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    What are test tube babies and why they are called so?

    Want to know why test tube babies are so called? On this page experts shall respond to your query.

    What are test tube babies and why they are called so? Is it actually possible to create babies in a test tube in the laboratories? Are test tube babies technique available in India also and what are advantages and disadvantages, if any, of this technique?
    Experts: do respond.
  • Answers

    2 Answers found.
  • Couples sometimes cannot have a baby due to various sorts of infertility problems which may be damaged fallopian tubes of female or low sperm count in case of male. To such couples, test tube baby procedure has come as a revolutionary treatment. With such treatment available today, couples in spite of been re-productively challenged can dream of conceiving their own kid.

    Test tube baby procedure is also known by other name as In vitro fertilization (IVF). In Latin the word 'vitro' means 'glass' and thus 'in vitro' means 'in glass'. Since IVF is performed outside the body and thus this biological procedure is known as 'in vitro'. Those biological procedures which are performed inside body are known as 'in vivo'. Test tube baby is a colloquial term used for IVF procedure as the babies are conceived in test tube like apparatus which are made up of glass or plastic resin. However, IVF procedure is performed mainly in petri dishes which are shallow containers.

    Yes, it is possible to conceive test tube baby in laboratory. First step in this procedure involves carefully monitoring woman's ovulation process. It is been stimulated from time to time for better results. Ovary of female produces eggs which is known as ova. Either single or multiple eggs are removed from woman's body. At the same time sperm sample is collected from man's body. In a laboratory, sperm is now allowed to fertilize ova or ovum in a liquid. The egg or ovum which gets fertilized is carefully cultured usually for a period of 2 to 6 days in a laboratory itself and then it can be implanted in woman's body or another woman's body so that they can undergo pregnancy with high success rate.

    Yes, test tube baby procedure is available in India. There are numerous centers all over India and in almost all the states. Many couples due to various infertility issues who are not capable of conceiving child on their own are more and more getting attracted towards IVF and hence this procedure is been practiced in various cities so that those with issues can benefit from the procedure.

    Advantages of test tube baby procedure:-
    1) Helpful to conceive baby with female infertility problem like damaged fallopian tubes.
    2) Helpful to conceive baby with male infertility problem like decreased sperm count.
    3) Also useful is case of unexplained infertility in female.
    4) Suitable in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).
    5) Suitable in surrogacy.
    6) High success rate of pregnancy.
    7) High success rate in child birth.

    Disadvantages of test tube baby procedure:-
    1) There is always risk of giving multiple births.
    2) Risk of loss of pregnancy.
    3) Premature baby birth.
    4) Obstetrical complications.
    5) Spread of infections leading to disease like hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS etc.....
    6) Neonatal morbidity.
    7) Development of ovarian hyperstimulation synrome.
    8) Ectopic pregnancy.
    9) Stress and increased risk of developing anxiety disorders.

    Risks to offspring:-
    1) Birth defects like cleft palate, septal heart defects etc.....
    2) Test tube babies are not relatively securely attached or connected with their parents.
    3) Risk of imprinting disorders like Angelman syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome.
    4) Increased risk of hypertension.
    5) Increased risk of impaired fasting glucose.
    6) Clinical depression.
    7) Bone age gets advanced.
    8) Binge drinking seen in offspring.
    9) Thyroid disorders.

  • Normal fertilisation takes place inside the woman's womb. But there can be some very particular medical cases where safe fertilisation will not be possibleinsid the woman's body. So that part is taken care of in specially created favourable situations inside laboratory glass vessels or simply known as 'test tubes', and under monitored conditions.

    After fertilisation takes place, the fertilised egg is transferred back to woman's womb and embryo allowed to grow in normal way further to reach full growth for delivery of the baby.

    The babies born out of process of fertilisation made possible outside woman's womb and inside 'test tubes' as described above are called 'test tube babies'. Though it used to be very rare and special earlier days, nowadays it is very common and easily and expertly handled. This 'test tube' process has helped many couples having fertility issues to have their own babies.
    Test tube method also helps to have fertilisation using donors facility also.

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