It is better to plan a rescue operation according to the following specifications:

A. Manpower
B. Equipment
C. Method

While rescuing a person from a building, one should check the building properly and then enter the building.
First aid should be taken immediately after an accident not with an idea to cure but in order to prevent further harm being done.

A technical activity rendered by an individual or a group of specially trained personnel, who rescue and attend to the causalities under adverse life threatening conditions is known as search and rescue.

Following are the precautions that need to be taken while rescuing a person from a damaged building:

i) Before entering a building, observe the construction of the building and collapsed portions.
ii) While entering the damaged building, always use a helmet.
iii) Do not ignite fire.
iv) Keep close to the walls.

The encyclopedia Britannica defines First aid as measures to be taken immediately after an accident not with an idea to cure, but in order to prevent further harm being done.

Fainting is a brief loss of consciousness as a result of an interference with the function of the brain. The most common causes of unconsciousness are:

a) fainting b) head injury c) epilepsy d) stroke e) diabetes f) poisoning and g) conditions associated with lack of oxygen.

A Burn is damage to the skin caused by contact with dry heat. The causes of burn are: fire, flames, steam, hot liquids, hot metal, sunlight, electricity or chemicals.

Frostbite occurs when body tissues freeze because of an exposure to temperature below zero degrees. The signs and symptoms of frostbite are – white, waxy looking skin, which in firm to the touch an the tissue beneath feels soft and pain followed by numbness.

Heartstroke is an emergency situation and has the following signs:

i High body temperature
ii Hot and dry body
iii Skin burns red, no sweating
iv Dilated pupils
v Fast pulse rate

ORS is a life saver in case of dehydration i.e., loss of salt and water in the body. It is prepared by dissolving a pinch of salt in a glass of water along with one tablespoon sugar. It helps to restore back the electrolyte balance of our body and rehydrate it.

The encyclopedia Britannica defines First aid as measures to be taken immediately after an accident not with an idea to cure, but in order to prevent further harm being done.

The two main objectives of first aid are:

A To reassure the victim and make him or her as comfortable as possible.
B. To restore and maintain vital functions of life such as airway, breathing and circulation..
If you find a person in a burnt state then it is better to follow the following first aid:
i. Immediately immerse the burnt area in cool water.
Ii Remove jewellery and constructive clothing before swelling or blisters occurs.

The factors which are looked upon to form a rescue team are as follows:

a. Male and female volunteers having a good physical condition, willingness to work in an emergency situation.
b. Volunteers should be of the age of 18 years or above with reading and writing skills to communicate with local people.
c. Preference is given to ex-military or army personnel and artisans from the village or locality.
d. Qualities such as honesty, emotional strength, professional decisieness, etc. are also looked upto.

The main objectives of search and rescue team are:

1. To rescue the survivors trapped under debris of damaged buildings or cyclonic storms.
2. To provide first aid and medical call to trapped survivors.
3. To take necessary actions such as to provide temporary support and protection to damaged building structures.
4. To teach, demonstrate and create awareness amongst community people on how to use local materials for self rescue.

Team Composition: A search and rescue team may constitute of volunteers of 18 years and above having the following quality – honesty, emotional strength, professionally decisive, reading and writing skills and good physical condition, etc.

The three key principles that should be kept in mind by a rescuer during the survey are:

i) Look: A physical and visual inspection of the incidents.
ii) Listen: All sources of information from the community, government records and media reports should be listened to.
iii) Feel: Feel convinced regarding the fact that the gravity of the dangers and our own capacity to respond.

The objectives of first aid are:

.1. To reassure the victim and make him or her as comfortable as possible.
2. To restore and maintain vital functions of life ABC of basic life support i.e. Airway – to ensure that oxygen enters the body. Breathing – to ensure that oxygen passes through the lungs into the blood stream. Circulation – the heart must circulate the oxygen carrying blood deterioration.
3. To prevent further injury or deterioration.

Bleeding occurs as a result of cuts, scrapes and punctures. Severe bleeding can be life threatening.

Following steps may be taken to stop bleeding:

1. Restore to Direct pressure.
2. Elevation is lay down the victim and raise the injured part above the heart and check gently if you suspect a fracture.
3. Bandaging is also dome to stop bleeding and stop directly infecting the wound.
4. Tetanus injection needs to be taken if required.

