edition.
3. Modern Power System Analysis - by I.J.Nagrath & D.P.Kothari, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company ltd, 2nd edition.
Elements of probability theory
Probability distributions : Random variables, density and distribution functions. Mathematical expectation. Binominal distribution, Poisson distribution, normal distribution, exponential distribution, Weibull distribution.
Definition of Reliability. Significance of the terms appearing in the definition.
Component reliability, Hazard rate, derivation of the reliability function in terms of the hazarad rate. Hazard models.
Failures: Causes of failures, types of failures ( early failures, chance failures and wear-out failues). Modes of failure. Bath tub curve. Effect of preventive maintenance. Measures of reliability: mean time to failure and mean time between failures.
Reliability logic diagrams ( reliability block diagrams)
Classification of engineering systems: series, parallel, series-parallel, parallel-series and non-series-parallel configurations. Expressions for the reliability of the basic configurations.
Reliability evaluation of Non-series-parallel configurations: minimal tie-set, minimal cut-set and decomposition methods. Deduction of the minimal cutsets from the minimal pathsets.
Discrete Markov Chains: General modelling concepts, stochastic transitional probability matrix, time dependent probability evaluation and limiting state probability evaluation. Absorbing states.
Continuous Markov Processes: Modelling concepts, State space diagrams, Stochastic Transitional Probability Matrix, Evaluating limiting state Probabilities.
Reliability evaluation of repairable systems.
Series systems, parallel systems with two and more than two components, Network reduction techniques. Minimal cutset/failure mode approach.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. “ RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF ENGINEERING SYSTEMS”, Roy Billinton and Ronald N Allan, Plenum Press.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS SIMULATION LAB
1. Write program and simulate dynamical system of following models:
a) I/O Model
b) State variable model
Also identify time domain specifications of each.
2. Obtain frequency response of a given system by using various methods:
(a) General method of finding the frequency domain specifications.
(b) Polar plot
(c) Bode plot
Also obtain the Gain margin and Phase margin.
3. Determine stability of a given dynamical system using following methods.
a) Root locus
b) Bode plot
c) Nyquist plot
d) Liapunov stability criteria
4. Transform a given dynamical system from I/O model to state variable model and vice versa.
5. Obtain model matrix of a given system, obtain its diagonalize form if exists or obtain Jordon Canonical form of system.
6. Write a program and implement linear quadratic regulator
7. Design a compensator for a given systems for required specifications.
8. Conduct a power flow study on a given power system.
9. Design a PID controller.
10. Conduct a power flow study on a given power system network using Guass-Seidel
11. Develop a program to solve Swing Equation.
12. Develop a Simulink model for a single area load frequency problem and simulate the same.
13. Develop a Simulink model for a two-area load frequency problem and simulate the same.
14. Design a PID controller for two-area power system and simulate the same.
15. PSPICE Simulation of Single phase full converter using RL&E loads.
16. PSPICE Simulation of Three phase full converter using RL&E loads.
17. PSPICE Simulation of Single phase AC Voltage controller using RL load.
18. PSPICE Simulation of Three phase inverter with PWM controller.
19. PSPICE Simulation of resonant pulse commutation circuit.
20. PSPICE Simulation of impulse commutation circuit.