The dislalia speech disorders are more frequent. It can be defined as a disturbance in the articulation of phonemes can be explained by functional difficulties of the peripheral organs of speech (lips, tongue, etc...) can be a construct slurred or phonemes.
Classification Of Dislalia
For classification purposes, we cite three types of dislalia:
1. Evolutionary dislalia: It is at an early age (between 3 and 5 years) and is characteristic of development (normal to emerge. All children go through it).
2. audiogenic Dislalia: This occurs in cases of hearing impairment.
3. Functional Dislalia: The dislalia itself. Alteration is pie in the articulation of certain phonemes as a result of poor coordination of phonatory muscles that are necessary to articulate them. No existe ninguna alteración física ni orgánica, sino una incapacidad funcional. The most common functional dyslalias about phonemes are affecting sigmatic (defect of the phoneme "s"); lambdacismo (defect in the phoneme "l"); rhotacism (defect in the phoneme "r" and "r"); gammacismo (default phoneme "g", "k" and "j"); Deltac (a defect in the phonemes "d" and "t") and Betacism (a defect in the phonemes "b" and "p")
As for the etiological factors are as follows: motor incoordination and lack of motor control in the articulatory organs, auditory discrimination problems, environmental factors (poor education, poor social circumstances, incorrect imitation models, etc..) And bilingualism ( although not entirely clear).
By more frequent changes are the substitution, distortion, omission, investment and integration. In another substitution phoneme is pronounced, in the distortion is pronounced the way it is, but distorted, a little different as it really is, in the phoneme omission problem simply is not pronounced, in the investment reverses the order of phonemes of a syllable (eg plastic instead of plastic) and the insertion inserts a new phoneme (for example, instead of tractor taractor)
With regard to special educational needs in children with dyslalias, are: improve respiratory dynamics and breath, exercise and drive to dominate the peripheral organs of speech (lips, tongue, soft palate, etc.). Exercise and dominate the auditory discrimination; acquire phonological awareness and learning to properly articulate the phonemes to replace, skip, reverse or distorted.
As part of the educational response, the objectives that would guide the response depends on education and phonetic and phonological difficulties. In the phonetic target is to achieve a proper articulation and phonological phonological awareness is to achieve and get the correct articulation, phonological and phonological awareness is to achieve and get a correct articulation.
On the methodological process is as follows: Direct intervention with articulatory activities and indirect intervention, by first setting the functional bases and then articulatory activities.
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