First Aid is the immediate, temporary treatment given in the case of accident or sudden illness before the services of
physician can be secured.For example, we control the Oozing of blood or bleeding by putting a bandage with a clean wet cloth before he is taken to the physician for proper treatment.
A. Hemorrhage :
Hemorrhage is caused by the cuts produced by the careless handling of the pointed sharp edged weapons like knives, glass pieces; or blades .If the wound is large, the bleeding is arrested by pressing a clean wet cloth over the wound and then the person is taken to the physician for further treatment. In the case of less severe wound, it must be wiped with water mixed dettol and then Boric powder or sulphanamide powder is applied over the wound, sponge is placed over it and bandage is made with tamp like material.
B. Fracture :
Fractures are the commonest injuries involving the bones. It is a break in the normal continuity of a bone
The fractures may be caused by three factors namely,
1. Direct attack
The fractures caused by the above mentioned ways can be classified as follows
1. Simple fracture
2. Compound fracture
3. Complicated fracture
4. Greenstick fracture
Generally in the play grounds, there are many chances for sample and compound fracture to occur. The other two fractures occur in car accidents and accidents in the buildings. The common symptoms for fracture ate pale and swelling at or near the seat of fracture.
First Aid for Fracture :
Some sort of splint or scale must be applied above and below the spot of fracture and tied with the wet cloth. Then the person must be removed to the doctor for further treatment.
C. Burns and Scalds :
Burns are injuries caused by dry heat such as fire, hot objects of all types Scalds are injuries caused by moist heat such as boiled water or oil, steam etc. A person suffering from burns or scalds can be given warm
drinks abundantly. Ointments like Burnol or Vaseline should be applied on the injury. The burns must be covered with the cloth soaked in warm salt water and the person must be taken to the doctor.
First aid for a person whose clothing catches fire :
When a person's cloth catches fire, roll him with wet gunny bag or wet carpet, then lay him flat and smother the flames .When a wet gunny bag or wet carpet is not available, lay him down and roll him to put out the flame and then take him to the physician.
D. Drowning :
When a person has drowned because of his carelessness or any other reason, he should be rescued with the help of a long pole or rope or long cloth. When this attempt is found to be of no use, a person who knows swimming can approach the man and drag him out by his hair on the head. If the drowned person has drink a lot of water, he should be treated in the following manner -
The crowd must be dispersed.
The drowned person must be made to lie down with his
head down and body a little elevated. Then, the stomach
part must be pressed to get the water out.
If he can respire automatically, his wet clothes can be
removed and dressed with dry clothes.
He can be given hot coffee or tea to drink.
Then he must be taken to the hospital
First aid for a drowned person :
When the drowned person can not be helped by a people or rope or long cloth, he must be dragged on to shore by getting hold of his hair on the head by a person who knows swimming.He must be made to lie upside down and the stomach must be pressed to get the water out and then he must be taken to the hospital. In the case of small children, the stomach must be rested on our head and rotated to expel the water
E. First Aid for Snake Bite :
The patient must be made quiet as possible because activity causes poison to spread. Tie a rope firmly above and below the fang macks to prevent the spread of poison. Take a sterilized knife or blade and make crisis cross incision over the flang marks so that free bleeding will occur carry the patient to a doctor as quickly as possible
3. SAFETY EDUCATION
''Prevention is better than cure'' goes the proverb.It means and methods one has to follow to safe-guard himself from a dangerous situation is known as safety education. Every student must have better knowledge in safety education, so that he helps himself and also others at the time of dangerous situations. Accidents do not occur casually but because of haste,ignorance, carelessness, old age, forgetfulness and unusual courage, they occur. We can avoid accidents if we are careful and steady. So it is necessary to impart education on safety to the pupils.The following are the safety measures that are to be followed in home, road, play ground and school
A. Safety at home :
1. The entrances in the houses must be high and wide
2. If water is spilt on the flooring, it should be wiped out other wise children who are running about may slip and fall down.
3. Matchbox, Kerosene stove, gas stove must be kept away from the reach of children
4. Avoid wearing clothes of highly inflammable materials like terylene, nylon and nylex while in kitchen.
5. Sharp Instruments like blades, knaves, pair of scissors,sickle and spade must be kept away from the reach of the
6. Bathrooms, Latrines and places near the welts must be washed often with bleaching powder to avoid the growth
of moss and to prevent from slipping.
7.Germicides like phenyl, dettol must be sprayed in the above places.
8.Tablets, insecticides and chemicals must be in lock and key to avoid children handling them.The name of the
poison and the label reading poisoned must be pasted on the containers.
9. Children should not be allowed to play near the parked scooter, cycles and motor cycles.
10. Small children should not be allowed to play near the containers and buckets filled with water, welts, ponds, and
11. Children should be warned of playing on the trees and roofs of the houses.
12. Children should not be allowed to handle the electrical equipments, specially iron box.
13. When using chairs or ladders on the polished surfaces to take things from the lofts, rough materials like jute bags
must be used. Person standing down must hold the chair or ladder carefully.
14. Windows must be kept open for ventilation
15. When we sit near the windows we should be careful when we sit near the doors of the admiral, they should not be
B. Road safety :
1.Pedestrians must walk on the pavements
2.While crossing roads, look to the right and left.
3.Should not cross the road in haste
4.While crossing the road one should not read or loose concentration.
5. Pedestrians must cross in the zebra crossing only
6. Should not walk in groups on the road
7. One must carefully walk in the places where the roads meet
8. Should not play top, cricket or any such games on the road
9.Should not throw glass pieces, nails, banana feelings on the road
10. Vehicles should be driven one after the other in an order on the left side
11. Must drive according to the signals of traffic police.
12. 'No Entry' and 'One Way' signs must be strictly respected
C. Safety in play ground :
1.Play grounds must be even.
2.Playgrounds must be free from thorns, pebbles and glass pieces
3. All the courts must be designed in North - South direction except the kho-kho ground
4.There should be fencing around the play ground
5. Play ground should not be used as path way by the students and others
6. There should be enough of space left in between one court to the other.
7.The brick markings in the ground must be within the ground level
8.Rain water should not be allowed to stagnate on the ground
9. Avoid people and cattle from walking across the ground during rains
10. Before starting to play, do some warming-up exercises.
11. While practising shot-put, Discus and Javelin, nobody should cross the ground. It would be better if the coach is near.
12. The important medicines for first aid must be ready in a box Students should be trained In giving first aid.
13. Rules of the games must be taught to the players
D. Safety in school :
1. The school building should be strong and with safety.
2. The parapet walls of the staircase and terrace must be high
3. It must be provided with safety measures from fire accidents
4. Tables, chairs and benches should be in good condition.
5.The entrances of the classes must have proper doors with latches.
6. Electrical wirings of the schools should be beyond the reach of the students
7.There should be drinking water and latrine facility in the schools
8.Things in the laboratory should be in the cupboards.Chemicals should be stored in separate cup-boards
9. After the class, boys and girls should form separate lines and walkout one behind the other.
10. The school building should be located in a place where the students are not distracted It should, be away from
the factones, bus stands and railway stations
11.There should be a compound wall or fencing around the school.