RAYALASEEMA UNIVERSITY:: KURNOOL (A.P.)
M.Phil., / Ph.D., Written Examination Syllabus
Paper –I Research Methodology and Educational Statistics
UNIT 1: Educational Research
I .Meaning, aims, nature and scope of educational research
II. Characteristics and prerequisites of educational research
III. Types of educational research
IV. Research needs in different subjects
UNIT 2: Research Problem
Meaning of research problem
Sources of research problem
Criteria / Characteristics of a good research problem
Errors in selecting a research problem
UNIT 3: Methods of Educational Research
Qualitative research - Phenomenological studies, Ethnographical studies, Case Studies,
Historical studies, Philosophical studies
Quantitative research- Experimental research, Quasi-experimental research,
UNIT 4: Developing a Research Proposal
Format of research Proposal
Individual Research Proposal
UNIT 5: Hypothesis
Types of hypothesis
UNIT 6: Sampling
Sampling and Population
Techniques of sampling Selection
Characteristics of a good sample
Sampling Errors and how to reduce them.
UNIT 7: Tools and techniques of data collection
Reliability and validity of various tools and techniques
UNIT 8: Research Report
Format of the research report
Style of Writing the report
References and bibliography
UNIT 9: Evaluation of Research Report
Criteria of evaluation
UNIT 10: Descriptive Statistics
Tabulation, Organization, and Graphical Representation of Quantitative data
Measures of Central Tendencies : Mean, Median, Mode
Measures of Variability; Range, Q,D., S.D., A.D., and Coefficient of Variation.
Measures of Relative Position – Percentiles Ranks; Standard Scores, Stanine Scores, T
Normal Probability Distribution , Properties of normal probability curve, Applications of
normality, Divergence from Normality : Skewness and Kurtosis
UNIT 11: Correlation Techniques
Karl Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient ( r )
Spearman’s Rank-order Correlation Coefficient (rho)
Regression and Prediction
Biserial, Point biserial, Tetrachoric and the Phi-coefficient
Partial and Multiple correlation
UNIT 12: Statistical Inference
Concept of Standard Error and its uses
The significance of Statistical Measures
Treating the significance of difference between two means – Z test, t-test. ANOVA test of
difference by the use of ‘t’ Two Way ANOVA and ANCOVA.
UNIT 13: Non Parametric tests
Marr- Whitney test
Kolmogorow – Smirnov two sample test.
UNIT 14: Multivariate Analysis
UNIT 15: Reliability and Validity of test scores
The reliability of the test
The validity of a test
1. Best John W. and James Kahn, V., 1989, Research in Education, Sixth Edition, Prentice-Hall
of India Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi.
2. Sharma R.A., 1992, Fundamentals of Educational Research, Loyal Book Depot, Meerut, UP,
3. Kulbir Singh Sidhu, 1990, Methodology of Research in Education, Sterling Publishers Pvt.
Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Lokesh Koul, 1997 Methodology of educational Research, third edition, Vikas Publishing
House Pvt. Ltd. , New Delhi.
5. Kothari C.R., 1990, Research Methodology Methods and Techniques, Wiley Eastern
Limited, New Delhi.
6. Borg Walter R., Gall Meridith D., 1983, Educational Research an Introduction, Fourth
Edition, Longaman, New York &London.
7. Nitko Anthony J., 1983, Educational Tests and Measurement an Introduction, Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, Inc., New York.
8. Aggarwal Y.P., 1988, Statistical Methods Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
9. Garret Hnery E., 1985 Statistics in Psychology and Education, Viakils, Feffer and Simon,
10. Guilford, J.P., and Benjamin Fruchter, 1982 Fundamentals of statistics in Psychology and
Education, Fifth edition, Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, New York.
11. Gupta S.C. and Kapoor V.K., 1999, Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan
Chand& Sons Educational Publishers, New Delhi.
12. Grewal P.S., Methods of Statistics Analysis, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
13. Bruce W. Tuckman, Statistics in Psychology and Education.
RAYALASEEMA UNIVERSITY:: KURNOOL (A.P.)