Indo-Islamic Architecture – The Delhi Sultanate
The five main dynasty in 1190CE -1525CE are Mamluk Dynasty who built Qutb complex, Qutb-ud-din-Aibak and Iltutmish, Khalji Dynasty who built Alai Darwaza at Qutb complex, Alau-ud-din-Khalji, Thughlaq Dynasty, Sayyid Dynasty, Lodi Dynasties
Constructions of Mamluk Dynasty | Mamluk dynasty Information
The most important monument erected by the Mamluk Dynasty is the Qutb of Delhi, named afterv Qutb-ud-Din Aibak the first ruler of the dynasty who made Delhi his capital. On the captured stronghold of Q’ala-i-Rai-Pithaura which became the first of the seven cities.
Qutb Complex the Delhi Magic & Beauty
Qutb-ud-Din Aibak demolished the Hindu temple in the centre of the citadel and gave the local workmen the plan of the mosque Quwwat-ul-Islam, consisting of a courtyard surrounded by a liwan – pillared cloister consisting of three aisles. He employed the short, carved pillars from the Hindu temples, placing them one over the other in order to raise them to the required height. This resulted in the patch-work effect of the Islamic design and Hindu materials.
A few years later an arched façade was built across the entire front of the sanctuary. This screen was massive stone wall with five openings – a large central archway, and two smaller ones, formed a kind of clerestory. The iron pillar without its crowning member , the Garuda, was placed in front of the sanctuary. The primitive method of corbelling of the arch, unmistakably Indian, and the shape of the arches reveal that the workmanship of this mosque was Hindu.
Qutb Minar - The tallest stone tower in India | Qutb Minar Architecture
Qutb Minar was built to proclaim to the world the power and greatness of Islam from a gigantic tower. It is also a minar belonging to the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. Red sandstone with accents of marble and height of Qutb Minar was originally 238’.feet. It consisted of four diminishing storeys, each division demarcated by projecting balconies. Tapers from about 13.20 meters at the base to about 2.7meters at the top. In section the first three stages have a different projections. Those on the lowest are alternately wedge-shaped and rounded; those on the second are rounded; and those on the third are wedge-shaped. The entrance doorway faces north. The balconies and their supports constitute the most artistic features of the minar. The balconies are supported from underneath by stalactite bracketing in the form of clusters of small arches or alcoves with brackets between. At intervals, on each stage, there are carved band -arabesques and verses from Koran – the latter inscribed in Kufi script.the carvings are crisp and neat. The Qutb is a gigantic tower of architectural beauty and judicious surface embellishment.
Tomb of Iltutmish - Blend of Hindu and Islamic art | Tomb of Iltutmish Architecture
Iltutmish, the next great Mamluk ruler and the son- in-law of Qutb-ud-Din Aibak extended Qutb-ud-Din’s mosque at Delhi, by doubling its size by widening the mosque, the courtyard and the maqsura. He took care not to deviate from its style. The advances made in architecture under his reign, is particularly noticeable in the curves of the arches. They are four-centered type that became characteristic of later Indo-Islamic style.
Tomb of Iltutmish constructed just behind the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque at Delhi is an important structure, erected towards the end of his reign. The square structure, solidly built has doorways on three sides and three mihrabs on its western wall.The exterior is simple but for the patterned border around the entrance arches; the interior is carved in crisp decoration of arabesques and geometric motifs. The tomb is architecturally important because for the first time in India true arch is in construction. The tomb is also the first monument in India to have a dome built on squinches.
Alau-ud-Din KhaljiAlau-ud-din Khalji, of the Khalji dynasty had ambitious plans to extend the mosque to gigantic scale and began the erection of Alai Mionar, but very little had been accomplished at the time of his death. The principal record of his ambition lies in a small structure known as Alai Darwaza, the only gateway of his huge plan that he managed to finish. That some new influence was at work is clear from its mature style and method of construction.
Slender nook shafts, spear-headed fringe in stone and accentuation of the arch by marble in-lay are the features of the arched entrance.The interior of the building is remarkable by the manner in which the domed ceiling has been constructed by means of the Squinch system.Above each of the four angles of the hall rises semi-vaults of pointed arches. By recessing these one with in the other, a support is formed by changing the square of the room to circular base of the dome.
NOTE: Photo-Copied notes from Edith Tomory’s book and Dr.Partha Mitter’s Indian Art.
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