Orthography is defined as the set of rules of how to write correctly with the proper letters and spelling.Capitalization is writing the first letter of a word in a sentence in majuscule and the rest in minuscule, however this has many other cases too. Many people are confused about what to do and how to write, whether in majuscule or minuscule. Let me first tell you about majuscule and minuscule. What are they? Majuscule is a specific word, the most appropriate word to describe what we call the capital letters, while minuscule it the word which defines the thing what we call the small letters. With the combination of majuscule and minuscule, there are many types of cases which capitalization produces. As we know that when we write fluently in English, we flush (move our lettering) from left to right and we write all letters in small, use the first letter as majuscule and the others as minuscule, the other general words are all in minuscule or small letters. But, this is not appropriate for all the cases. We cannot just use this type of case everywhere.
Based on the capitalization, we have several cases, namely the following
Sentence Case - This is the case of writing sentences in general. The thing here which we see is that, the very first letter of the very first word of the sentence is majuscule while all the other letters are minuscule. This is the most basic rule when it comes right to basic sentence making, because it is the most common work that we do in written English , that is, writing things in the form of sentences.
Upper Case - When we write all the letters in the majuscule form, it is referred to as Upper case. It is not a valid case when it comes to writing English as a usual form, that is just normal writing. Upper case is the case, which is not used frequently in just the basic writing. It is mostly used when it comes to pamphlets, posters, postcards, etc. It is just an example of attraction through words because when we see all the letters in majuscule, we get attracted because it is not a general type of writing.
We use this during making pamphlets, in making posters, in the entitling of movies, etc.
Lower Case - When we write all the letters in minuscule form, it is referred to as Lower case or in general or simple way, we can say that a case of all letters being in small letters, are called as lower case. It is used when we write sentences. Excluding the proper nouns and the first most letter of the sentences, all other letters are used in this case, so we can also say that it is the lower case which is the most used case when it comes to capitalization.
Title Case - I think that the name itself is enough to describe what it is. When we write the titles of a something, we are required to write it in the title case. However, most of the people have misconception about this case and while writing titles, many people use either Sentence case, or just the upper case.
In the title case, the first letter of each of the word is in majuscule and this is the way how we need to write the titles. However, in titles, we do not write the formal words like for, to, and, etc. in title case, we use the lower case itself.
Toggled case - Toggled case is the most invalid case when it comes to usage. It is not valid in proper English writing. Here, in the words, the letters of any words can in any type of letter, that is maybe majuscule or maybe minuscule. This case is only and only used during informal English usages, like in drawings, paintings, in posters, in cards, in postcards, in pamphlets, in handouts, and so on.
Camel case - Camel case is the case in which two or more words are joined together, excluding all types of punctuations and spacings from between them. The first letter of each of the joined words are supposed to be in capital, however, this is not a special and a necessary case. It is also not a valid case in English writings. This case is mostly used on the internet, when it comes to write our email addresses or website URLs.
Now, to clarify, have a look on the cases in sample usages.
1. This is a good neck of the woods.
2. Why do you watch such filthy movies?
3. My social science teacher loves yellow jokes.
4. I love my speakers.
5. Do you love me, Sam?
1. THIS IS A GOOD NECK OF THE WOODS.
2. WHY DO YOU WATCH SUCH FILTHY MOVIES?
3. MY SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHER LOVES YELLOW JOKES.
4. I LOVE MY SPEAKERS.
5. DO YOU LOVE ME, SAM?
1. this is a good neck of the woods.
2. why do you watch such filthy movies?
3. my social science teacher loves yellow jokes.
4. i love my speakers.
5. do you love me, sam?
1. This Is A Good Neck Of The Woods.
2. Why Do You Watch Such Filthy Movies?
3. My Social Science Teacher Loves Yellow Jokes.
4. I Love My Speakers.
5. Do You Love Me, Sam?
1. tHiS iS a GoOd NeCk oF THe WooDs.
2. WhY Do yoU waTCh suCh fIlThy moViEs?
3. mY sOciaL ScIeNce TeAcHeR lOvEs YellOw JokES.
4. I lOve My sPeAKerS.
5. Do YoU loVe mE, SaM?