Syllabus for Applied Electronics and Instrumentation

Kerala University Applied electronics syllabus

03.301 Engineering Mathematics- II 3-1-0 4 Credits


Ordinary Differential Equations
Differential equations of the first order and higher degree:
Equations solvable for p-Equations solvable for
x-Equations solvable for y-Clairut’s Equation.
Linear Differential Equations:
Higher order with constant coefficients-Method of variation of parameters-
Homogeneous linear equations (Cauchy’s and Legender’s )-
Simultaneous linear equations with constant coefficients.
Orthogonal Trajectories:
Cartesian form only.
Fourier Series And Multiple Integrals
Fourier Series:
Dirichlet’s conditions-Euler’s Formula-Functions with periods 2p and 2
-Even and odd
functions-Half range sine and cosine series.
Multiple Integrals:
Evaluation-Change of order of integration-Transformation to polar coordinates-Area as
double integral-Volume as triple integral (cartesian coordinates only).
MODULE 3: Vector Calculus
Vector differentiation:
Derivative of a vector function-Velocity and acceleration-Scalar and vector fields-
Gradient-It’s geometrical interpretation-Directional derivative-Divergence and Curl-Their physical meaning-
Relations involving -Solenoidal and irrotational fields-Scalar potentials(simple problems).
Vector Integration:
Line integral, surface integral and volume integral-work done by a force-Statement and
verification of Green’s theorem, Stoke’s theorem and Gauss’ Divergence theorem-their use in evaluating the

Module I
Transformers - Constructional details - principles of operation emf equation-phasor diagram on load -
Equivalent circuit - regulation - losses and efficiency. Methods of cooling. OC and SC test determination of
equivalent circuit. Autotransformers. Instrument transformers.
DC Generators - Constructional details - principle of operation - emf equation - types of generators -
performance characteristics and applications. DC Motors - production of torque - shunt, series and compound
motors - performance characteristics - applications - methods of seed control - starters. Universal motor, DC
servomotors - principle of operation, characteristics and application.
Module II
Three phase induction motor - constructional details - slip ring and cage type - production of torque - slip -
performance characteristics and application. Starters - star delta and rotor resistance types. Methods of speed
control - stator voltage, V/f control. Losses and efficiency. No load and blocked rotor tests - determination of
equivalent circuit.
Single phase induction motor - types - characteristics and applications.
Stepper motor - principle of operation and applications.
Alternator - constructional details - frequency - emf equation - phasor diagram on load - concept of regulation.
Synchronous motor - principle of operation - methods of starting - applications.
Module III
Measurements of power and energy in single and three phase system.
Electric heating - Resistance furnaces and ovens - methods of temperature control. Electric arc furnaces and
induction furnace. High frequency heating - induction and dielectric heating - applications.
Electric welding - resistance and arc welding - power supply and current control.
Electric traction - systems of power supply - functional schematic of AC electric locomotives - types of motors
used in traction systems and methods of speed control - methods of braking.

Module I
Introduction to Quantum mechanics. Fermi-dirac distribution. Energy bands in Solids - Bonding of atoms in
solids, formation of Energy bands in solids, metals, insulators and semiconductors, energy momentum relation
for electrons in solids, effective mass. Semiconductor materials and properties - Classification, elemental and
compound semiconductors - intrinsic semiconductors, extrinsic semiconductors, doping of compound
semiconductor. Energy band model of intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Equilibrium concentration of
electrons and holes, the density of states function (no derivation), effective density of states. Temperature
dependence of intrinsic carrier concentration. Ionisation of impurities. The Fermi level and energy distribution
of carriers inside the bands. Constancy of Fermi level at equilibrium. Temperature dependence of carrier
concentration in an extrinsic semiconductor. Carrier transport in semiconductors – Drift, Relaxation time and
mobility. Carrier scattering mechanisms, variation of mobility with temperature and doping, conductivity. Hall

Module II
Excess carriers in semiconductors - Injection of excess carriers, mechanisms of recombination, origin of
recombination centres, excess carriers and quasi Fermi levels, diffusion, Einstein relations. Continuity
equations. PN junctions - the abrupt junction, electric field and potential distribution, built in voltage, depletion
layer capacitance, the linearly graded junction - electric field, built in potential, junction capacitance. StaticIVcharacteristics - ideal diode model, simplifying assumptions, the ideal diode equation, long base diodes,majority and minority carrier currents. Real diodes - IV characteristics. Temperature dependence of IV characteristics. High level injection effects. Electrical breakdown in PN junctions - Zener break down,
avalanche break down (abrupt PN junctions only), Schottky diode.
Module III
Bipolar junction transistor - transistor action, current components, basic parameters. Analysis of the ideal
transistor - calculation of terminal currents (based on physical dimensions), calculation of dc parameters. effect
of collector bias variation, Avalanche multiplication in collector-base junction, Base resistance, Static IV
characteristics of Common Base and Common Emitter configurations. Regions of operation.
Field Effect Transistors: JFET - principle of operation, current equation, static IV characteristics, device
parameters. MOS Transistors - Ideal MOS capacitor, effect of real surfaces, threshold voltage, Capacitance -
Voltage characteristics of the MOS capacitor, Basic structure and principle of operation of MOSFETs, IV
characteristics. Basic principle & characteristics of UJT and SCR (no analysis).
Text Book:
Ben G. Streetman :Solid State Electronic Devices,5 th Edn., Pearson Education, 2000/ PHI.

