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Syllabus for Applied Electronics and Instrumentation

Kerala University Applied electronics syllabus
03.301 Engineering Mathematics II 310 4 Credits
MODULE 1
Ordinary Differential Equations Differential equations of the first order and higher degree: Equations solvable for pEquations solvable for xEquations solvable for yClairut’s Equation. Linear Differential Equations: Higher order with constant coefficientsMethod of variation of parameters Homogeneous linear equations (Cauchy’s and Legender’s ) Simultaneous linear equations with constant coefficients. Orthogonal Trajectories: Cartesian form only. MODULE 2: Fourier Series And Multiple Integrals Fourier Series: Dirichlet’s conditionsEuler’s FormulaFunctions with periods 2p and 2 Even and odd functionsHalf range sine and cosine series. Multiple Integrals: EvaluationChange of order of integrationTransformation to polar coordinatesArea as double integralVolume as triple integral (cartesian coordinates only). MODULE 3: Vector Calculus Vector differentiation: Derivative of a vector functionVelocity and accelerationScalar and vector fields GradientIt’s geometrical interpretationDirectional derivativeDivergence and CurlTheir physical meaning Relations involving Solenoidal and irrotational fieldsScalar potentials(simple problems). Vector Integration: Line integral, surface integral and volume integralwork done by a forceStatement and verification of Green’s theorem, Stoke’s theorem and Gauss’ Divergence theoremtheir use in evaluating the integrals..
03.302 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY (TA) 210 Module I Transformers  Constructional details  principles of operation emf equationphasor diagram on load  Equivalent circuit  regulation  losses and efficiency. Methods of cooling. OC and SC test determination of equivalent circuit. Autotransformers. Instrument transformers. DC Generators  Constructional details  principle of operation  emf equation  types of generators  performance characteristics and applications. DC Motors  production of torque  shunt, series and compound motors  performance characteristics  applications  methods of seed control  starters. Universal motor, DC servomotors  principle of operation, characteristics and application. Module II Three phase induction motor  constructional details  slip ring and cage type  production of torque  slip  performance characteristics and application. Starters  star delta and rotor resistance types. Methods of speed control  stator voltage, V/f control. Losses and efficiency. No load and blocked rotor tests  determination of equivalent circuit. Single phase induction motor  types  characteristics and applications. Stepper motor  principle of operation and applications. Alternator  constructional details  frequency  emf equation  phasor diagram on load  concept of regulation. Synchronous motor  principle of operation  methods of starting  applications. Module III Measurements of power and energy in single and three phase system. Electric heating  Resistance furnaces and ovens  methods of temperature control. Electric arc furnaces and induction furnace. High frequency heating  induction and dielectric heating  applications. Electric welding  resistance and arc welding  power supply and current control. Electric traction  systems of power supply  functional schematic of AC electric locomotives  types of motors used in traction systems and methods of speed control  methods of braking. 03.303 SOLID STATE DEVICES (TA) 310 Module I Introduction to Quantum mechanics. Fermidirac distribution. Energy bands in Solids  Bonding of atoms in solids, formation of Energy bands in solids, metals, insulators and semiconductors, energy momentum relation for electrons in solids, effective mass. Semiconductor materials and properties  Classification, elemental and compound semiconductors  intrinsic semiconductors, extrinsic semiconductors, doping of compound semiconductor. Energy band model of intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Equilibrium concentration of electrons and holes, the density of states function (no derivation), effective density of states. Temperature dependence of intrinsic carrier concentration. Ionisation of impurities. The Fermi level and energy distribution of carriers inside the bands. Constancy of Fermi level at equilibrium. Temperature dependence of carrier concentration in an extrinsic semiconductor. Carrier transport in semiconductors – Drift, Relaxation time and mobility. Carrier scattering mechanisms, variation of mobility with temperature and doping, conductivity. Hall effect.
Module II Excess carriers in semiconductors  Injection of excess carriers, mechanisms of recombination, origin of recombination centres, excess carriers and quasi Fermi levels, diffusion, Einstein relations. Continuity equations. PN junctions  the abrupt junction, electric field and potential distribution, built in voltage, depletion layer capacitance, the linearly graded junction  electric field, built in potential, junction capacitance. StaticIVcharacteristics  ideal diode model, simplifying assumptions, the ideal diode equation, long base diodes,majority and minority carrier currents. Real diodes  IV characteristics. Temperature dependence of IV characteristics. High level injection effects. Electrical breakdown in PN junctions  Zener break down, avalanche break down (abrupt PN junctions only), Schottky diode. Module III Bipolar junction transistor  transistor action, current components, basic parameters. Analysis of the ideal transistor  calculation of terminal currents (based on physical dimensions), calculation of dc parameters. effect of collector bias variation, Avalanche multiplication in collectorbase junction, Base resistance, Static IV characteristics of Common Base and Common Emitter configurations. Regions of operation. Field Effect Transistors: JFET  principle of operation, current equation, static IV characteristics, device parameters. MOS Transistors  Ideal MOS capacitor, effect of real surfaces, threshold voltage, Capacitance  Voltage characteristics of the MOS capacitor, Basic structure and principle of operation of MOSFETs, IV characteristics. Basic principle & characteristics of UJT and SCR (no analysis). Text Book: Ben G. Streetman :Solid State Electronic Devices,5 th Edn., Pearson Education, 2000/ PHI.
