Himachal literally means ‘Land of Snowy- mountains’. Himachal Pradesh is small world in itself, which is entered from the plains of Punjab or Shivalik hills or through the hills of Shimla, through, beautiful “meandering valleys, covered wih pine and typical temperate mountain flora. Himachal Pradesh is bound between 30° 22” to 33° 12” North latitude and 75°47” to 79°4” East longitude. To East it forms India’s border with Tibet, to the North lies state of Jammu and Kahmir, Uttaranchal in the South East, Haryana on the South and Punjab on the West.
Himachal, now known as ‘ the country’s orchard’, ‘nature paradise’, ‘an abode of peace’,represented in ancient times the Himalayas itself, with Nepal, Koormachal, Kedar, Jalandhara, Kashmir as its five natural divisions. During early times, Himachal was also called ‘Dev Bhomi’ (the Lands of Gods). The whole territory of Himachal Pradesh is mountainous with altitude varying from 350 to 7000 metres above the mean sea level.
Topographically, the territory of Himachal Pradesh can be divided into three zones as following:
a. The Lower Hills, comprising the district Kangra, Hamirpur, Una, Bilaspur, and Lower parts of Mandi, sola, Sirmaur are known as Shivalik hills. The annual rainfallin this zone varies from 1500 mm to 1800 mm. The altitude of this zone is from 350 metres or 1050 feet to 1500 metres or 4500 feet above the sea level. This area is suitable for the cultivation of maize, wheat ginger, paddy, table potatoes and citrus fruits. To the ancient, Shivalik hills were known as ‘Manak Parbat’.
b. The inner Himalayas or Mid mountin: In this zone falls upper areas or the tehsils of Pachhad and Ranuka in Sirmour District, Chichot and Karsog tehsils of Mandi distrct; upper Shimla hills, and upper Parts of Churah tehsil of Chamba district. The altitude of this zone varies from 1500 metres or 4500 feet to 4500 metres or 13,500 feet above the sea level. This zone is useful for seed the potatoes, temperate fruits, stone fruits and soft fruits. Two famous ranges of Lesser Himalayas are: The Pir Pinjal (in Chamba district) and Dhauladhar (Kangra district).
c. The Great Himalayas or Alpine Zone: This zone comprises Kinnaur district, Pangi-tehsil of Chamba district and areas of Lahul-Spiti. The altitude of this zone varies from 4,500 metres and above mean sea level. The rainfall is scanty in this zone. Climate is temperate in summer and semi-arctic in winter. Climate and soil is best suited for the cultivation of dry fruits.
2. Rivers of Himachal Pradesh
Himachal pradesh has the privilege of snowfed perennials rivers and rivults flowing in all parts of Pradesh. In Rig Veda, four out of five rivers which flow though Himachal, found mention viz. Arikri (Chenab), Purushani (Ravi), Arijikiya (Beas) and Satadui (Saltuj). The fifth river Yamuna which rises from Yamunotri has mythical realtion to the Sun.
Its famous tributaries are Tons, Pabbar and Giri. Yamuna is the eastern most river of Himachal Pradesh. It leaves Himachal Pradesh near Tajewala and enters the territory of Haryana.
Rises from Lake Mansarovar in Tibet. It enters Himachal Pradesh at Shipki and flows thrugh Kinnaur, Shimla and Bilaspur districts. Its course in Himachal Pradesh is 320 kms.
Rises from world famous Rohtang Pass (3978 metres altitude). Its famous tributaries are: the Parbati, Spin, Malana Nala, Sarvari streams, Binwa, Neugal, Banganga, Gaj, Dehr, Chakki, Kunah, Maan. The Beas enters Kangra district at Sandhol and leaves near Mirthal.
To streams namely Chandra and Bagha rises on the opposite sides of the Baralacha Pass and meet at ‘Tandi’ to form river Chenab. It enters Pangi valley of Chamba district near Bhujind and leaves the district at Sansari Nala to enter Podar Valley of Kashmir. Its total length in Himachal pradesh is 120 kms.
Rise from Bara Bangal, a branch of Dhaula Dhar. Its famous tributaries are the Budhil, Tundah Beljedi, Siul, Chirchind Nala. Town Chamba is situated on the right bank of Ravi. Ravi is also known bt the name of Irawti.
This is a very good information on Himachal Pradesh. The topography explained gives us more information on this place.
Thanks and regards,
Thanks for the appreciation Ms.Mala. The topographical explanation is due to the fact that I am living in the same state for past 22 years and apart from the hill station it is having some great features which is not found in other states of the country. This is a practical fact. To know much more about it, you must experience it.
Mysterious Thank you for helping us know more about Himachal Pradesh.I had stayed in manali for a year and I can assure you Manali and most of Himachal is a beautiful place. To add to the scenic beauty and beauiful landscape People of Himachal are too extremely friendly, warm hearted and lovely. I would request everyone who have never been to Himachal Pradesh to visit this lovely state because they are missing something extremely beautiful.
Siddharth Pani thanks for the good comment. Actually, peace and people are go hand in hand here. That is the basic fact of the harmony in this small,but big heart state.