Container gardening can be a lot of fun and rewarding at the same time. The good news is that you can grow almost anything in containers as long as you feed the plants well and your balcony gets ample sunlight. Direct sunlight of 6-7 hours in required for fruits and vegetables to grow properly.
Vegetables that can be grown in pots are spinach, fenugreek (methi), tomatoes, brinjal, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, lady finger, capsicum, chillies. I have grown various varieties of all these veggies with great success. I know of people who grow cabbage, onions, potatoes, garlic, cauliflower, carrots in pots and big sacks. You can try any of these in pots.
Fruit trees that I planted in pots included custard apple, guava and sapota.
I managed to get enough vegetable each morning from my terrace garden to cook at least one meal. Fruits also grew well.
You need to feed them with fertilizer rich in phosphorous, potassium and nitrogen.
I will suggest hardy plants for the balcony that do not need much care. Adenium, bougainvillea and Rangoon creeper are some flowering plants that will flower through out the year.
Alternatively you can plant some lilies, ferns and palms. They will add to the beauty in your garden.
I will also suggest bonsai plants, as they look attractive and add an element of richness to the surrounding.