Uterine Polyps are abnormal tissue growth on the endometrium (linning of uterus). These are protruding ball like structure attached with a stalk. They are mistaken for fibroids, which are similar in imaging tests and have same symptoms like Irregular menstrual bleeding, heavy bleeding, vaginal bleeding after menopause, infertility etc. Uterine Polyps are usually non cancerous but can be cancerous or turn cancerous in future. They range in size and number. Menopausal and post menopausal women are more prone to develop uterine Polyps, though young women may too develop them. While other risk factors may include being obese, having high Blood pressure and being on certain medication. Hormonal levels and circulating estrogen appears to be the causative agent, though the exact etiology is not known.
Uterine Polyps mainly interfere with a women's fertility and may lead to miscarriages. Size, number and location of polyps in the uterus are the deciding factors in infertility and miscarriages. A healthy uterine cavity and endometrial lining is required to conceive and maintain pregnancy. The polyps on the uterine lining cause irritation and may induce inflammatory responses within the uterine wall, which interfere with embryo implantation in endometrium resulting in infertility or a miscarriage.
Some doctors are of opinion that small polyps without symptom might resolve on their own and do not interfere in conception and pregnancy, while others remove them completely as a routine approach. In most cases, removal of uterine polyps by hysteroscopy increases the chances of pregnancy as it help restore uterine normalcy. Studies have revealed that removal of uterine polyps along with other factors like the location and size of polyp in uterus increases pregnancy rate. Medical treatment for uterine polyps includes hormonal combinations to target symptoms reduction. Though hormonal treatment is a temporary relief from polyps symptom.
Thus with proper guidance and treatment women with uterine polyps are able to conceive.