Nature and characteristics of management

consisting of principle, technique and laws and can be taught as a separate discipline or subject.
12. Management is intangible: - Management is intangible, i.e. it can be felt in the form of results and not see. E.g. when we are not able to produce the desired quantity, we say it is the result of poor management.
Management is defined by various authors. They have emphasized different aspects of management. An analysis of various definitions reveals the following characteristics of management.

1. Management is a group activity: - Management is an essential part of group activity. As no individual can satisfy all his desires himself, he units with his fellow- being and works in an organized group to achieve what he cannot achieve individually.
2. Management is goal-oriented: - Management aims to achieve economic and social objective. It exists to achieve some definite goals or objectives. Group efforts in management are always directed toward the achievement of some pre-determined goals.
3. Management is a factor of production: - Management is anuran end in itself but a means to achieve the group objectives. Just as land, labor and capital are factor of production and are essential for the production of goods and services.
4. Management is universal in character: - Management is applicable in all types of organization. Whenever there is human activity, there is management. The basis principle of management are universal application and can be applied in all organization whenever they are business, social, religious, cultural, sport, educational, politics or military.
5. Management is needed at all levels of the organization: - Another important feature of management is that it is needed at all levels of the organization, e.g. top level, middle level and supervisory level. The only difference is of the nature of task and the scope of authority.
6. Management is a distinct process: - Management is a distinct process performed to determine and accomplish started objective by the use of human beings and other resources. It is different from the activities technique and procedures.
7. Management is a social process: - Management is getting thing through others. This involves dealing with people. The efforts of the human beings have to be directed, co-ordinate and regulated by management in order to achieve the desired results. 8. Management is a system of authority: - Since management is a process of directing men to perform a task, authority to accomplish the work from others is implied in the every concept of management. Management cannot perform in the absence of authority.
9. Management is a dynamic function: - Management is a dynamic function and it has to be performed continuously. It is constantly engaged in the molding of the enterprise in an over charging business environment.
10. Management is an art as well as a science: - Management is a science because it has developed certain principle which is of universal application. But the result of management depend upon the personnel skills of managers and in this sense management is an art.
11. Management is a profession: - In the present days, management is recognized as a profession. It has a systematic and specialized body of knowledge


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