The very first step to treat an electrocuted person is to cut off the power supply and then remove the victim from the source with the help of a non conductive material. Then the DRABC i.e check for Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing, Circulation ) exercise should be carried out. Also cover the affected area with clean dressing and immediately send him to the hospital if necessary.

Any substance that causes injury, illness or death when introduced into the body is known as poisoning.

Different types of poisoning are:

a) Ingested poisoning caused through eating or drinking poisonous substances.
b) Inhaled poisoning caused through the lungs by inhaling industrial gases, fumes from fire, chemical vapours etc.
c) Absorbed poisoning caused as a result of skin coming in contact with poisonous sprays such as pesticides, insecticides etc.

The aim of first aid in case of dog bite is to reduce the risk of infection to prevent rabies and get medical aid as early as possible.

a. Use a clean cloth or handkerchief to wipe the saliva away from the wound.
b. Don’t come in contact with the saliva that has been wiped away.
c. Use soap and water to wash the wound thoroughly.
d. Cover the wound with a dry dreaming.
e. Provide medical aid to the patient. If necessary, send him to the hospital as soon as possible.

The measures which I will take are as follows:

a. Examine the injuries and causes of fainting.
b. Raise the legs 8-12 inches. It promotes blood flow to the brain.
c. Pinch the person and see if he/she moves or opens his/her eyes.
d. Keep the victim warm if it is cold outside..

Rescue team is in a position to adequately plan the rescue operation based on the following specifications:

i) Manpower : The rescues can use the skilled manpower. Also the help of local community may be taken if required.
ii) Equipment : Rescue materials such as ropes, ladders, stick or bamboo, boats, stretches, etc., are required to rescue the affected victims. In case these materials are not available locally then use local resources like barrels, tubes, timed cans, etc.
iii) Method: Various methods may be used for rescuing victims depend upon the nature of casualty, nature of injuries, etc.

The Do’s in case of snakebite:

a. Keep the bitten limb below the level of the heart.
b. Allow bite bleed freely for 15-30 seconds.
c. If the bite is on the limb, apply a fine roller bandage two inches away from the wound.
d. Wash the affected area with soap and disinfect it.
e. The bandage should be loose enough for a finger to slip through.
f. Constantly check airway, breathing and circulation.
g. Start resuscitation if needed, but see to it that there are no wounds in the mouth. Suck it out, but do not swallow –spit the venom out. Rinse your mouth afterwards.
h. Shift the patient immediately to the hospital and see to it that the person is at rest during transfer.
i. Stay calm.

Don’ts in case of snakebites:

a. Don’t keep the person on rest and calm. Instruct the person to avoid all movement on the area affected.

Fracture refers to an injury affecting the skeleton and it s symptoms are:

a. Shock may occur
b. Deformity at the site of the fracture.
c. Pain at or near the site of injury increased by movement.
d. Movement may be difficult or impossible.
e. Swelling and later bruising of the injured part.

General First Aid that could be given to a person is:

i. treat to prevent shock
ii. apply ice pack on the affected area to reduce pain and control swelling
iii. give proper padding before the patient is shifted to the hospital.
iv. Immobilize fracture sites.
v. Do not force bones back into the wound.
vi. Always control severe bleeding before immobilizing any fractures.
vii. Place sufficient padding to support fracture site.
viii. Check the danger, response, airway, breathing and the blood circulation of the victim – DRABC.

A Burn is damage to the skin caused by contact with dry heat. The causes of burn are: fire, flames, steam, hot liquids, hot metal, sunlight, electricity or chemicals.

The degree of burns varies:

a. First degree i.e. Superficial : It involves only top layer of the skin and is red and dry and the burn is generally painful. The area may swell. Most burns are first degree burns.
b. Second degree i.e Partial thickness: It involves both the epidermis and dermis. The area is red and blisters may open and weep, fluid, making the skin appear wet. These types of burns are usually painful and the area often swells,
c. Third degree i.e. Full thickness: It destroys both the layers of the skin with muscles, bones, blood vessels and nerves. These burns may look brown or charred with tissues underneath sometimes appearing white.


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