Organisational Development interventions are the set of structured activities where selected organisational units gets engaged with task or set of tasks that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of the organisation.
These interventions can be clubbed into twelve groups and they are diagnostic, team-building, inter-group activities, survey feedback methods, education and training programmes, techno-structural activities, process consultation, the management grid, meditation and negotiation activities, coaching and counseling and planning and goal setting activities.
1) Survey Feedback: It recounts to an approach survey through well planned assessment or Interviews. It covers the feedback to the customer organisation. It has a demand and significance in a genuine situation. The attitude survey can have a purpose to measure the process; for instance, communication, decision making and leadership at different levels. The data produced under this system is perceptual and attitudinal.. A review of the product is prepared in a group discussion. Generally feedback of results is specific to the group which prepares the data. As a result strategies are planned to resolve the organisational problems. Consequently, the process of survey feed back includes: collection of data, feedback, development of action plan and follow-up. Therefore, to ensure authentic results, the survey should be applicable and dependable.
2) Management Grid : The method urbanized by Robert Blake and Jane S. Mouton is a step to move toward. This Grid represents a rational support of managing people. Growth of management skills from beginning to end grid program involves wide range of included and instrumented activities are the ways having investigational and planned conditions. The members are secondary to be pleased about the advances to integrate people and their invention.
3) Team Building: Team building is an attempt to assist the work group to identify, diagnose and solve its own problems. Actually groups develop their own norms of behaviour which pressurize the persons and group behaviour. Organisation is a system to interconnect with groups. OD considers that work groups are the teams which are spinning around to introduce changes in the organization. Team building actions are taken to develop a range of groups in an organization like permanent work teams, task forces, committees etc. Team building actions focus on finding, task achievement, team relationships and organisational process. The component groups in team building activity are: the external advisors, the group leader and the members of the group.
In team building movement, associates meet and talk about troubles connecting to their coursework It obtain sincere and courageous argument. In the team building movements, the associate adds the sequence relating to their personal observation of issues, problems and task relationship.
4) Sensitivity Training: It is known as training being carried out by creating an
experimental laboratory circumstances where workers will be brought together to do something together in a formless environment. Sensitivity training helps in understanding people well again, to develop appreciation for others, to develop specific behavioral skills and to gain effective approach into the group development. It also aims at falling interpersonal confrontation.
The main aim of sensitivity training is to split all the methods through the bond of silence and ease the expression of associates to emphasize on the process of debate to a certain extent than to fulfill the instructions.
It is a method which proposes to have brain washing of persons. This training is accepted by formless groups without any agenda, leader and predetermined goals. The group is given independence to expand their plans, contacts and on going process for interaction. Sensitivity training gives a technique to enable special knowledge and development.
5) Four System Management : Rensis Likert’s four System Management has given four stage to represent the organizational values to include the essential collection of job bearing and people way.
According to Likert management philosophy can be classified into four systems they are:
i) Exploitative-Autocratic System
ii) Benevolent Autocratic System
iii) Consultative Democratic System and
iv) Participative Democratic System.
This theory explains that three basic concepts of system has four management which will help making the organization effective they are:
a) To use the principle of supportive relationship in the organisation
b) To use the group decision making and group methods of supervision in the organisation, and
c) To emphasize more on the high performance goals.
6) Management by Objectives (MBO): It is another important tool of O.D and involves the process of educating the concerned persons about M.B.O, agreement upon clear cut quantifiable objectives, evaluation of objectives and feedback for deviation and coercive action. . M.B.O is wide-ranging overall managerial philosophies that focuses upon joint goal setting and synthesize the individual’s goal to organisational goals. The entire organization will have the feeling of unity as all levels of management of an organization are involved in goal setting. The programmes relating to M.B.O can be effective if they are properly implemented and needs the support of the top management.
7) Process Consultation: It can be described as the set of activities on the part of the consultant that helps the client to perceive, understand and act upon the process events that take place in the client’s environment. Process consultation concentrates on the analysis of process of activities like communication, leadership etc. It also aims to attempts to develop initial contacts, define relationships, selecting the method of work, collection of data and diagnosis. Process consultation is a method of intervening in an on going system and is designed to change attitudes, values, interpersonal skills, group norms, and cohesiveness and other process variables.
8) Contingency Approach : This approach was given by P. Lawsence and J. Lorseh. It is based on the principle that an organisation is a multifaceted social system. Its behavior must be included into a united effort to enable it to cope with the environment. Theoretically individuals in different departments have different orientations related to the tasks they perform. Genuinely, the organisational units in their regular operations they are differentiated along with their direction. It appears that with the task discrimination coordination is not possible. According to contingency approach separation and combination are possible for total organisation’s effectiveness with the help of integrative devices. To sum up, high organisational presentation is well-suited with the existence of both separation as well as combination which are required as per the stress of their immediate environment. The contingency approach can be useful as an OD intervention in industrial organizations in the form of inter group argument meetings of concerned departmental persons.
9) Role Analysis : In the presentation of their individual roles persons manifest certain behaviour which may upset team efficiency. At times it is established that the persons are unambiguous about their own expected behaviour from the view point of other members of the team. In these circumstances the role analysis procedure is used to clarify the role expectations and obligations of the members of a team. The ensuing role requirements and the expected behavioral mechanism of each other help the member enjoy an equally acceptable behaviour in the team work. In this technique, the individual role players analyze the focal role of the individuals.
10) Inter-group Activity : Meager interpersonal relations are not unusual features in organisational performance . Under these circumstances, inter-group motion spotlights to improve the relationships between the groups. It helps in the interaction and communication between the work groups which eventually avoids dysfunctional inimical competitiveness among them. Inter-group team building entails the procedure of discrimination and combination.
11) Organisation Mirroring: It monitors the activities of group of members and gets the feedback from the members of several other groups about how is it being professed. Organisational mirroring is used when there is complexity with other department in the organisation. A meeting is called and response is sought from other department. During the meeting the correct picture emerges which will determine many mistakes committed between two groups.
12) Third Party Peace Making Intervention: This intervention is the foundation of the thoughts to understand the conflicts and their resolutions at the interpersonal level. It helps to confront the method of resolving the conflicts takes place between two parties who are aware of the existence of the conflicts and want to confront the issues. The advisor as a third party must be accomplished in the art of identifies the conflicts and use confrontation as technique.
This process focuses on four basic elements of conflicts they are :
(i) The conflict issues,
(ii) The contributory circumstances,
(iii) The conflict related behaviour, and
(iv) The results of the conflict.
13) Job Design/Redesign : It is task -technology connected approach and aims at making changes in the work procedure of the groups of employees. Job design occupies a well planned reorganization of a job. On the whole it focuses to develop worker’s motivation, commitment, performance, job satisfaction etc., through job enrichment, job engineering, job rotation, job enlargement and socio-technical system.
14) Quality Circles: Quality Circles are semi-autonomous work groups with six persons who volunteer to talk about and solve feature related problems during working hours. It has impact on working conditions, employee’s commitment and self development of employees.
15) Counselling : Counselling is the method to extend the help by a manager to his assistant to enhance his prospective. It plans at hypothesizing and empathize with the workers. It assists to bring about self consciousness in the worker about his capability. Single or group of interventions may be used to resolve the issues.
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