03.304 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS  I (TA) 310 Module I RC Circuits: Response of high pass and low pass RC circuits to sine wave, step, pulse and square wave inputs, Tilt, Rise time. Differentiator, Integrator, clipping and clamping circuits. Analysis of Half wave, full wave and bridge rectifiers. Analysis of L, C, LC & Filters. Zener voltage regulator, transistor series (with feedback) and shunt voltage regulators, Short circuit protection. Module II Biasing : Transistor Biasing circuits, Stability factors, Thermal runaway. DC analysis of BJTs  graphical analysis, small signal equivalent circuits (Low frequency and T models only). Analysis of CE, CB, CC configurations (gain, input and output impedance), Cascading of BJT amplifiers. Biasing of JFETs, Small signal model, analysis of CS, CG, and CD amplifiers. Biasing of MOSFETs, current mirror circuit, Widlar circuits. Small signal equivalent circuits. Analysis of MOSFET amplifiers (CS only). Module III Power amplifiers: Class A, B, AB circuits  efficiency and distortion. Biasing of class AB circuits. Transformerless power amplifiers. Low frequency Oscillators : Barkhausen criterion, RC phase shift and Wien bridge oscillators  analysis. Transistor switching circuits : Transistor switching times. (Delay, rise, storage and fall time). Analysis of collector coupled Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators, Schmitt trigger – analysis. Text books 1. Sedra and Smith :Microelectronic Circuits, IV Ed., Oxford University Press 1998. 2. Millmann and Taub :Pulse Digital and Switching Waveforms,TMH.
03.305 NETWORK ANALYSIS (TA) 310
Module I Elements of Network Analysis Network theorems, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Super position theorem, Reciprocity theorem, Millman theorem Maximum Power Transfer theorem. Insertion loss. Signal representation  Impulse, step, pulse and ramp function. Use of Laplace Transform in the transient analysis of RC and LC networks with impulse, step, exponential, pulse and sinusoidal inputs. Initial and final value theorems, step input for RLC circuits. Module II Network functions  The concept of complex frequency  driving point and transfer functions  Impulse response  Poles and Zeros of network functions and their locations and effects on the time and frequency domain. Restriction of poles and zeros in the driving point and transfer function. Time domain behaviour from the pole  zero plot. Frequency response plots  Magnitude and phase plots from splane phasors, Bode plots. Parameters of twoport network – impedance, admittance, transmission and hybrid  Conversion formulae. Attenuators – propagation constant, types of attenuators – T, and Bridged T. Module III Resonance in series and parallel circuits resonant frequency bandwidth  Q factor, Selectivity. Coupled circuits, single tuned and double tuned circuits, coefficient of coupling, Image Impedance, Characteristic impedance and propagation constant. Filter approximations  Butterworth response  poles of the Butterworth function, Chebyshev response  Chebyshev polynomials  equi ripple characteristics  poles of the Chebyshev function, inverse Chebyshev response, BesselThomson response. Frequency transformations  transformations to high pass, band pass and band elimination.
03.306 PROGRAMMING IN C++ (TA) 202
Module I Types and declarations: Types  boolean, character, integer, floating point, void, enumerated. Conditional statements and loops. Declarations structure, multiple names, scopes, initialization, Function declaration, argument passing, value return. Classes  objects, private, public and protected variables. Pointers, arrays, pointer to arrays, constants, reference, pointer to void , new operator, delete operator. Module II 64 Function overloading, operator overloading, friend function, derived class (inheritance), polymorphism, virtual function, templates, files and streams. Programming tools, make files, debuggers, revision control systems, exception handling. Module III Data structures: Linked ( single and double) lists basic operations, stack basic operations, binary trees basic operations. Sorting bubble sort, shell sort, merge sort, quick sort.
03.307 ELECTRONICS WORKSHOP (TA)
1. Identification of components and devices. 2. Testing of components and devices. 3. Design and construction of small transformers. 4. Use of measuring instruments like RLC meter, Power meter, Frequency meter, CRO for the measurements of phase, rise time & fall time etc. 5. Preliminary idea of PCB fabrication . 6. Soldering practice –Soldering of given circuits (Rectifiers, amplifiers, oscillators, multivibrators, 7. Differentiating & Integrating circuits, RC filter circuits, clipping & clamping circuits.) For University examination, the following guidelines should be followed regarding award of marks (a) Layout 25% (b) Soldering 25% (c) Result 25% (d) Viva voce 25% Practical examinations are to be conducted covering the entire syllabus given above.
03.308 ELECTRONIC DEVICES LAB (TA) 003
1. Characteristics of Diodes & Zener diodes 2. Characteristics of Transistors (CE & CB) 3. Characteristics of FETs & UJTs 4. Characteristics of SCRs & Triac. 5. Frequency response of RC Low pass and high pass filters. Response to Square wave for Integrating and Differentiating circuits. 6. Zener Regulator with & without emitter follower. 7. RC Coupled (CE) amplifier using transistors frequency response characteristics. 8. FET amplifier (CS)  frequency response characteristics. 9. Clipping and clamping circuits. 10. Rectifiershalf wave, full wave, Bridge with and without filter ripple factor and regulation. Note: For University examination, the following guidelines should be followed regarding award of marks (a) Circuit and design 25% (b) Result & Performance 50% (c) Viva voce 25% Practical examinations are to be conducted covering the entire syllabus given above.

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