UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES 9
Definition, Scope and Importance – Need For Public Awareness – Forest Resources – Use and Over – Exploitation – Deforestation – Case Studies – Timber Extraction – Mining – Dams and their Ground Water – Floods – Drought – Conflicts Over Water – Dams – Benefits and Problems – Mineral Resources – Use Effects on Forests and Tribal People – Water Resources – Use and Over-Utilization of Surface and Exploitation – Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using Mineral Resources – Case Studies – Food Resources – World Food Problems – Changes caused by Agriculture and Overgrazing – Effects of Modern Agriculture – Fertilizer – Pesticide Problems – Water Logging, salinity – Case Studies – Energy Resources – Growing Energy Needs – Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources – Use of Alternate Energy Sources – Case Studies – Land Resources – Land as a Resource – Land Degradation – Man Induced Landslides – Soil Erosion and Desertification – Role of an Individual in Conservation of Natural Resources – Equitable use of Resources for Sustainable Lifestyles
UNIT II ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY 9
Concepts of an Ecosystem – Structure and Function of an Ecosystem – Producers, Consumers and Decomposers – Energy Flow in the Ecosystem – Ecological Succession – Food Chains, Food Webs and Ecological Pyramids – Introduction, Types, Characteristic Features, Structure and Function of the (A) Forest Ecosystem (B) Grassland Ecosystem (C) Desert Ecosystem (D) Aquatic Ecosystems (Ponds, Streams, Lakes, Rivers, Oceans, Estuaries) – Introduction to Biodiversity – Definition Genetic, Species and Ecosystem Diversity – Biogeographical Classification of India – Value of Biodiversity – Consumptive Use, Productive Use, Social, Ethical, Aesthetic and Option Values – Biodiversity at Global, National and Local Levels – India as a Mega-Diversity Nation – Hot-Spots of Biodiversity – Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat Loss, Poaching of Wildlife, Man-Wildlife Conflicts – endangered and Endemic Species of India – Conservation of Biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-Situ conservation of Biodiversity
UNIT III ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 9
Definition – Causes, Effects and Control Measures of:- (A) Air Pollution (B) Water Pollution (C) Soil Pollution (D) Marine Pollution (E) Noise Pollution (F) Thermal Pollution (G) Nuclear Hazards – Solid Waste Management:- Causes, Effects and Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes – Role of an Individual in Prevention of Pollution – Pollution Case Studies – disaster Management:- Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone and Landslides
UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 9
From Unsustainable To Sustainable Development – Urban Problems Related To energy – Water conservation, Rain Water Harvesting, Watershed Management – Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People, Its Problems and Concerns, Case Studies – Environmental Ethics:- Issues and Possible Solutions – Climate Change, Global Warming, Acid Rain, Ozone Layer Depletion, Nuclear Accidents and Holocaust, Case Studies – Wasteland Reclamation – Consumerism and Waste Products – Environment Production Act – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Wildlife Protection Act – Forest Conservation Act – Issues Involved in enforcement of Environmental Legislation – Public Awareness.
UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 9
Population Growth, Variation Among Nations – Population Explosion – Family Welfare Programme – Environment and Human Health – Human Rights – Value Education – HIV /AIDS – Women and Child Welfare – Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health – Case Studies.
Field Study of Local Area to Document Environmental assets – River/Forest/Grassland/Hill/ Mountain.
Field Study of Common Plants, Insects and Birds - Field Study of Simple Ecosystems – Pond, River, Hill Slopes, etc.
Field Study of Local Polluted Site – Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural
1. Masters, G.M., “Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science”, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2004.
2. Miller, T.G. Jr., “Environmental Science”, Wadsworth Pub. Co.
3. Townsend C., Harper, J. and Begon, M., “Essentials of Ecology”, Blackwell Science, 2003.
4. Trivedi, R.K., and Goel, P.K., “Introduction to Air Pollution”, Techno-Science Publications.
1. Erach, B., “The Biodiversity of India”, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad, India.
2. Trivedi, R.K., “Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines, Compliances and Standards”, Vol-I and II, Envio Media.
3. Cunningham, Cooper, W.P. and Gorhani, T.H., “Environmental Encyclopedia”, Jaico Publishing House, Mumbai, 2001.
4. Wages, K.D., “Environmental Management”, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA,
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