# Fourth Semester Btech Syllabus for Applied Electronic and Instrumentation

Kerala University Applied electronics syllabus

03. 401 Engineering Mathematics – III 3-1-0 4 credits

MODULE 1: Partial Differential Equations

Formation of P.D.E-Solution by direct integration-solution of Lagrange’s linear equations-Nonlinear equations

of first order-Types f(p,q)=0,f(z,p,q)=0,f(x,p)=g(y,q)-

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Homogeneous P.D.E with constant coefficients-solution by the method of separation of variables.

MODULE 2: Application of partial differential Equations

Derivation of one dimensional wave equation-solution of the wave equation by the method of separation of

variables –Boundary value problems involving wave equation-Derivation of one dimensional heat equation-

solution by the method of separation of variables-Problems with zero and nonzero boundary conditions-Solution

of Laplace equation in two dimensions (cartesian only)-Problems on finite and infinite strips.

MODULE 3: Fourier Transforms and Optimization Techniques

Fourier Transforms:

Fourier integral

Theorem(no proof)-Fourier sine and cosine integrals-Fourier

Transforms-complex form-Sine and cosine Transforms-Inversion Formula-simple problems.

Optimization techniques:

Linear Programming Problems-Formulation-Graphical solution-General L.P.P-Slack

and Surplus variables-Basic feasible solution-Solution of L.P.P. using Simplex method-Big-M-method-Duality-

Dual Simplex method.

03.402 Humanities 3-0-0 3 Credits

Part 1

Module I

1. Definition and scope of Economics- Definition of basic terms-Goods-wants and their classifications-

wealth- Income –Money- -Near money- Credit money- Utility, features and kinds of utility – National

Income and related concepts as GNP, NNP, -Disposable Income Resource Allocation, Technological

choice & production possibility curve. Indifference curve analysis- the concept of supply- Supply

curves-Cost curves – loss of returns.

2. Basic laws in Economics – Law of Diminishing marginal utility – Demand, Law of Demand and

demand curve- The concept of supply- Supply schedule and supply curve.

Module II

3. Market structure – Classifications – Pricing under different markets as perfect competition, monopoly

and oligopoly. Pricing under monopolistic competition.

4.Inflation – Measures to control inflation – Monetary measures and fiscal measures – Effects of

inflation.

5.Tax – Classification of Taxes – Direct & Indirect taxes specific and AdValorem taxes – personal

income tax – characteristics of a good tax system – Tax evasion.

Module III

6.International Monetary Fund – Issues & Challenges – International liquidity – Special Drawing Rights

- India & IMF.

7.Welfare Economics – Old Welfare Economics -Pigou’s Analysis – New Welfare Economics Pareto’s

welfare criterion

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Part 2 – Communicative English

Reading- Skimming-scanning-detailed reading-predicting content-interpreting charts and tables-identifying

stylistic features in texts - evaluating texts-understanding discourse coherence-guessing meaning from the

context- note making / transferring information.

Word formation with prefixes and suffixes-discourse markers and their functions-degrees of comparison-

expressions relating to recommendations and comparisons-active and passive voice-antonyms-tense forms-

gerunds- conditional sentences-modal verbs of probability and improbability-acronyms and abbreviations -

compound nouns and adjectives-spelling-punctuation.

Sentence definition-static description-comparison and contrast-classification of information-recommendations-

highlighting problems and providing solutions-formal and informal letter writing-using flow-charts/diagrams

paragraph writing-editing.

Defining, describing objects-describing uses/functions-comparing-offering suggestions-analysing problems and

providing solutions-expressing opinions (agreement/ disagreement) –expressing possibility/certainty – framing

03.403 ANALOG COMMUNICATION (TA) 2-1-0

Module I

Telephone systems –electronic telephone-digital switching –trunk circuits –private telephone networks.

Amplitude modulation- Frequency spectrum, power relation, DSB-SC modulation, modulation and

demodulation circuits, AM transmitters. Receivers- Superheterodyne receivers, tracking, sensitivity and gain,

image rejection and AGC, double conversion receivers, single conversion receivers, Single side band

modulation – principle, balanced modulation, SSB generation and reception, companded SSB.

Module II

Angle modulation- FM spectrum, modulation index, phase modulation, comparison of various modulation

schemes, angle modulation and demodulation circuits, AFC, amplitude limiters, pre-emphasis and de-emphasis,

FM broadcast transmitters and receivers.

Noise in analog modulation systems- Noise in linear receivers using coherent detection, noise in AM receivers

using envelope detection, noise in FM receivers.

Module III (Quantitative Approach)

Probability Concepts, Random Variables, Statistical averages.

Random Processes - Introduction, definition, stationary processes, mean, correlation and covariance functions-

properties of Auto correlation & cross correlation functions. Ergodic processes, transmission of Random

Processes, power spectral density and its properties, cross spectral densities. Guassian process- central limit

theorem, properties.

Noise – Shot noise, thermal noise and white noise, S/N ratio, noise figure, narrow band noise, representation in

terms of in-phase and quadrature components, envelope and phase components, sine wave plus narrow band

noise.

03.404 SIGNALS & SYSTEMS (TA) 3-1-0

Module I (Quantitative Approach)

Introduction – continuous time & discrete time signals, Basic operations on signals-operations on dependent and

independent variables, elementary signals- exponential, sinusoidal, step, impulse and ramp functions,

Continuous time & Discrete time systems – system properties–– memory, invertibility, linearity, time

invariance, causality, stability, Impulse response & step response of systems, convolution.

Fourier series representation of continuous time and discrete time periodic signals.

