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Advantage and disadvantage of transportation
Transportation means movement of goods and person from one place to another. An efficient transport system is indispensable to the economic development of a nation.
Benefits function of transport
The entire economic, social and political life of a modern country depends upon an efficient system of transport. The benefits of transport can be studied under the following categories.
A. Economic benefits/ functions
The economics effect of good transport facilities are as follow:
1. Extensive market:- Transport helps in the assembly of raw material and distribution of finished goods. It makes it possible to move goods from the place of production to the place where they are to be consumed.
2. Mobility of labor and capital:- Mobility of labor and capital increases with the development of transport. An efficient network of transport services encourages the movement of people from one place to another place.
3. Specialization and division of labor: - Movement of goods and people from one place to another leads to specialization and division of labor which results in minimum wastage of resources and reduction in the cost of production.
4. Economies of large scale production:- Transport has made possible the various economics of large scale production which tend to reduce unit cost of production and help the economy.
5. Stability in prices: - Goods can be transported to places where there is scarcity and the prices are high from places where there is surplus and the prices are low.
6. Benefits to consumer: - The consumer can enjoy the benefits of use of many goods, which cannot be produced at their place, by transporting such goods from other distant places.
7. Employment opportunities and increase in the national income:- The economic development of a country depends upon the improved means of transport. Thus, transport contributes substantially to the national income of the nation.
8. Discouragement to monopoly:- The scope of total income is extended by the development of the means of transport. As commodities can be quickly transported from one place to another, local producers cannot charge prices at their own will. This discourages monopoly and encourages competition.
9. Development of agriculture: - It helps in the development of agriculture also. The business of agriculture products has grown to such a large extent only do to the efficient of agriculture.
10. Increase in national wealth:- Transport helps in increasing the national wealth of a country by facilitating agriculture, industry, trade and commerce.
B. Social benefits/ functions
Transport has substantially influenced the life of the people. The various social advantages of an efficient transport are as follow:
1. Discovery of new lands:- Transport has helped the discovery of new lands and the growth of cities and urban. Even the waste lands are now being used.
2. Diffusion of population: - It reduces the concentration of population in the area of production. People can reach from distant places if there is an adequate and efficient system of transport.
3. High standard of living: - Transport helps in the increase of production thereby raising the standard of living of people. An industry depends upon efficient system of transport and it creates new industries.
4. Ability to face natural calamities:- Transport enables the society to face natural calamities such as famine, earthquake, drought, floods, etc. in such emergencies; commodities can quickly be transported to the places of mishap.
5. Destroys ignorance:- It promotes culture, removes prejudices and destroys ignorance helps in spreading and furthering the cause of education.
C. Political benefits/functions
In addition to the economic and social advantaged. Transport enjoys a great political significance:
1. National unity, integration and peace:- Transport helps in maintaining internal peace and national unity of a country. It brings about national integration. A vast country like India cannot be held together without efficient means of transport.
2. National defense:- Transport is essential for strengthening the national defense of a country. In the days of war. It is only through improved means of transport that the defense personnel, material and equipment can be moved rapidly to the border areas.
3. Political awakening:- Efficient means of transport help in creating political awakening in the people and the growth of civilization.
4. Sources of revenue: - Transport helps in increasing the national wealth and income of a country. It is also a source of revenue to the government.
All the movement of goods beings and ultimately ends by making use of roads. Roads act as an important feeder to the other modes of transport such as railways, ships and airways.
There are numerous advantages of road transport in comparison to other modes of transport.
1. Less capital quality:- Road transport required much less capital investment as compared to other modes of transport such as railways and air transport.
2. Door to door services: - The outstanding advantage of road transport is that it provides door to door or warehouse to warehouse services.
3. Services in rural areas:- Road transport is most suited for carrying goods and people to and from rural areas which are not served by rail, water or air transport.
4. Flexible services:- Road transport has a great advantage over other modes of transport for its flexible services. Its routes and timings can be adjusted and changed to individual requirements without much inconvenience.
5. Suitable for short distance:- Delays in transit of gods on account of intermediate loading and handling are avoided. Goods can be loaded direct into a road vehicle and transported straight to their place of destination.
6. Lesser risk of damage in transmit: - Road transport is most suited for transporting delicate goods like chinaware and glassware, which are likely to be damaged in the process of loading and unloading.
7. Rapid speed:- If the goods are to be sent immediately are quickly, motor transport is more suited than the railways or water transport. Water transport is very slow.
8. Saving in packing cost: - As compared to other modes of transport, the process of packing in motor transport is less complicated. Goods transported by motor transport require less packing or no packing in several cases.
9. Private owned vehicles: - Another advantage of road transport is that big businessmen can afford to have their own motor vehicles and initiate their own road services to market their products without causing any delay.
10. Feeder to other modes of transport: - The movement of goods beings and ultimately ends by making use of roads. Road and motor transport act as a feeder to the other modes of transport such as railway, ships and airways.
In spite of various merits road/motor has some serious limitations:
1. Seasonal nature: - Motor transport is not as reliable as rail transport. During rainy or flood season, roads become unfit and unsafe for use.
2. Accidents and breakdown: - There are more chances of accidents and breakdown in case of motor transport. Thus, motor transport is not as safe as rail transport.
3. Unsuitable for long distance and bulky traffic: - This mode of transport is unsuitable and costly for transporting cheap and bulky gods over long distances.
4. Slow speed: - The speed of motor transport is comparatively slow and limited.
5. Lack of organization: - The road transport is comparatively less organized. More often, it is irregular and undependable. The rates charged for transportation are also unsuitable and unequal.
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