Organizations have considerably emerged in the field of structure, operation and people in this modern era. Technical advancement has taken the place of manual man power. Quality based functioning is preferred than quantity based. Jobs have become instable and insecure for the subordinates. They have flat hierarchy and horizontal structure which based on the tasks to be accomplished. There is rapid increase in the competition in the market. Cross culture management has emerged which has given a considerable change in the role of sex differentiation. Organization has more emphasis on the sound system of training. The new systems demands for more technical issues, feedback, reference issues, normative issues, social feedback which helps in building an ability to perform the job efficiently. It has various features as they have to work on different legal, political and economic system, face tough competition from multinationals as well as from the local industries, need to be flexible, organizational structure is flat, prefer to appoint the people with global view, need to train multi skills to the employees, special training in respect of cross culture and socialization, to maintain a balance between the countries to maintain good relations for the sake of running effective business in their country. It is very essential to maintain global culture within the organizations to have effective and fruitful business in various countries by creating clear and simple background which supports their culture and needs. They need to develop global career paths and to use cultural differences as a major asset.
Organizations have developed a lot from the olden times in respect of structure, operations and people. There is a considerable change in the cross-culture environment, influence of MNCs, growth in the technical know-how and quality management which has provided different environment in the modern organizations.
Multiculturalism has taken rise in the modern organization which has given good insight to understand the behavior of people of different cultures. It helps the managers to handle the employee’s energy to accomplish the organizational goals. It further enables employees to be united and grow together.
There has been a rapid growth in the modern organizations by keeping their managers engaged in formulating effective strategies to make the environment compatible both internal and external. Modern organizations have changed a lot as there is a considerable rise in multinational corporations in industrial and corporate sector. Cross-culture environment has emerged at workplace e, technical workers are preferred more, there is higher degree of participation of employees in the decision making of the organization, the size of the organization has become smaller than before, and time and place have become flexible, rise in high level training to employees to compete with the latest technical innovations and inventions.
The jobs have become instable which has made the jobs insecure for the people. Executives are more inclined towards profession than to the job. Quality is more emphasized with no compromise of low quality work. Modern organizations are more inclined towards updating themselves with the latest developments by training themselves and mailing them self efficient and more demanding to match with the latest requirements of the market.
There are more employment opportunities such as information technology, education and training, environmental consultants, health care etc. There is computerized performance evaluation which has generated new avenues for the employment in the modern organizations. Communication is done through electronic publishing, CD ROM, wireless, which are quicker and swift means than before. Managers are using coercive power and sharing information with their subordinates than to hold them to give a second
thought themselves. It has led to saving of time and balanced sharing of manager’s duties and responsibilities among the subordinates for quick decision making.
Modern organizations have flat hierchy and horizontal structure as it is based on the processes than tasks. Costs have considerably reduced to one third due to horizontal structure. Work force is contingent than permanent as most of the work is done through part time workers in the modern organization.
There is a rapid increase in the competition in the market demand of high quality of products and services which has led to more emphasis on training, autonomy has emerged as the source of motivation. Organization has more emphasis on the sound system of training. The new systems demands for more technical issues, feedback, reference issues, normative issues, social feedback which helps in building an ability to perform the job efficiently.
Teams are built for designing and maintaining various strategies to interact with external environment effectively. In order to improve the upward communication surveys are conducted. Increase in the use of electronic brainstorming to improve the quality of ideas and work. There is a tendency to shift the focus from time to time according to the situations.
There are various steps which can help in making the quality management such as to create constant purpose to improve the product and service, by adopting new philosophy, avoid mass inspection, to end the practice of price tag in business, emphasizing more on improving the system of production and service, adopting new methods of training, implement leadership, be out of fear, to break down barriers between staff areas, to eliminate slogans, exhortation and targets for the workforce, to eliminate numerical quotas, to remove the barriers affecting the pride of the organisation and workforce, and to take necessary action for the transformation.
Besides all these steps there is one more approach called “Six Sigma” approach which defines the concept of achieving the targets by determining the product to be produced, to determine who are the customers, to determine the suppliers, to fin d out the process to accomplish the goal, to evaluate the process and eliminate the non value added steps and to establish the measurement criteria and the drive for continuous improvement.
Quality should be maintained keeping in mind the orientation of workforce, by empowering job into business, being loyal, creating open talk show with the employees, motivating training programs, and having perpetual change to match the flow of the organisation.
There are various dimensions to improve the culture and organizational behavior they are power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty avoidance and log term versus short term orientation. There are various tendencies which are analyzed based on these dimensions they are relationship to environment, time orientation, nature of people, activity orientation, and focus of responsibility and concept of space.
Cross culture management has emerged in the organizations which have given rise to differences in the role of sex. Men and women both are enjoying the higher level jobs and remuneration. It has also given rise to the differences in the achievement motivation by setting difficult goals, giving lot of feedback, taking lot of responsibility of work and by encouraging an action orientation. Cross culture has led to differences in work values and motivation factors, social loafing, decision making, conflict handling, leadership behavior and differences in personality.
Taylor Cox and Stacy Blake has suggested six arguments to manage the cultural diversity they are cost argument, resource acquisition argument, marketing argument, creativity argument, problem solving argument and system flexibility argument.
Cox and Blake have given various spheres of activities to manage cultural diversities as organizational culture, mind set about diversity, cultural differences, human resource management systems and impartiality.
Modernization has given rise to manage the multinational organizations as they are in large number. The multinationals are spread all over the world but owned and controlled by the headquarters. It has various features as they have to work on different legal, political and economic system, face tough competition from multinationals as well as from the local industries, need to be flexible, organizational structure is flat, prefer to appoint the people with global view, need to train multi skills to the employees, special training in respect of cross culture and socialization, to maintain a balance between the countries to maintain good relations for the sake of running effective business in their country. It is very essential to maintain global culture within the organizations to have effective and fruitful business in various countries by creating clear and simple background which supports their culture and needs. They need to develop global career paths and to use cultural differences as a major asset.
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