Module II (Quantitative Approach)

Continuous Time Fourier Transform – properties – systems characterized by differential equations. Discrete

Time Fourier Transform – properties – systems characterized by difference equations . Sampling theorem –

Reconstruction – Aliasing.

Module III (Quantitative Approach)

The Laplace Transform – ROC – Inverse transform – properties – Analysis of LTI systems using Laplace

Transform – unilateral Laplace Transform.

The Z transform – ROC – Inverse transform – properties – Analysis of LTI systems using Z transforms –

unilateral Z transform.

03.405 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS - II (TA) 3-1-0

Module I

High frequency equivalent circuits of BJTs, MOSFETs, Miller effect, short circuit current gain, s-domain

analysis, amplifier transfer function. Low frequency and high frequency response of CE, CB, CC and CS, CG,

CD amplifiers. Frequency response of cascade, cascode and Differential (emitter coupled) amplifiers.

Module II

Differential Amplifiers - BJT differential pair, large signal and small signal analysis of differential amplifiers,

Input resistance, voltage gain, CMRR, non ideal characteristics of differential amplifier. Current sources,

mirrors, Active load. MOS differential amplifiers, multistage differential amplifiers.

Analysis of BJT tuned amplifiers, synchronous and stagger tuning. Analysis of High frequency oscillators-

Hartley, Colpitts, Clapp and crystal oscillators.

Module III

Feed back amplifiers (discrete only) - Properties of negative feed back. The four basic feed back topologies-

Series-shunt, series-series, shunt-shunt, shunt-series, loop gain, Bode plot of multistage Amplifier, Stability,

effect of feedback on amplifier poles, frequency compensation-Dominant and Pole-zero.

Sweep circuits- Miller and Bootstrap.

03.406 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (TA) 2-1-0

Module I

Review of Boolean algebra- rules, laws and theorems – sum of product and product of sum simplification,

Karnaugh map (upto 4 variables), completely and incompletely specified functions, Quine McCluskey method

(upto 5 variables). Combinational logic circuits- adders, subtractors, ripple carry and look ahead carry adders,

comparators, decoders, encoders, multiplexers, demultiplexers. Introduction to VHDL. Logic gates, decoders,

encoders in VHDL, adders in VHDL. Memories – ROM- organisation, expansion. PROMs, RAMs – Basic

structure, 2-dimensional organization, Static and dynamic RAMs

Module II

Integrated Circuit technologies – Characteristics and Parameters. TTL Circuits – NOT, NAND, NOR, Open

collector, tristate gates, positive and negative logic, ECL OR-NOR, IIL, CMOS- NOR, NOT, NAND,

comparison.

Differences between combinational and sequential circuits – flip flops – SR, JK, D, T, Master slave,

characteristic equations, conversion of one type of flip flop into another, Shift register, Universal shift register,

applications. Binary counters – Synchronous and Asynchronous- design, Counters for random sequence- design.

Multivibrators – astable and monostable multivibrators using gates, 74121 and 74123.

Module III

Analysis of synchronous sequential circuits - Synchronous sequential machine – The moore machine, mealy

machine, timing diagram. Design of synchronous sequential circuits – examples, State diagram, State table,

State transition and output tables, logic diagram, Analysis of synchronous sequential circuits – examples.

Asynchronous sequential circuit – basic structure, equivalence and minimization, minimization of completely

specified machines, State simplification of redundant states, Incompletely specified machines. Hazards – causes

of hazards, Logic hazards, essential hazards, function hazards, design of hazard free combinational networks.

03.407 PROGRAMMING & SIMULATION LAB (TA) 0-0-4

Introduction to SPICE

Models of resistor, capacitor, inductor, energy sources (VCVS, CCVS, Sinusoidal source, pulse, etc),

transformer.

Models of DIODE, BJT, FET, MOSFET, etc. sub circuits.

Simulation of following circuits using spice (Schematic entry of circuits using standard packages. Analysis-

transient, AC, DC, etc.):

1. Potential divider.

2. Integrator & Differentiator (I/P PULSE) – Frequency response of RC circuits.

3. Diode Characteristics.

4. BJT Characteristics.

5. FET Characteristics.

6. MOS characteristics.

7. Full wave rectifiers (Transient analysis) including filter circuits.

8. Voltage Regulators.

9. Sweep Circuits.

10. RC Coupled amplifiers - Transient analysis and Frequency response.

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11. FET & MOSFET amplifiers.

12. Multivibrators.

13. Oscillators (RF & AF).

MATLAB:

Introduction to Matlab, study of matlab functions. Writing simple programs using matlab, for handling arrays,

files, plotting of functions etc.

Writing M files for

Creation of analog & discrete signals, plotting of signals etc.

Filtering of analog & digital signals using convolution

Generation of noise signals (Gaussian, random, Poisson etc)

Simulation using Simulink.

Simulation study

(A)Design of analog low pass, bandpass, high pass and band elimination filters

using Butterworth, Chebyshev etc.

(B) Anti-aliasing filters

(C) Bode plot

(D) Steady state and Transient analysis

(E) Z Transforms

(F) Fourier Analysis

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03.408 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS LAB 0-0-4

Feed back amplifiers(current series, voltage series). Gain and frequency response

1. Power amplifiers(transformer less), Class B and Class AB. Measurement of Power.

2. Differential amplifiers. Measurement of CMRR

3. Cascade and cascode amplifiers. Frequency response.

4. Phase shift, Wein bridge, Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators, UJT Oscillators

5. Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrator circuits

6. Schmitt trigger circuits.

7. Tuned amplifiers, frequency response.

8. Series voltage regulator circuits.

9. Bootstrap sweep circuit.