Job Design and Job Satisfaction
Job design is a process that restructures job suitable to the employees and organisational demands. Job design helps in structuring of job tasks and responsibilities. It is directly concerned with job, motivation and behaviour of individuals. Its basic aim is to maximize efficiency of employees in jobs. It is concerned with standardization of job functions. It helps in rationalizing tasks and enables organisational control over performance. These are external and internal factors that influence job designs. Its techniques consist of job enrichment, job enlargement, job rotation and job re-engineering. Job enrichment is related to the vertical expansion of job while job enlargement is related to the horizontal expansion of jobs. Job rotation is moving of an employee from one job to another. Job re-engineering means re-allocation of jobs to achieve set goals and enhancing employee’s satisfaction in an organisation. Organisational and personal factors determine the job satisfaction in an organisation. Organisational determinants like wages, nature of work, working conditions, job content etc are organisational factors that determine job satisfaction of the employees. Personnel determinants also determine job satisfaction of the employees.
Job Design can be described as process that helps in structuring of job tasks and responsibilities. It is both managerial as well as technical and is related to the quality of work. Job Design is concerned with job, motivation and behaviour of individuals. The basic goal of job design is to maximize the efficiency of employees in jobs. It concerns with standardization of job functions and a process of developing complete written instructions, task characteristics and job components.
A well structured job design is required for effective performance of employees in an organisation. It clarifies the roles and responsibilities and removes overlapping of responsibilities. Job design helps in rationalizing tasks and enables operational control over performance. It provides flexibility for adoption of environmental changes. It is complex process and is aimed towards directing employee’s energy at goals realization.
There are numerous factors that influence job deign and they can be classified into external and internal factors. Factors like goals, task accomplishments, employee response, task variety, task identity, task significance, task complexities, job functions, job relations, job techniques and job techniques affecting job designs. Many theories related to job design have been proposed where factors like task characteristics, environmental contingencies and motivational potentials are considered.
Job design is a process that restructures the job suitable to the employees and organisational demands. Job design techniques comprises of job enrichment, job enlargement, job rotation and job re-engineering. Job enrichment is a process where vertical expansion of jobs takes place. Job enlargement is a process where horizontal expansion of jobs takes place. Job rotation involves moving of an employee from one job to another. Job re-engineering is re-allocation of jobs to achieve desired goals and enhance employee’s satisfaction in an organisation.
Factors that influence job re-engineering are information systems, government policies, organisational policies, technology, competition, appraisal of costs and benefits and prospective challenges. Job satisfaction is a permanent impression formed about the job. It is a psychological aspect that describes the feeling of employees towards his job. The impression about the job is formed by job, working condition, organisation, superior, subordinates and peers. The factors that determine job satisfaction are organisational and personal.
Organisational determinants are the organisational factors that determine job satisfaction of the employees. They are wages, nature of work, working conditions, job content, organisational level, opportunities for promotion, work group and leadership styles.
Personal determinants are psychological factors that determine job satisfaction of the employees. They are personality, age, education, gender differences. The methods used in the measurement of job satisfaction are rating scales, personal interviews, observation of tendencies and critical incidents. Job satisfaction has negative as well as positive effect on jobs, workers and organisation and is positively related to the productivity of organisation.
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