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The Sentence

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A sentence is a group of words which makes complete sense or expresses a complete thought be it brief or elaborate. Words must be arranged in a proper order; otherwise they will make no sense at all.

Kinds of Sentences:

There can be two different classifications of sentences. One classification is based on the thoughts or ideas contained in sentences and the other is based on the form or structure of sentences.

(1)The First Classification:Every sentence expresses a complete thought or idea. It makes some complete sense and communicates some message. On the basis of thoughts and ideas contained in sentences, they can be divided into following five kinds:

(a)Assertive Sentences/Statements: These sentences make statements of fact, report events and describe things. They are also called declarative sentences because they make declarations. They can be further sub-divided into affirmative and negative sentences. They are affirmative if they make positive statements and they are negative, if they make negative statements.

(b)Interrogative Sentences: An interrogative sentence contains a direct question and needs a sign of interrogation at the end.

(c)Imperative Sentences:An imperative sentence contains an order, advice or request int.

(d)Exclamatory Sentences: An exclamatory sentence expresses some strong feeling. It may be a feeling of joy, sorrow, grief, pain, regret, wonder, surprise or horror. Such a sentence needs a sign of exclamation at the end.

(e)Optative Sentences: An optative sentence expresses a wish or prayer and optionally takes a sign of exclamation at the end.

(2)The Second Classification: On the basis of form and structure, sentences can be divided into the following three categories:

(a)Simple Sentences: A simple sentence has only one finite verb. In other words, a simple sentence is one which has only one subject and one predicate. The subject is the doer. The predicate is what is called about the subject.

(b)Compound Sentences: A compound Sentence is one which has two or more than two co-ordinate (or independent) clauses joined together by co-ordinate conjunctions.

(c)Complex Sentences: A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. The main clause is called the principal clause. Only the principal clause can stand alone independently and give complete meaning. All other clauses in a complex sentence have to depend upon the principal clause. They are, in one way or the other, subordinate or related to the principal clause. Subordinate clauses cannot stand alone independently and none of them gives complete meaning.

Sample Usage

(a) Assertive Sentences/Statements:
(i) Meenakshi is reading a book.
(ii) You are a lazy boy.
(iii) My dog barks at strangers.
(iv) The old man has not died.
(v) The teacher was not calling the roll.

(b) Interrogative Sentences:
(i) Will you take tea?
(ii) Are you ready?
(iii) Where do you live?
(iv) When he was born?
(v) Do you know him?

(c) Imperative Sentences:
(i) Post this letter.
(ii) Bring a glass of water for me.
(iii) Shut the door.
(iv) Open all the windows.
(v) Never tell a lie.

(d) Exclamatory Sentences:
(i) Hurrah! We have won the match.
(ii) Alas! I have lost everything.
(iii) How high the mountains are!
(iv) Ah! The pain is unbearable.
(v) How witty you are!

(e) Operative Sentences:
(i) I wish I were a millionaire!
(ii) Wish you live long!
(iii) May you prosper!
(iv) Wish you good luck!
(v) May a curse fall on my enemies!

(a) Simple Sentences:
(i) She called me a fool.
(ii) The teacher told us a funny story.
(iii) A heavy rain has damaged the crops.
(iv) I learn my lesson.

(b) Compound Sentences:
(i) He is my father and I am his son.
(ii) Kamla is wise, but Bimla is foolish.
(iii) He is poor, but he is very honest.
(iv) She opened the door and went in.

(c) Complex Sentences:
(i) If you work hard, you will pass.
(ii) Had you run, you would have caught the train.
(iii) He told me why he failed.
(iv) Those who work hard are sure to succeed.
(v) God helps those who helps themselves.

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