Module I
RC Circuits: Response of high pass and low pass RC circuits to sine wave, step, pulse and square wave inputs,
Tilt, Rise time. Differentiator, Integrator, clipping and clamping circuits. Analysis of Half wave, full wave and
bridge rectifiers. Analysis of L, C, LC & Filters. Zener voltage regulator, transistor series (with feedback) and
shunt voltage regulators, Short circuit protection.
Module II
Biasing : Transistor Biasing circuits, Stability factors, Thermal runaway. DC analysis of BJTs - graphical
analysis, small signal equivalent circuits (Low frequency and T models only).
Analysis of CE, CB, CC configurations (gain, input and output impedance), Cascading of BJT amplifiers.
Biasing of JFETs, Small signal model, analysis of CS, CG, and CD amplifiers. Biasing of
MOSFETs, current mirror circuit, Widlar circuits. Small signal equivalent circuits. Analysis
of MOSFET amplifiers (CS only).
Module III
Power amplifiers: Class A, B, AB circuits - efficiency and distortion. Biasing of class AB circuits.
Transformerless power amplifiers.
Low frequency Oscillators : Barkhausen criterion, RC phase shift and Wien bridge oscillators - analysis.
Transistor switching circuits : Transistor switching times. (Delay, rise, storage and fall time). Analysis of
collector coupled Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators, Schmitt trigger – analysis.
Text books
1. Sedra and Smith :Microelectronic Circuits, IV Ed., Oxford University Press 1998.
2. Millmann and Taub :Pulse Digital and Switching Waveforms,TMH.

03.305 NETWORK ANALYSIS (TA) 3-1-0

Module I
Elements of Network Analysis- Network theorems, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Super position
theorem, Reciprocity theorem, Millman theorem- Maximum Power Transfer theorem. Insertion loss.
Signal representation - Impulse, step, pulse and ramp function. Use of Laplace Transform in the transient
analysis of RC and LC networks with impulse, step, exponential, pulse and sinusoidal inputs. Initial and final
value theorems, step input for RLC circuits.
Module II
Network functions - The concept of complex frequency - driving point and transfer functions - Impulse response
- Poles and Zeros of network functions and their locations and effects on the time and frequency domain.
Restriction of poles and zeros in the driving point and transfer function. Time domain behaviour from the pole -
zero plot. Frequency response plots - Magnitude and phase plots from s-plane phasors, Bode plots. Parameters
of two-port network – impedance, admittance, transmission and hybrid - Conversion formulae. Attenuators –
propagation constant, types of attenuators – T, and Bridged T.
Module III
Resonance in series and parallel circuits- resonant frequency- bandwidth - Q factor, Selectivity. Coupled
circuits, single tuned and double tuned circuits, coefficient of coupling, Image Impedance, Characteristic
impedance and propagation constant.
Filter approximations - Butterworth response - poles of the Butterworth function, Chebyshev response -
Chebyshev polynomials - equi ripple characteristics - poles of the Chebyshev function, inverse Chebyshev
response, Bessel-Thomson response. Frequency transformations - transformations to high pass, band pass and
band elimination.

03.306 PROGRAMMING IN C++ (TA) 2-0-2

Module I
Types and declarations: Types - boolean, character, integer, floating point, void, enumerated. Conditional
statements and loops. Declarations- structure, multiple names, scopes, initialization, Function declaration,
argument passing, value return. Classes - objects, private, public and protected variables. Pointers, arrays,
pointer to arrays, constants, reference, pointer to void , new operator, delete operator.
Module II
Function overloading, operator overloading, friend function, derived class (inheritance), polymorphism, virtual
function, templates, files and streams. Programming tools, make files, debuggers, revision control systems,
exception handling.
Module III
Data structures: Linked ( single and double) lists -basic operations, stack -basic operations, binary trees- basic
operations. Sorting- bubble sort, shell sort, merge sort, quick sort.


1. Identification of components and devices.
2. Testing of components and devices.
3. Design and construction of small transformers.
4. Use of measuring instruments like RLC meter, Power meter, Frequency meter, CRO for the
measurements of phase, rise time & fall time etc.
5. Preliminary idea of PCB fabrication .
6. Soldering practice –Soldering of given circuits (Rectifiers, amplifiers, oscillators, multivibrators,
7. Differentiating & Integrating circuits, RC filter circuits, clipping & clamping circuits.)
For University examination, the following guidelines should be followed regarding award of marks
(a) Layout -25%
(b) Soldering -25%
(c) Result -25%
(d) Viva voce -25%
Practical examinations are to be conducted covering the entire syllabus given above.


1. Characteristics of Diodes & Zener diodes
2. Characteristics of Transistors (CE & CB)
3. Characteristics of FETs & UJTs
4. Characteristics of SCRs & Triac.
5. Frequency response of RC Low pass and high pass filters. Response to Square wave for Integrating and
Differentiating circuits.
6. Zener Regulator with & without emitter follower.
7. RC Coupled (CE) amplifier using transistors -frequency response characteristics.
8. FET amplifier (CS) - frequency response characteristics.
9. Clipping and clamping circuits.
10. Rectifiers-half wave, full wave, Bridge with and without filter- ripple factor and regulation.
For University examination, the following guidelines should be followed regarding award of marks
(a) Circuit and design -25%
(b) Result & Performance -50%
(c) Viva voce -25%
Practical examinations are to be conducted covering the entire syllabus given above.

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