A phrase is different from a clause. A phrase is nothing but a group of words that make some sense but they do not form a sentence or a complete sense. On the other hand, a clause forms a part of a sentence which has a subject and a predicate.
A sentence without a phrase is not that much affected but a sentence will have its meaning completely changed without a clause. For example, "on the wall", "in the class room", "of my pen" are some phrases. These phrases have neither a subject nor a predicate. On the other hand, "which is a big story", "that I have copied" are some of the examples of phrase which have both subject and predicate.
"Sense" refers to the word "meaning".
1. Jack Sparrow sat on a wall.
2. I have a chain of gold.
3. The sunset was of great beauty.
4. Teach me how to do it.
5. In the afternoon a giant came to my door.
1. People who are honest are welcome to ISC. (who - subject; are honest - predicate)
2. I have found out that one member has posted copied contents.
3. It is impossible to start the match while it is raining.
4. He has a chain which is made of gold.