Basic procedure of Machine design


This article describes about the basic procedure about Machine design. Read this article to know about product specifications, selection of mechanism, Layout configuration, design of individual components and preparation of drawings.

It consists of a step by step approach from given specifications about the fundamental requirements of a product. To complete description in the form of drawings of the final product the logical sequence of steps usually common to all design projects as illustrated. These steps are inter related and inter dependent on each other. Reflecting and affecting all other steps


Product specifications


The step 1 consists of preparing a complete list of the requirements of the product. The requirements include the outer, capacity of machine, service life, cost and reliability. In some cases the overall dimensions and weight of the product are specified. In the consumer products the external appearance and noise less performance and simplicity in operation are the important requirements.


Selection of mechanism


After a careful study of requirements, the designer prepares rough sketches of different possible mechanisms of product. The alternative mechanisms are compared with each other and also with the mechanism of products that are available in market depending on the cost competitiveness, availability of raw materials and the manufacturing facility. From these best possible mechanism is selected for the product.


Layout configuration


The next step in design procedure is to prepare a block diagram showing the general layout of the selected configuration. In this step the design specifies joining methods such as editing, bolting (or) welding to connect individual components. Rough sketches of shapes of individual components are prepared.


Design of individual components


The design of individual components (or) machine elements is an important step in the design process. It consists of the following steps.
a. Determine the forces acting on the component
b. Select proper material for the component depending up on the functional requirements such as strength, rigidity, hardness, wear resistance
c. Determine the mode of failure for the component and depending up on it and select the criterion of failure such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, endurance limit (or) permissible deflection
d. Determine the geometric dimensions of the component using dimensions of the component using suitable factor of safety and modify the dimensions from assembly and manufacturing considerations.


Preparation of drawings


Last stage in design process is to prepare drawings of the assembly and the individual components on these drawings the material of the component, its dimensions, tolerances, surface finish grades and machining symbols are specified.


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