First Information Report (FIR) is lodged at Police Stations. The crime rate is determined by the total number of FIRs lodged. It has been seen that many a time policemen don't want to lodge FIR in case of minor offense, because in such case (where FIR is lodged), the police is duty-bound to investigate and file formal report. A person can now lodge FIR online. Furthermore, if an Inspector declines to lodge FIR, the complainant can move to one level higher and insist the Officer to lodge FIR.
Cognizable offenses are those offenses which are serious in nature. Example- murder, rape, dowry death, kidnapping, theft, criminal breach of trust, etc. In case of cognizable offence, a Police Officer can investigate without the Magistrate's permission..
Non-cognizable offenses are those offenses which are not very serious in nature. Example- assault, cheating, forgery, defamation, etc. In case of non-cognizable offenses, it is important for the Police Officer to obtain the permission from the Magistrate.
Beware! I question everything and everybody.