You have all ID proofs with mistakes including passport, driving license,10,12 marks card. You are a dental student. Why did you wait for so long? Please check your Voter's ID, PAN Card and Aadhaar Card too.
A.First focus on getting a birth certificate. Collect the documents you have on hand with relation to address proof, 10th marks card ( if it has your date of birth), Ration card. Some schools issue a date of birth certificate or a ''TC with the date of birth as per the school records", see if can get this also. You will also need proofs (identity, date of birth, marriage, and residence) for your parents. Any record of your birth (hospital discharge summaries, vaccination certificates or letter from the hospital you were born in would help)
Make an affidavit via a recognized Notary who would help you in the process. This affidavit is to declare parents and child authenticity legally.
Then approach the municipal corporation in the area you were born. Forms and necessary fees would be needed to be filled in. You can inquire at the local Municipal Corporation, Thasildhar/Tehsildar office. Currently, the government has Common service centers or official citizen friendly help units across many areas, please approach them for help.
You may need forms like this (http://www.rmc.gov.in/rmcwebsite/docs/forms/Birth%20certificate%20copy.pdf) Eg of Rajkot Municipal Corporation, please also check this how to get a birth certificate from Rajkot area, it'll help you understand better (http://www.rmc.gov.in/rmcwebsite/how_do_i.aspx).
B.Once you have this then make an affidavit via the Notary who will guide you through the legal language and procedure for getting the CORRECT NAME affidavit. Once this is done, publish your corrected name in two newspapers, one English, one in the vernacular language ( approach the newspaper offices, they will be familiar with it) and keep both original copies in hand.
C.Then approach the School board form 10th and 12th new mark card applications separately from the respective boards you have qualified from. Your application will have to be forwarded via the school principals. Please approach the administrative offices of the schools you passed out from (10 and 12), the office staff will be able to guide you.
D. Once you have your date of birth, name affidavit, 10th and 12th marks card corrected, then approach for the correction of Voter's ID
1. The name correction form https://ceo.gujarat.gov.in/FormsForVoterEnglish/Form8_English.pdf
2. Instructions for filling the form https://ceo.gujarat.gov.in/FormsForVoterEnglish/Form8A_English_Instructions.pdf
E. Next you can change you Driving license
1. This is the link to change details of name on the DL http://rtogujarat.gov.in/process_licence.php#link4
F. Then move on to your passport
1. your issue will be grouped under reissue of change in details of exisitn passport
2. this gives you the details for passport name change documents etc http://passportindia.gov.in/AppOnlineProject/online/faqServicesAvailable
G. After all this do not forget to update the dental college and the university in Chhattishgarh about your correct details